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Encyclopedia > Slavophile

A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. In the more modern sense, the term Slavophile applies to an admirer of Slavic culture, as opposed to a Slavic supremist. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples currently living in Europe. ... Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century, in part through the re-introduction of Marxist thought into sociology, and in part through the articulation of sociology and other academic disciplines such as literary criticism. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ...


As an intellectual movement, Slavophilism was developed in the 19th-century Russia. In a sense there was not one but many slavophile movements, or many branches of the same movement. Some were to the left of the political spectrum, noting that progressive ideas such as democracy where intrinsic to the Russian experience, as proved by what they considered to be the rough democracy of medieval Novgorod. Some were to the right of the spectrum and pointed to the centuries old tradition of the autocratic Tsar as being the essence of the Russian nature. Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although...


The movement originated in Moscow in the 1830s. Drawing on the works of Greek patristics, the poet Aleksey Khomyakov (1804-60) and his devoutly Orthodox friends elaborated an irrationalist and traditionalistic doctrine that Russia has its own distinct way and doesn't have to imitate and mimic Western institutions. The Russian Slavophiles denounced Peter the Great's Westernization, and some of them even adopted 17th-century Muscovite dress. Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Catholic Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (May 1, 1804 - September 3, 1860) was a Russian religious poet who helped found the Slavophile movement and became its most distinguished theoretician. ... ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ...


The doctrines of Khomyakov, Konstantin Aksakov and other Slavophiles had a deep impact on Russian culture, including the Russian Revival school of architecture, The Five of Russian composers, the novelist Nikolai Gogol, the poet Fyodor Tyutchev, the lexicographer Vladimir Dahl, and others. Their struggle for purity of the Russian language had something in common with aesthetic views of Leo Tolstoy. Konstantin Sergeyevich Aksakov (1817 - 1860) was a Russian critic and writer, one of the earliest and most notable Slavophiles. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under the leadership of Mily Balakirev with the aim of producing... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: ) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (1803 - 1873) was a significant Russian lyric poet. ... Dahls portrait by Perov Vladimir Ivanovich Dal (also: Dahl, Владимир Иванович Даль) (November 10, 1801 – September 22, 1872) was the greatest Russian lexicographer. ... Russian (русский язык   listen?) is the most widely spoken language of Europe and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... Lev Tolstoy, pictured late in life Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy   listen? (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member...


In the sphere of practical politics, the Slavophilism manifested itself as a pan-Slavic movement for the unification of all Slavic people under leadership of the Russian tsar and for the liberation of the Balkanic Slavs from the Ottoman yoke. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 is usually considered a high point of this militant Slavophilism, as expounded by the charismatic commander Mikhail Skobelev. National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... Mikhail Dmitrievich Skobelev (1843-1882) was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. ...


It should be noted that most Slavophiles were liberals and ardently supported the emancipation of serfs. Press censure, serfdom, and capital punishment were viewed as baneful Western influences. Their political ideal was a parliamentary monarchy, as represented by the medieval Zemsky Sobors. Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism, an adherent of the ideology espousing individual liberty and private property, meaning varies country to country American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Modern liberalism, in the USA, describes a political ideology that favors government intervention to promote equality Political progressivism, a political... Emancipation means becoming free and equal; the term can be used in various contexts: historically, a slave becoming free by being set free by the owner (manumission), voluntarily or in accordance with laws requiring it after a certain time or in certain cases, thereby becoming freedman (e. ... Censure is a process by which a formal reprimand is issued to an individual by an authoritative body. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished, except for crimes committed under certain circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in practice Red: Legal form of punishment Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ...


Later writers Fyodor Dostoevsky, Konstantin Leontyev, and Nikolay Danilevsky developed a peculiar conservative and anti-Semitic version of Slavophilism called pochvennichestvo (from the Russian word for soil). This teaching, as articulated by Konstantin Pobedonostsev (secular head of the Russian Orthodox church), was adopted as the official imperial ideology in the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II. Even after the Russian Revolution of 1917, it was further developed by the emigre religious philosophers like Ivan Ilyin (1880-1954). Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontyev (1831-1891) was a maverick Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties of Russia with the East in order to oppose catastrophic egalitarian and revolutionary influences from the West. ... Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (December 10, 1822, Obertse, Russia — November 19, 1865, Tiflis, Georgia) was a Russian ethnologist who pioneered the use of biological and morphological metaphors in the comparison of cultures. ... Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ... Saint Basils Cathedral, a well-known Russian Orthodox church situated in Moscow The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... Painting of Tsar Alexander III (1886), by Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887), original, 41 x 36 in. ... Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia Nicholas II of Russia ( 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ...


See also

  • Pan-Slavism

National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ...

External link

  • An Interpretation of Slavophilism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Slavophile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (527 words)
As an intellectual movement, Slavophilism was developed in the 19th-century Russia.
In the sphere of practical politics, the Slavophilism manifested itself as a pan-Slavic movement for the unification of all Slavic people under leadership of the Russian tsar and for the liberation of the Balkanic Slavs from the Ottoman yoke.
This teaching, as articulated by Konstantin Pobedonostsev (secular head of the Russian Orthodox church), was adopted as the official imperial ideology in the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II.
Paramonov Historical Culture (11524 words)
Slavophiles, by contrasts, are convinced that Russia 's historical path is unique, that its spiritual values are at odds with the Occidental tradition, and that its historical destiny is loftier than the fate ordained for Western countries.
The slavophile influence could be seen in the fact that the 1861 reform which freed the Russian peasants from bondage preserved intact the commune as a social unit around which village life would evolve after the emancipation.
And eurasianists labored to reconcile the bolshevik etatism with the slavophile nativism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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