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Encyclopedia > Slavonia
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Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. It is a fertile agricultural and forested lowland bounded, in part, by the Drava river in the north, the Sava river in the south, and the Danube river in the east. Image File history File links Slavonija_-_coat. ... Image File history File links Slavonija_-_coat. ... The Drave at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drave at Vízvár, Hungary The Drave at Maribor, Slovenia The Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe. ... Sava also Save (German Save, Hungarian Száva) is a river in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ...

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Geography

The area is divided in seven counties, total population of 781,454 (2001). The biggest city is Osijek with a population of 114,616 (2001). Other cities are: Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Vukovar, Đakovo, Požega, Virovitica, Nova Gradiška, Slatina, Županja, Našice, Valpovo, Belišće. Osijek [] (Hungarian: Eszék; German: Esseg) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... Slavonski Brod is the sixth largest city in Croatia, with a population of 64,612 in 2001. ... Vinkovci is a Croatian town in eastern Slavonia (or westernmost Srijem), with a population of 32,455 (2001) making it the largest town of the Vukovar-Srijem county. ... Position of Vukovar within Croatia Vukovar (Hungarian: Vukovár, German: Wukowar) is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Đakovo (Djakovo, Diakovár) is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia, 37 km to the southwest of Osijek and 34 km southeast of Našice; elevation 111 m; population 27,769 in 2001. ... Požega (Hungarian Pozsega) is a town in central Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a population of 28,948 (census 2001). ... Virovitica (Hungarian: VerÅ‘ce, German: Wirowititz) is a Croatian city near the Croatian-Hungarian border. ... Nova Gradiška is a scenic city located in the Brod-Posavina county of Croatia, population 15,833 (2001). ... Slatina is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. ... Županja is a city in eastern Slavonia or western Srijem, Croatia, located 24 km southwest of Vinkovci. ... Našice is a town in the Osijek-Baranja county of Croatia, population 17,320 (2001). ... Valpovo is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. ... Belišće is a town in Croatia, located in the region of Slavonia, 6 km north of Valpovo and at 93 m of elevation. ...

Map of Croatia with Slavonia highlighted
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Map of Croatia with Slavonia highlighted

While generally known as a lowland, Slavonia does actually have a number of hills. The main ones are Psunj, Papuk, Požeška Gora, Ravna gora, Krndija and Dilj, which in turn encircle the valley of Požega. Image File history File links Croatia with Slavonia highlighted. ... Image File history File links Croatia with Slavonia highlighted. ... Psunj is a mountain in southwestern Slavonia, eastern Croatia. ... Papuk is the largest mountain in Slavonia, eastern Croatia. ... PožeÅ¡ka Gora, lit. ... Coat of arms Ravna gora is a village in western Croatia, located between Delnice and Vrbovsko in the mountainous region of Gorski Kotar. ... Krndija is a hill in Slavonia, Croatia, extending eastwards from Papuk. ... Dilj is a mountain in south-central Slavonia, eastern Croatia. ...


It should be noted that during the history borders of Slavonia fluctuated. In the early medieval period of the Kingdom of Hungary, Slavonia was a vassal province of the Kingdom, and included only the western part of present-day Slavonia, but also parts of present-day central Croatia (including Zagreb) and the western and northern parts of present-day Bosnia (The eastern parts of present-day Slavonia belonged to Hungary proper). In the late Medieval period Slavonia ocupied territories between the rivers Sava, Drava, Sutla and Danube. In the 18th and 19th century, the Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy, and included northern parts of present day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia, while the southern parts of these regions were part of the Habsburg Military Frontier (Slavonian Krajina). The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the capital city of Croatia. ... Approximate borders between Bosnia (marked light) and Herzegovina (marked dark) Historically and geographically, the region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna/Босна) comprises the northern part of the present-day country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The Drave at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drave at Vízvár, Hungary The Drave at Maribor, Slovenia The Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe. ... The river Sotla (Slovenian) or Sutla (Croatian) is a European river flowing through Slovenia and Croatia, mostly forming their border. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Military Frontier (Military Border, Military Krajina, Vojna Krajina, Војна Крајина, Militärgrenze, Confiniaria militaria) was a borderland of Habsburg Austria which acted as the cordon sanitaire against the Turks from the Middle Ages (Croatian Krajina) or from the late 17th and 18th centuries (Slavonian and Banat Krajina) until the 19th century. ... Slavonian Krajina in 1849 Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier (Krajina). ...

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History

The region was originally part of the Roman province of Pannonia. In the 7th century a Slavic state owing allegiance to the Avars was established, soon replaced by the (also Slavic) Croats. Slavonia was defended by King Tomislav of the House of Trpimirović from Hungarian invaders and annexed to his newly-created Kingdom of Croatia in 925. In 1027 a Hungarian Army under Stjepan Svetoslavić of the side branch of the Trpimirović dynasty took Slavonia and made it a Slavonian Banate of the Kingdom of Hungary, ruled by its own dynasty of Svetoslavić. Slavonia was reunified with Croatia in the 1070s under King Dmitar Zvonimir Svetoslavić. In 1091 it separated again and accepted the suzeiranity of the Hungarian crown. 11 years later, the rest of Croatia also accepted the suzeiranity of the Hungarian crown. In the 12th century there was a practice that succesor of the throne first became Herzeg of Croatia (like the oldest British prince is prince of Wales), and there were some power grabs since in many cases son waged war against father, trying to establish and confirm its power base. Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... King Tomislav (modern painting) Tomislav (died around 928) was the first king of Croatia. ... This is the history of Croatia. ... The Banovina of Slavonia was a province (banovina) of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


In the 13th century, Croatia was divided into 2 banovinas, one of which was named Slavonia (other keeping the name Croatia). Nobility in Slavonia was more connected to Hungary (because of its proximity) than the nobility of Croatia. In the late 13th century Stefan Vladislav II of the House of Nemanjić became the Ban of Slavonia. The eastern parts of the region were turned into the semi-independent state of the powerful local ruler Ugrin Čak, although the Hungarian King took the area in 1311 after the death of Ugrin. The Banovina of Slavonia was a province (banovina) of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. ... Stephen Ladislaus II (Stefan Vladislav II, Стефан Владислав II) was Serb king (1321-1324), son of king Dragutin and Hungarian princess Katarina. ... Upper Syrmia, a land of Ugrin ÄŒak, before 1311 Ugrin Csák (died in 1311) was an early 14th century ruler of Upper Syrmia. ...


Ever since the fall of the Serbian Despotate migrations of Serbs under Ottoman yoke were present, including their nobility which made an important political factor in Slavonia. Both Slavonia and Croatia were ruled by separate bans, until 1476, when these two ruling positions were merged into one. The Serbian Despotate (Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ...


When Ottoman Turks invaded the Kingdom of Hungary and destroyed the Hungarian army at Mohács in 1526, the Croatian Parliament invited the Habsburgs to assume control over Croatia. After many fierce battles Ottomans conquered all of today's Slavonia, but not the whole of the Medieval Croatia (its borders stretching west to Sutla river). Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Suleiman I Louis II of Hungary Pál Tomori György Zápolya Strength 100,000[citation needed] 300 cannons 26,000[citation needed] 53 cannons John Zápolyas 8000, plus croatian count Frankopans 5000 men-strong army did not arrive... The parliament of Croatia is called Hrvatski Sabor in Croatian - the word sabor means an assembly, a gathering, a congress. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...

Habsburgs took the region from the Ottomans by the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699). During the Habsburg rule, the Kingdom of Slavonia was a Habsburg province, and it was part of both, the Kingdom of Croatia, and the Kingdom of Hungary. Southern parts of the present-day Slavonia were not included into this province, but into Habsburg Military Frontier (Slavonian Krajina), which Slavonian nobles numerous times tried to integrate into Slavonia, but with no success. Post-1699 Slavonia was a different geographical entity from the medieval Slavonia. Whereas medieval Slavonia incorporated the territories between the Drava and Kupa Rivers, Habsburg Slavonia was extended eastwards to refer to the sparsely populated territories between the Sava and Drava Rivers. Image File history File links historic map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links historic map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... Military Frontier (Military Border, Military Krajina, Vojna Krajina, Војна Крајина, Militärgrenze, Confiniaria militaria) was a borderland of Habsburg Austria which acted as the cordon sanitaire against the Turks from the Middle Ages (Croatian Krajina) or from the late 17th and 18th centuries (Slavonian and Banat Krajina) until the 19th century. ... Slavonian Krajina in 1849 Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier (Krajina). ...


The 1790 Austrian population census for the Kingdom of Slavonia recorded 131,000 (46.8%) Serbs 128,000 (45.7%) Croats, 19,000 (6.8%) Hungarians, and 2,000 (0.7%) Germans. It should be noted that Kingdom of Slavonia in this time also included northern parts of eastern Syrmia mainly inhabited by Serbs, hence the number of Serbs in the Kingdom was larger than the number of Croats. Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ...


During the Revolutions of 1848 Slavonia was temporarily united with Croatia under the Ban Josip Jelačić. After 1849, both, Slavonia and Croatia were affirmed as a completely separate Habsburg crown lands. Following the 1868 Settlement (hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba) with the Kingdom of Hungary, Slavonia was joined with Croatia in the single Croatia-Slavonia kingdom, which although it was under the suzerainty of the Crown of Saint Stephen kept a certain level of self-rule. The year 1881 also saw the final dissolution of the Slavonian Krajina and its incorporation into the existing Slavonian Counties. It has been suggested that The Gathering Storm: Before the Revolutions of 1848 be merged into this article or section. ... Baron Josip Jelačić of Bužim (born 1801 in Petrovaradin, Habsburg Monarchy, Hungary; died 1859 in Zagreb, Habsburg Monarchy, Croatia and Slavonia; also spelled Jellachich or Jellačić) was the Ban of Croatia between March 23, 1848 and May 19, 1859. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ...


As a rest of the Croatia-Slavonia, the region became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in December 1918. Between 1922 and 1929, it was a province known as the Osijek Oblast (province), administered from Osijek, and since the 1929 creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, it was part of the Sava Banovina, administered from Zagreb. In August 1939, it became part of the Banovina of Croatia. Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a kingdom in the Balkans which existed from the end of World War I until World War II. It occupied an area made up of the present-day states of Bosnia... Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a kingdom in the Balkans which existed from the end of World War I until World War II. It occupied an area made up of the present-day states of Bosnia... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Sava Banovina is coloured pink, on the top left part of the map) The Sava Banovina or Sava Banate (Croatian: Savska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1939. ... The Banovina of Croatia (1939-1941). ...

During World War II, it was part of the Independent State of Croatia (its northern section controlled by the Nazi Germany). When the Yugoslav federation was formed after the war, Slavonia became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia. Image File history File links historic map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links historic map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... This article is becoming very long. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Democratic Federal Yugoslavia be merged into this article or section. ...


When Croatia declared its independence in 1991, Serbs of Krajina proclaimed their own state over portions of eastern and western Slavonia. The eastern portion was referred to as the Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia, and it encompassed roughly everything east of Osijek and Vinkovci and northeast of Županja, including the cities of Vukovar and Ilok, as well as all of Baranja. This part of Krajina was ethnically mixed with a Croatian relative majority and had seen bitter fighting during the war (See: War in Croatia). The 1991 Battle of Vukovar was the most important war event in the area. The western portion of Slavonia controlled by RSK included the area around Okučani and most of the Psunj mountain. In May 1995, the western region was restored to Croatian control in the military Operation Flash. In 1996 the east was turned over to the UNTAES, and reintegrated into Croatia by January 1998. RSK may stand for: Republic of Serb Krajina Robinson-Schensted algorithm, between biwords and pairs of tableaux RSK (gene), ribosomal S6 kinase, a notable gene Sanyo Broadcasting, a Japanese radio and TV station Categories: | ... map of the Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem stands for Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem. ... Osijek [] (Hungarian: Eszék; German: Esseg) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... Vinkovci is a Croatian town in eastern Slavonia (or westernmost Srijem), with a population of 32,455 (2001) making it the largest town of the Vukovar-Srijem county. ... Županja is a city in eastern Slavonia or western Srijem, Croatia, located 24 km southwest of Vinkovci. ... Position of Vukovar within Croatia Vukovar (Hungarian: Vukovár, German: Wukowar) is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Coat of arms Ilok is a town in eastern Croatia. ... Baranya county within Hungary Osijek-Baranja county within Croatia Baranya (in Hungarian) or Baranja (in Croatian and Serbian, also Cyrillic Барања) is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. ... The modern period in Croatian history begins in 1990 with the countrys change of political and economic system as well as achieving independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. ... Combatants Various pro-Serbian forces JNA Croatia Commanders general Mladen Bratić (killed), general Života Panić Blago Zadro (killed), colonel Mile Dedaković, major Branko Borković Strength 50,000 soldiers, 600 tanks and APCs, around 1000 artillery pieces, around 100 aircraft and helicopters 1,800 soldiers Casualties over 8,000 soldiers killed... Okučani is a town at the contact point between the Posavina plain and the southern slopes of Psunj in western Slavonia, Croatia, 19 km southeast of Novska and 17 km west of Nova Gradiska; elevation 119 m. ... Psunj is a mountain in southwestern Slavonia, eastern Croatia. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... ...

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Miscellaneous

Wheat and maize are the major crops, and the leading industry is food processing. It also has some oil and natural gas resources. Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas is commonly referred to as gas. ...


A subspecies of pedunculate (common) oak Quercus robur slavonica is named after Slavonia. The region is home to these and sessile oaks. Binomial name Quercus robur L. The Pedunculate Oak or English Oak (Quercus robur) is native to most of Europe, and to Asia Minor to the Caucasus, and also to parts of North Africa. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...

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Gallery

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See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Slavonia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (241 words)
With Croatia, Slavonia was united with Hungary in 1102.
As a result of the Revolution of 1848, Hungary lost Slavonia, which was made an Austrian crownland, but in 1868 Slavonia was restored to the Hungarian crown and united with Croatia.
When the Yugoslav constituent republic of Croatia declared its independence in 1991, Croatian Serb and Yugoslav forces seized control of portions of Slavonia and other areas in Croatia, but by late 1995 Serbs retained control of only E Slavonia, which was returned to Croatian rule in Jan., 1998.
Slavonia - MSN Encarta (673 words)
Slavonia (Serbo-Croatian Slavonija), region in eastern Croatia, between the Sava and Drava (Drau) rivers.
After 1991, however, the ethnic distribution of the occupied areas of Slavonia shifted dramatically in favor of the Serbs, as Croats were forced to flee or were killed.
Slavonia was under Ottoman occupation for more than a century, ending in 1699, after which it was transferred to the Habsburg dynasty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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