FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Slavic mythology

Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. It is conjectured that some parts of it are from Neolithic or possibly even Mesolithic times. The religion possesses numerous common traits with other religions descended from the Proto-Indo-European religion. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ...

Many generations of Slavic artists were inspired by their national folklore. Illustrated above is Ilya Yefimovich Repin's Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom (1876).
Many generations of Slavic artists were inspired by their national folklore. Illustrated above is Ilya Yefimovich Repin's Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom (1876).

Contents

Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom (1876). ... Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom (1876). ... Self-portrait Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... Sadko, Palekh painting Sadko (Russian: ) was a legendary hero of a Russian bylina (epic tale) with the same name, a merchant and gusli musician from Novgorod. ...

Sources

Unlike Greek or Egyptian mythology, there are no first-hand records for the study of Slavic mythology. Despite some controversial theories (for instance, the Book of Veles), it cannot be proven that the Slavs had any sort of writing system prior to Christianisation; therefore, all their original religious beliefs and traditions were likely passed down orally over generations, and potentially forgotten over the centuries following the arrival of Christianity. Prior to that, sparse records of Slavic religion were mostly written by non-Slavic Christian missionaries who were not very interested and/or objective in their descriptions of pagan beliefs. Archaeological remains of old Slavic idols and shrines have been found, but they do not tell us much more other than confirming existing historical records. Fragments of old mythological beliefs and pagan festivals survive up to this day in folk customs, songs, and stories of all the Slavic nations. Reconstruction of ancient myths from remains that survived in folklore over a thousand years is a complex and difficult task that can often lead researchers astray. This may result in misinterpretations, confusions, or even pure forgeries and inventions. Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... The only known contour copy of a plank; the book is named after this plank, as it begins with To Veles this book we devote. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely-accepted definition of a Christian mission has been to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ...


Written sources

We do not have written sources about the Slavic mythology predating the fragmentation of the unified Protoslavic nation into Western, Eastern, and Southern Slavs. A possible exception is perhaps a short note in Herodotus’ Histories, mentioning a tribe of Neuri in the far north, whose men, Herodotus claims, transform themselves into wolves for several days each year. Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst other believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari (wolf-men). The identification of "Neuri" with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however. The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... According to Herodotus the Neuri were a tribe of Scythians described by as: Dniepr river Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Veles, Volos, Weles, or Voloh is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, divination and the underworld. ...


The first definitive reference to the Slavs and their mythology in written history was made by the 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius, whose Bellum Gothicum described the beliefs of a certain Southern Slavic tribe who crossed the Danube river heading south in just two days. According to Procopius, these Slavs worshipped a single god, lord of all, who crafted lightning and thunder. Though the historian does not mention the name of deity explicitly, it can be deduced this is a reference to a god called Perun in later historic sources, since in many Slavic languages today Perun simply means "thunder" or "lightning bolt". He also mentions the belief in various demons and nymphs (i.e., vilas), but does not mention any other names. Byzantine redirects here. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Lightning over Oradea in Romania For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Russian Primary Chronicle is a major work with many valuable references to pagan beliefs of Eastern Slavs. The chronicle treats the history of the early Eastern Slavic state. Even though the manuscript was compiled at the beginning of the 12th century, it contains references to, and copies of, older documents, and describes events predating the Baptism of Kiev. Two gods, Perun and Veles/Volos, are mentioned in the text of the early 10th century peace treaties between pagan rulers of East Slavs and Byzantine Emperors. Later, Nestor the Chronicler describes a state pantheon introduced by prince Vladimir in Kiev in 980. Vladimir's pantheon included Perun, Hors, Dazhbog, Stribog, Simargl, and Mokosh. The Hypatian Codex of the Primary Chronicle also mentions Svarog, compared to Greek Hephaestus. Also very interesting are the passages in the East Slavic epic The Tale of Igor's Campaign referring to Veles, Dazhbog, and Hors. The original epic has been dated to the end of the 12th century, although there are marginal disputes over the authenticity of this work. The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Map of the Kievan Rus, 11th century Kievan Rus′ or Kievan Ruthenia was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Aleksey Aleksandrovich Shakhmatov (5 June 1864 - 16 August 1920) was an outstanding Russian philologist credited with laying foundations for the science of textology. ... Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... This article is about the god Veles, for the city in Macedonia see Veles, Macedonia Veles (Volos, Weles, Voloh) is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, the underworld. ... Mark Antokolski Nestor the Chronicler Monument to Nestor the Chronicler near the Kiev Pechersk Lavra Nestor (c. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... Hurs or Hors is the Slavic god of the winter sun. ... Also Dajbog, Dabog, Dazhbog, Dazsbog, Cyrillic Дажбог; from dazh, the Slavic epithet for Sun (The Giver) and bog (god). ... Stribog (Strzybog, Стрибог), in the Slavic pantheon, is the god and spirit of the winds, sky and air; he is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions. ... Semargl, Simargl, Semargl-Pereplut is a mythical creature in Slavic mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Matka Ziema. ... The Hypatian Codex (Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Russian: ) is a compendium of three chronicles: Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Halych-Volhynian Chronicle. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... This article is about the god Veles, for the city in Macedonia see Veles, Macedonia Veles (Volos, Weles, Voloh) is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, the underworld. ... Also Dajbog, Dabog, Dazhbog, Dazsbog, Cyrillic Дажбог; from dazh, the Slavic epithet for Sun (The Giver) and bog (god). ... Hurs or Hors is the Slavic god of the winter sun. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ...


The most numerous and richest written records are of West Slavic paganism, particularly of Wendish and Polabian tribes, who were forcefully Christianised only at the end of the 12th century. The German missionaries and priests who fought against pagan beliefs left extensive records of old mythological systems they worked to overcome. They, however, hardly restrained themselves from “pious lies”, seeking to show pagan Slavs as idolatrous, blood-thirsty barbarians. As none of those missionaries learnt a Slavic language, their records represent a mix of valuable information, erroneous confusion, and gross exaggeration. Vend redirects here. ... Polabians are a Slavic people historically dwelling in the basin of the Elbe and on the Baltic coast of Germany. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


Major works include a chronicle of Thietmar of Merseburg from the beginning of the 11th century, who described a temple in the city of Riedegost (Radagast) where the great god Zuarasic (Svarogich) was worshipped. According to Thietmar, this was the most sacred place in the land of pagan Slavs, and Svarogich was their most important deity. Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg (July 25, 975 - December 1, 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great. ... Radagast (also Radigost, Radegast, Radogost and other similar variations, is a Slavic god: the protector of travellers, traders and foreigners, and patron of hospitality. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог), (Wendish: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic god and spirit of fire; meaning bright and clear. ...


Another very valuable document is the Chronica Slavorum written in the late 12th century by Helmold, a German priest. He mentions 'the devil' Zerneboh (Chernobog), god Porenut, goddess Siwa, some unnamed gods whose statues had multiple heads and, finally, the great god Svantevit, worshipped on the Rügen island, and, according to Helmod, the most important god of all (Western) Slavs. Chronicon Slavorum (Chronica Slavorum) is a historical record attributed to Helmold. ... Helmold, (ca. ... Chernobog (also spelled Crnobog, Czernobog, ÄŒernobog or Zernebog, each name meaning Black God) is a mysterious Slavic deity of whom much has been speculated but little can be said. ... Porenut was one of the Slavic deities worshipped by the Polabian Slavs in the town of Korzenica (nowadays Garz) on Rugia. ... Siwa may refer to: The Siwa Oasis in Egypt 140 Siwa, an asteroid Siwa is a Slavic goddess of fertility. ... Svetovid statue in Kraków, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Sventovit, Zvantevith, ÅšwiÄ™towit, Sutvid, Vid. ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ...

A modern artistic representation of Saxo Grammaticus.
A modern artistic representation of Saxo Grammaticus.

The third, arguably most important record, comes from the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, who in his Gesta Danorum described the war fought in 1168 by the Danish king Waldemar against the Wends of Rügen, the conquest of their city at the cape Arkona and the destruction of the grand temple of Svantevit that stood there. Saxo meticulously described the worship of Svantevit, the customs associated with it, the tall four-headed statue of the god, and he also mentioned multi-headed gods of other Slavic tribes: Rugievit, Porewit and Porentius. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 768 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Do not copy this file to Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 768 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Do not copy this file to Wikimedia Commons. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Valdemar III of Denmark Valdemar_IV_of_Denmark Valdemar I of Sweden etc. ... Vend redirects here. ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... View on Cape Arkona Cape Arkona is a cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Rugiewit is a Slavic deity, a local personification of an all-Slavic god of war Perun worshipped in all areas where the Slavic mythology was present. ... Porewit was one of the Slavic deities worshipped by the Polabian Slavs in the town of Korzenica (nowadays Garz) on Rugia. ...


The fourth major source are three biographies of the German warrior-bishop St. Otto, who in the early 12th century led several military-pastoral expeditions into the regions of Slavic tribes living near the Baltic Sea. According to the manuscript, the most important Slavic god was Triglav, whose temples in the city of Szczecin were respected oracles. In the cities of Wolgast and Havelberg, the war god Gerovit was worshipped, a likely corruption of Jarovit, a Slavic deity possibly identical to Jarilo of the East Slavic folklore. Otto (Otto I. of Bamberg) was born about 1060 into a noble family in Mistelbach, Swabia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Triglav (three headed) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology, similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity or Trimurti in Hinduism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wolgast is a German town in the district of Ostvorpommern, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, on the bank of the river Peene (12. ... Havelberg is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Archeological remains

The Indo-European custom of communal banquets was known as bratchina (from brat, "brother") in Russia, as slava ("glorification") in Serbia and as sabor ("assembly") in Bulgaria.
The Indo-European custom of communal banquets was known as bratchina (from brat, "brother") in Russia, as slava ("glorification") in Serbia and as sabor ("assembly") in Bulgaria.

Statues of several Slavic gods were discovered. In 1848, on the banks of the Zbruch river, a tall stone statue was found, with four faces under a single stone hat. Because of its likehood with Saxo's description of the great idol in the temple of Rügen, the statue was immediately proclaimed a representation of Svantevit, although it was clear it could not be the original Svantevit of Rügen. Several other multi-headed statues were discovered elsewhere. A tiny four-headed statue from the 10th century, carved out of bone, was unearthed amongst the ruins of Preslav, a capital of medieval Bulgarian tsars. A two-headed, human-sized wooden statue was discovered on an island in the Tollensesee lake near Neubrandenburg: in the Middle Ages, this was the land of Slavic Dolenain tribe, whose name survives in the name of the lake. Furthermore, a three-headed statue was discovered in Dalmatia (Croatia) on the hill bearing the name of Suvid, not far from the peak of Mt. Dinara called Troglav. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1640, 1325 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1640, 1325 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... alex (Cyrillic: Слава) is the Orthodox Christian custom of celebrating a family patron saint. ... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... The anthropomorphic stone stelae found in the Ukrainian steppe, with some finds extending the area to Moldavia, the northern Caucasus (Southern Federal District) and the area north of the Caspian Sea (western Kazakhstan), date from the Copper Age (ca. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Neubrandenburg is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... The Zbruch idol, on display in the National Museum in Kraków, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in GÅ‚ogów, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in Otrebusy, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Svantovít, Swantovít, Sventovit, Zvantevith, ÅšwiÄ™towit, Sutvid, Vid. ... Dinara is one of the more prominent mountains located on the border of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Triglav (three headed) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology, similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity or Trimurti in Hinduism. ...


The remains of several Slavic shrines have also been discovered. Some archeological excavations on the cape of Arkona on Rügen island have uncovered vestiges of a great temple and a city, identified with those described by Saxo. In Novgorod, at the ancient Peryn skete, archeologists discovered the remains of a pagan shrine likely dedicated to Perun. The shrine consisted of a wide circular platform centred around a statue. The platform was encircled by a trench with eight apses, which contain remains of sacrificial altars. Remains of a citadel with a more or less identical layout were discovered on a location with the suggestive name Pohansko (Paganic), near Breclav in the Czech Republic. Cape Arkona is a cape on the island of Rügen in Germany. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... Břeclav ( German Lundenburg) is a town in the Czech Republic, southeast of Brno. ...


All these archeological remains have the multiplicity of aspects in common. Statues of gods with multiple faces and remains of shrines with multiple sacrificial altars confirm written reports of Christian missionaries about the Slavs worshipping polycephalic gods, and also indicate that ancient Slavic mythology apparently put great emphasis on worship of gods with more aspects than one.


Also quite important are remains of several pieces of pottery from 4th century Chernyakhov culture. Russian archeologist Boris Rybakov identified and interpreted symbols inscribed onto them as records of ancient Slavic calendar. Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... Boris Alexandrovich Rybakov (1908-2001) was an orthodox Soviet historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. ...


Folklore traces

As various Slavic populations were Christianised between the 7th century to 12th century, Christianity was introduced as a religion of the elite, flourishing mostly in cities and amongst the nobility. Amongst the rural majority of the medieval Slavic population, old myths remained strong. Christian priests and monks in Slavic countries, particularly in Russia, for centuries fought against the phenomenon called dvoeverie (double faith). On the one hand, peasants and farmers eagerly accepted baptism, celebrated masses, and the new Christian holidays, yet on the other hand, they still stubbornly persisted in performing ancient rites and worshipped old pagan cults, even when the ancient gods and myths on which those were based were completely forgotten.


This was because, from a perspective of a Slavic peasant, Christianity was not seen as the replacement of old Slavic mythology, but rather an addition to it. Christianity may have offered a hope of salvation, and of blissful afterlife in the next world, but for survival in this world, for yearly harvest and protection of cattle, the old religious system with its fertility rites, its protective deities, and its household spirits was taken to be necessary. This was a problem the Church never really solved; at best, it could offer a Christian saint or martyr to replace the pagan deity of a certain cult, but the cult itself persisted, as did the mythological view of the world through which natural phenomena were explained. A small selection of Christian saints are listed below in alphabetical order by Christian name, but if necessary by surname, the place or attribute part of name as well. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


Thus, an absurd situation was created for the study of Slavic mythology. While folk beliefs and traditions of all Slavic peoples indeed are the richest resource for reconstructing the ancient pagan beliefs, indeed, the very key for unlocking the secrets of the long-forgotten pantheon, they are a resource of very unusual nature which cannot be taken for granted. Folk songs, stories and festivals long ago lost their original sacred, mythical character, as well as their original meaning, and were downgraded to a level of mere superstition or a meaningless tradition that was continually repeated and passed down over generations who, for the most part, did not know what they were doing. People entertained a general vague idea that some festivals must be celebrated in a certain way, some stories must be told or some songs must be sung, because that was the way it has always been done. Cults of old deities were mixed with worship of new Christian saints, old rituals blended among new Christian holidays, and, over centuries, general mess was made complete.

Gamayun, one of three prophetic birds of Russian folklore, alongside Alkonost and Sirin (painting by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897).
Gamayun, one of three prophetic birds of Russian folklore, alongside Alkonost and Sirin (painting by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897).

This led scholars to analyse the structure of folklore itself, and to devise methodologies through which they could reconstruct the lost mythology from this structure. We can roughly divide the folklore accounts into two groups: Image File history File links ru: В.М.Васнецов Гамаюн, птица вещая, 1897г. en:Gamaun, The prophetic bird, 1897, Oil on canvas, 200*150, The Daghestan Museum of Fine Arts http://bestiary. ... Image File history File links ru: В.М.Васнецов Гамаюн, птица вещая, 1897г. en:Gamaun, The prophetic bird, 1897, Oil on canvas, 200*150, The Daghestan Museum of Fine Arts http://bestiary. ... Gamayun is a prophetic bird of Russian folklore which lives on an island in the east. ... Ivan Bilibins Alkonost In Russian legends Alkonost is the bird of paradise, a miraculous bird with a womans face. ... Sirin bird on a grape tree. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ...

  • Fairy tales about various fantastical characters and creatures such as Alkonost, Baba Yaga, Koschei the Deathless, Firebird, Zmey songs and tales of legendary heroes such as Russian bogatyrs, and superstitions about various demons and spirits such as domovoi, likho, vilas, vampires, vodyanoy, rusalkas etc. Many of these tales and beliefs may be quite ancient, and probably contain at least some elements of old mythical structure, but they are not myths themselves. They lack a deeper, sacral meaning and religious significance, and furthermore they tend to vary greatly among various Slavic populations.
  • Folk celebrations of various Christian festivals and popular beliefs in various saints. It is, for instance, quite clear that a popular saint in many Slavic countries, St. Elijah the Thunderer, is a replacement of old thunder-god Perun. Likewise, traces of ancient gods can also be found in cults of many other saints, such as St. Vitus, St. George, St. Blaise, St. Mary, St. Nicholas, and it is also obvious that various folk celebrations, such as the spring feast of Jare or Jurjevo and the summer feast of Ivanje or Ivan Kupala, both very loosely associated with Christian holidays, are abundant with pre-Christian elements. These beliefs have considerable religious and sacral significance to the people still performing them. The problem is, of course, that the elements of pre-Christian religion are hopelessly mixed into popular Christianity.

Reconstruction of original Slavic myths is thus a true detective work, requiring a considerable knoweledge of various scientific disciplines such as semiotics, linguistics, philology, comparative mythology and ethnology. Folklore accounts must be analysed on level of structure, not merely as songs or stories, but as groups of signs and symbols which contain some internal structural logic. Each of these signs is composed of some key words, which are more than simply names of characters, places or artifacts. One important aspect of symbols is that they are almost impossible to change; while their names may be altered, their structure may not. Changing or losing of key words would result in a change of symbol, which would then validate the internal structural logic of a text and render the entire tale meaningless. It would then soon be forgotten, because the pattern, or logic, through which it was transmitted over generations would be lost. Ivan Bilibins Alkonost In Russian legends Alkonost is the bird of paradise, a miraculous bird with a womans face. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ivan Bilibin: Koshchey the Deathless In Russian mythology, Koschei (Russian: , Koshchey, also Kashchei or Kashchey or KoÅ›ciej (Polish)) is an evil person of ugly senile appearance, menacing principally young women. ... In Russian folklore, the Firebird (жар-птица, zhar-ptitsa, literally ember bird from жар ember, flameless fire) is a magical glowing bird from a faraway land, which is both blessing and doom of its captor. ... Zmey is a mythical opponent of Slavic gods. ... Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich are represented together in Viktor Vasnetsovs famous 1898 painting Bogatyrs. ... For other uses, see Domovoi (disambiguation). ... One-eyed Likho by Anton Kvasovarov, 2003 Likho, liho (Russian: Лихо), licho (in Polish) is an embodiment of evil fate and misfortune in Slavic mythology, a creature with one eye, usually depicted as an old, skinny woman in black (Лихо одноглазое, One-eyed Likho). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... Wodjanoj or Vodyanoy (literally watery) in Slavic mythology is the male water spirit, a master shape-shifter who is said to live in a whirlpool, or in an underwater palace made from the treasures of sunken ships. ... Rusalkas Rusalka (1968) by K. Vasiliev. ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Vitus was a Christian saint from Sicily, Italy, Roman Empire. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... Saint Blaise can refer to: A saint, see Blaise Saint-Blaise is the name or part of the name of several communes in France Saint-Blaise, in the Alpes-Maritimes Saint-Blaise, in the Haute-Savoie Saint-Blaise-du-Buis, commune in the Is re Saint-Blaise-la-Roche, commune... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... Comparative mythology, related to comparative religion, is a field of study which is technically part of anthropology but more usually regarded as part of the subject of ancient history. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ...


For example: as stated already, the Slavic god of thunder, Perun, was mostly equated with St. Elijah the Thunderer in Christian folklore. But he was also sometimes equated with St. Michael the Archangel, and sometimes even with Christian God, whilst in some of Russian or Belarusian folk stories, he was downgraded to various fairy characters such as Tsar Ogin (Tsar Flame) or Grom (Thunder). Notwithstanding changes in the name itself, there are always some key words present which were used to describe Perun as a symbol in ancient mythical texts, and have survived through folklore. Perun is always gore (up, above, high, on the top of the mountain or in heaven; Perun is a heavenly god, and he is also the 'highest' god of old Slavic pantheon), he is suh (dry, as opposite of wet; he is god of thunder and lightning, which causes fire), he treska/razbija/goni/ubija (strikes/hits/pursues/kills; he is a god of thunder and storms, destructive and furious) with strela/kamen/molnija (arrow/stone/lightning; Perun's weapons, are of course, his bolts of lightning. He fires them as arrows which are so powerful they explode and blow up stones when they hit). These key words are always preserved in folklore traces, even if the true name of Perun has been long ago forgotten. Consequently, the structure of this symbol allowed the identification of Perun with similar characters either from Christian religion or from later folklore, which share these similarities in structure of their own symbols.


Following similar methodology, and drawing parallels with structure of other, related Indo-European mythologies (particularly Baltic mythology), and occasionally using some hints found in historical records of Slavic paganism, some of ancient myths could be reconstructed. Significant progress in the study of Slavic mythology was made during last 30 years, mostly through work of Russian philologists Vladimir Toporov and Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov, as well as Croatian scientists Radoslav Katičić and Vitomir Belaj. Also very valuable are the studies of Russian scholar Boris Uspensky and of Serbian philologist and ethnologist Veselin Čajkanović. Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (5 July 1928 - 5 December 2005) was a leading Russian philologist who presided over the Moscow-Tartu school of semiotics after Yuri Lotmans death. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... Radoslav Katičić (born in Zagreb in 1930) is a Croatian linguist, historian and culturologist. ... Boris Andreyevich Uspensky is a Russian philologist and mythographer. ... Veselin ÄŒajkanović Serbian Cyrillic Веселин Чајкановић (1881 - 1946) - Serbian classical scholar, historian of religion, interpreter from Greek and Latin. ...


However, uncritical interpretation of folklore or unskilled reconstruction of myths can lead to disastrous effects, as we shall see.


Unauthentic sources

When dealing with Slavic mythology, one cannot be too careful or too critical about the validity and authenticity of sources. Scholarly interest in beliefs of ancient Slavs has been continually waxing since the times of Renaissance, and with it the overall number of confusions, errors, misinterpretations, and unsupported reconstructions (not to mention inventions) has also increased. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


No valid scientific methodology by which folklore accounts could be interpreted was known before the mid-20th century, and with sparse historical and archeological sources, the doors were thus opened to wild and unwarranted speculation. One of the best examples of overall confusion and complete misinterpretation is a fake deity of love, Lada or Lado, constructed from meaningless exclamations in Slavic wedding songs. Gods such as Koleda and Kupala were constructed from misinterpreted names of popular Slavic folk festivals; Koledo was the Slavic name for Christmas processions of carol singers, whilst the source of the name Kupala is unknown. Christian sources claim that it comes from Ivan Kupala (literally: John the Baptist) however this claim is as baseless as the claim of those who choose to interpret it as a pagan holiday. This festival day is celebrated at the summer solstice in many Slavic, and also western European countries, such as France and Italy. These customs indeed do have more than a few elements of pre-Christian beliefs, but simply inventing gods based on names of customs is not considered a valid method for reconstruction of lost beliefs. Lada or Lado is a fictional Slavic pagan diety of harmony, merriment, youth, love and beauty which almost certainly never existed in the ancient Slavic pantheon. ... Kolyada or koleda is the original Slavic word for Christmas. ... In Polish mythology, Kupala is the goddess of herbs, sorcery, sex, and midsummer. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... St. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ...

In his early works, notably The Firebird and The Rite of Spring, Igor Stravinsky sought to evoke the imagery and rhythms of pagan Slavic ritual.

Misinterpretation of Thiethmar's historic description of Wendish paganism led to confusion between a god, Svarogich, and a city in which his temple stood, Radegast. Since the name Radegast can be easily etymologised as meaning "Dear guest", this led to the construction of Radegast as the supposed Slavic god of hospitality. Likewise, to pair up with a god with the sinister sounding name of Chernobog (Black god) mentioned by Helmod, the White god, or Belobog, was invented. That name is not found in any reliable historic or ethnographic record; rather, it was simply assumed that, since there already was a Black god, there simply had to be a White god as well. Again, this is clearly not a scientific approach to the study of Slavic mythology, but pages and pages have been written about the supposed Belobog-Chernobog dualism so far, and many books and scholarly references even today take for granted that such gods were truly worshipped by ancient Slavs. Image File history File links Firebird. ... Image File history File links Firebird. ... The Firebird (French: LOiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица, Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky. ... The Rite of Spring, commonly referred to by its original French title, Le Sacre du printemps (Russian: Весна священная, Vesna svjaščennaja) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, which was first performed in 1913. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... For the Venetian Snares album, see Hospitality (album). ...


Even more questionable than confusions or misinterpretations are deliberate forgeries. In the nineteenth and twentieth century, the general population became increasingly interested in Slavic mythology, fuelled by various romantic, nationalistic, and, in modern times, neopagan movements. Forging evidence of ancient mythology, for a time, became almost a sort of hobby among various social groups, often with the aim to promote their own topical agendas. For instance, statues of ancient Slavic gods were "discovered", inscribed with Germanic runes, or folk songs and stories were "recorded" in which half of the Slavic pantheon is described as picking flowers or merrily dancing around a bonfire. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ...


The nineteenth century Veda Slovena is a heavy mystification of Bulgarian folk songs, with many alleged references to Slavic mythology, which most scholars consider a forgery. A more recent example is a controversial Book of Veles, which claims to be an authentic written record of old Slavic religion from the ninth or tenth century, written in the Cyrillic alphabet, whereas it cannot be proven that the Slavs had any sort of writing system prior to Christianisation, let alone that they used Cyrillic alphabet (named, of course, after St. Cyril, who coined the first known writing system for Slavs when he was sent together with his brother Methodius to baptise them in ninth century). Some of the Slavic neopagans use the Book of Veles as their sacred text, and consequently, insist that the document is authentic. However, the original book, supposedly written on birch barks, was lost (if indeed it ever existed), and thus its authenticity cannot be established at present. Cover of the first volume Cover of the second volume Veda Slovena (Веда Словена in Modern Bulgarian, originally written as Веда Словенахъ) is a collection of folk songs and legends of the Muslim Bulgarians in the Rhodopes and Aegean Macedonia, the first volume of which was printed in 1874 in Belgrade and the second... The only known contour copy of a plank; the book is named after this plank, as it begins with To Veles this book we devote. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... See Saint Cyril (disambiguation) for other persons with this name. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ...


Calendar and festivals

Slavic myths were cyclical, repeating every year over a series of festivities that followed changes of nature and seasons. Thus, to understand their mythology, it is important to understand their concept of calendar. On the basis of archeological and folklore remains, it is possible to reconstruct some elements of pre-Christian calendar, particularly major feastivals.

  • The year was apparently lunar, and began on the first day of March, similar to other Indo-European cultures whose old calendar systems are better known to us. The names for the last night of old year and the first day of new year are reconstructed as Velja Noc/Velik Dan (Great Night/Great Day). After Christianization, these names were probably passed onto Easter. In Slavic countries belonging to Orthodox Churches, Easter is known as Velik Dan/Great Day, whilst amongst Catholic Slavs, it is known as Velika Noc/Great Night. The names blend nicely with the translation of the Greek Megale Hemera, Great Week, the Christian term for the week in which Easter falls. In pagan times, however, this was a holiday probably quite like Halloween. Certain people (shamans) donned grotesque masks and coats of sheep wool, roaming around the villages, as during the Great Night, it was believed, spirits of dead ancestors travelled across the land, entering villages and houses to celebrate the new year with their living relatives. Consequently, the deity of the last day of the year was probably Veles, god of Underworld.
The spring fertility festival of Maslenitsa, rooted in pagan times and involving the burning of a straw effigy is still celebrated by Slavs all over the world, as seen here in Melbourne, Australia.
The spring fertility festival of Maslenitsa, rooted in pagan times and involving the burning of a straw effigy is still celebrated by Slavs all over the world, as seen here in Melbourne, Australia.
  • There was a large spring festival dedicated to Jarilo, god of vegetation and fertility. Processions of young men or girls used to go round villages on this day, carrying green branches or flowers as symbols of new life. They would travel from home to home, reciting certain songs and bless each household with traditional fertility rites. The leader of procession, usually riding on horse, would be identified with Jarilo. The custom of creation of pisanki or decorated eggs, also symbols of new life, was another tradition associated with this feast, which was later passed on Christian Easter.
  • The summer solstice festival is known today variously as Ivanje, Kupala or Kries. It was celebrated pretty much as a huge wedding, and, according to some indications from historical sources, in pagan times likely followed by a general orgy. There was a lot of eating and drinking on the night before, large bonfires (in Slavic - Kres) were lit, and youngsters were coupling and dancing in circles, or jumped across fires. Young girls made wreaths from flowers and fern (which apparently was a sacred plant for this celebration), tossed them into rivers, and on the basis of how and where they floated, foretold each other how they would get married. Ritual bathing on this night was also very important; hence the name of Kupala (from kupati = to bathe), which probably fit nicely with folk translation of the future patron saint the Church installed for this festival, John the Baptist. Overall, the whole festivity probably celebrated a divine wedding of fertility god, associated with growth of plants for harvest.
  • In the middle of summer, there was a festival associated with thunder-god Perun, in post-Christian times transformed into a very important festival of Saint Elijah. It was considered the holiest time of the year, and there are some indications from historic sources that it involved human sacrifices. The harvest probably began afterwards.
  • It is unclear when exactly the end of harvest was celebrated, but historic records mention interesting tradition associated with it that was celebrated at Svantevit temple on the island of Ruyana (present-day Rugen), a survived through later folklore. People would gather in front of the temple, where priests would place a huge wheat cake, almost the size of a man. The high priest would stand behind the cake and ask the masses if they saw him. Whatever their answer was, the priest would then plead that the next year, people could not see him behind the ritual cake; i.e., he alluded that the next year's harvest would be even more bountiful.
  • There probably also was an important festival around winter solstice, which later became associated with Christmas. Consequently, in many Slavic countries, Christmas is called Bozhich, which simply means little god. While this name fits very nicely with the Christian idea of Christmas, the name is likely of pagan origin; it indicated the birth of a young and new god of Sun to the old and weakened solar deity during the longest night of the year. The old Sun god was identified as Svarog, and his son, the young and new Sun, as Dazhbog. An alternative (or perhaps the original) name for this festival was Korochun.

A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the holiday. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 708 KB) Summary Celebration of en:maslenitsa in Mebourne Australia, February 5, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 708 KB) Summary Celebration of en:maslenitsa in Mebourne Australia, February 5, 2006. ... Boris Kustodiev Maslenitsa tuesday Maslenitsa or Pancake week (Russian: , also called Pancake week) is a Russian folk holiday that dates back to the pagan times. ... Modern Kostroma Kostroma is a straw scarecrow of a girl burnt by East Slavs during the carnival season, or Maslenitsa. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Ukrainian pysanky Pisanka (plural: Pisankas, Pisanki) is an ancient Slavic art of egg decorating. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... In Polish mythology, Kupala is the goddess of herbs, sorcery, sex, and midsummer. ... This article is about ancient Greek gathering. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... Also Dajbog, Dabog, Dazhbog, Dazsbog, Cyrillic Дажбог; from dazh, the Slavic epithet for Sun (The Giver) and bog (god). ... Karachun, Korochun or Kračún is a Slavic version of Halloween as a day when the Black God and other evil spirits are most potent. ...

Cosmology

A fairly typical cosmological concept among speakers of Indo-European languages, that of the World Tree, is also present in Slavic mythology. It is either an oak tree, or some sort of pine tree. The mythological symbol of the World Tree was a very strong one, and survived throughout the Slavic folklore for many centuries after Christianisation. Three levels of the universe were located on the tree. Its crown represented the sky, the realm of heavenly deites and celestial bodies, whilst the trunk was the realm of mortals. They were sometimes combined together in opposition to the roots of the tree, which represented the underworld, the realm of the dead. Contrary to the popular ideas, it seems the world of dead in Slavic mythology was actually quite a lovely place, a green and wet world of grassy plains and eternal spring. In folklore, this land is sometimes referred to as Virey or Iriy. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... In certain Indo-European religions there was a belief in a world tree, such as Yggdrasil, in Norse mythology, an Oak in Slavic mythology and in Hinduism, a banyan tree. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... Buyan Island, by Ivan Bilibin. ...


The pattern of three realms situated vertically on the axis mundi of the World Tree parallels the horizontal, geographical organisation of the world. The world of gods and mortals was situated in the centre of the earth (considered to be flat, of course), encircled by a sea, across which lay the land of dead, where birds would fly to every winter and return from in spring. In many folklore accounts, the concepts of going across the sea versus coming from across the sea are equated with dying versus returning to life. This echoes an ancient mythological concept that the afterlife is reached by crossing over a body of water. Additionally, on the horizontal axis, the world was also split; in this case by four cardinal points, representing the four wind directions (north, east, south, west). These two divisions of the world, into three realms on the vertical axis and into four points on the horizontal, were quite important in mythology; they can be interpreted in statues of Slavic gods, particularly those of the three-headed Triglav and the four-headed Svantevit. Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The Sun was considered to be a female deity, and the Moon to be male one. This is contrary to the usual concept in Indo-European mythologies, in which the Sun is usually associated with male deities and Moon with female ones, but identical to the picture in Baltic mythology, which is most closely related to Slavic. The same pattern of a female Sun and male Moon is also found in Norse mythology, which also shares many similarities with Baltic and Slavic myth. For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...


Pantheon

As noted in the description of historical sources, a very wide range of deities was worshipped by Slavs, on a huge geographical area from the shores of the Baltic to the shores of the Black Sea, in a time span of over 600 years. Historic sources also show that each Slavic tribe worshipped its own gods, and thus probably had its own pantheon. Overall, ancient Slavic religion seems to be fairly local and cultic in nature, with gods and beliefs varying from tribe to tribe. However, just as in the case of the various Slavic languages - it can be shown that they originate from a single, Proto-Slavic language - it is also possible to establish some sort of Proto-Slavic Olympus, and through careful study of folklore, reconstruct some elements of this original pantheon, from which the various gods of the various Slavic tribes originated. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... This article refers to a mountain in Greece. ...


Supreme god

There are various modern theories about a supreme Slavic god being Rod or Svarog, and historic sources show that gods such as Svarogich, Svantevit or Triglav were worshipped as supreme by certain tribes. But overall by far the best candidate for the position of supreme god is Perun. His name is the most common in all historic records of Slavic religion; in fact, he is the first Slavic god mentioned in written history (Procopius in his short note mentions that the god of thunder and lightning is the only god of Slavs, lord of all). The Primary Chronicle identifies him as chief god of Kievan Rus prior to Christianisation. A short note in Helmold's Chronica Slavorum states that West Slavs believe in a single god in heaven who rules over all the other gods on earth; the name of this god is not mentioned, but nevertheless it seems quite possible this was a reference to Perun. And even though we do not find the name of Perun in any of the extensive records of West Slavic religion, he was known by all branches of Slavs, as shown by a vast number of toponyms that still bear his name in all Slavic countries today. Finally, by analysing the folklore texts, one will notice that Perun is the only Slavic deity who was equated with the Christian God. These are very strong indications that Perun was indeed the supreme god of the original Proto-Slavic pantheon. Rod, sometimes referred to simply as god (Div, Diy; in the Veda Slovena Diy or Dia), is probably the most ancient deity in the Slavic pantheon. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог), (Wendish: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic god and spirit of fire; meaning bright and clear. ... Svetovid statue in Kraków, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Sventovit, Zvantevith, ÅšwiÄ™towit, Sutvid, Vid. ... Triglav (three headed) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology, similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity or Trimurti in Hinduism. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Kievan Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Helmold, (ca. ... Chronicon Slavorum (Chronica Slavorum) is a historical record attributed to Helmold. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Perun, however, had a match. As Roman Jakobson pointed out, whenever Perun is mentioned in historic texts, he is always "accompanied" by another god, Veles. This relationship can be observed in toponyms as well. Wherever we find a hill or a mountain peak whose name can be associated with Perun, below it, in the lowlands, usually near a river, there will be a place with a name reminiscent of Veles. Consequently, as Perun was sometimes identified with God in folklore accounts, Veles was identified with the Devil. In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... Roman Osipovich Jakobson (October 11, 1896 - July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. ... Veles, Volos, Weles, or Voloh is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, divination and the underworld. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ...


Gods

Perun and Veles

Gromoviti znaci or thunder marks such as these were often engraved upon roof beams of houses to protect them from lightning bolts. Identical symbols were discovered on Proto-Slavic pottery of 4th century Chernyakhov culture. They are thought to be symbols of the supreme Slavic god of thunder, Perun.
Gromoviti znaci or thunder marks such as these were often engraved upon roof beams of houses to protect them from lightning bolts. Identical symbols were discovered on Proto-Slavic pottery of 4th century Chernyakhov culture. They are thought to be symbols of the supreme Slavic god of thunder, Perun.

Ivanov and Toporov reconstructed the ancient myth involving the two major gods of the Proto-Slavic pantheon, Perun and Veles. The two of them stand in opposition in almost every way. Perun is a heavenly god of thunder and lightning, fiery and dry, who rules the living world from his citadel high above, located on the top of the highest branch of the World Tree. Veles is a chthonic god associated with waters, earthly and wet, lord of underworld, who rules the realm of dead from down in the roots of the World Tree. Perun is a giver of rain for farmers, god of war and weapons, invoked by fighters. Veles is a god of cattle, protector of shepherds, associated with magic and commerce. Image File history File links Thundermarks. ... Image File history File links Thundermarks. ... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... This article is about the god Veles, for the city in Macedonia see Veles, Macedonia Veles (Volos, Weles, Voloh) is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, the underworld. ...


A cosmic battle fought between two of them echoes the ancient Indo-European myth of a fight between a storm god and a dragon. Attacking with his lightning bolts from sky, Perun pursues his serpentine enemy Veles who slithers down over earth. Veles taunts Perun and flees, transforming himself into various animals, hiding behind trees, houses, or people. In the end, he is killed by Perun, or he flees into the water, into the underworld. This is basically the same thing; by killing Veles, Perun does not actually destroy him, but simply returns him to his place in the world of the dead. Thus the order of the world, disrupted by Veles's mischief, is established once again by Perun. The idea that storms and thunder are actually a divine battle between the supreme god and his arch-enemy was extremely important to Slavs, and continued to thrive long after Perun and Veles were replaced by God and Devil. A lightning bolt striking down a tree or burning down a peasant's house was always explained through the belief of a raging heavenly deity bashing down on his earthly, underworldly, enemy. Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ...


The enmity of the two gods was explained by Veles theft of Perun's cattle, or by Perun's theft of Veles's cattle (since Veles was god of cattle, the matter of ownership here is not clear). The motif of stealing divine cattle is also a common one in Indo-European mythology; the cattle in fact may be understood simply as a metaphor for heavenly water or rain. Thus, Veles steals rain water from Perun, or Perun steals water for rain from Veles (again, since Veles is associated with waters, and Perun with sky and clouds, it is unclear to whom rain should belong). An additional reason for this enmity may be wife-theft. From folklore accounts it seems clear that the Sun was considered to be Perun's wife. However, since the Sun, in the mythic view of the world, dies every evening, as it descends beyond horizon and into the underworld where it spends the night, this was understood by Slavs as Veles's theft of Perun's wife (but again, the rebirth of the Sun in the morning could also be understood as Perun's theft of Veles's wife).


Jarilo and Morana

Burning of Marzanna as symbol of winter in spring equinox is one of remains of prechristian believes in Polish culture
Burning of Marzanna as symbol of winter in spring equinox is one of remains of prechristian believes in Polish culture

Katicic and Belaj continued down the path laid by Ivanov and Toporov and reconstructed the myth revolving around the fertility and vegetation god, Jarilo, and his sister and wife, Morana, feminine goddess of nature and death. Jarilo is associated with Moon and Morana is considered a daughter of Sun. Both of them are children of Perun, born on the night of new year (Great Night). However, on the same night, Jarilo is snatched from the cradle and taken to the underworld, where Veles raises him as his own. At the spring festival of Jare/Jurjevo, Jarilo returns from the world of the dead (from across the sea), bringing spring from the ever-green underworld into the realm of the living. He meets his sister Morana and courts her. At the beginning of summer, the festival later known as Ivanje/Ivan, Kupala celebrated their divine wedding. The sacred union between brother and sister, children of the supreme god, brings fertility and abundance to earth, ensuring a bountiful harvest. Also, since Jarilo is a (step)son of Veles, and his wife daughter of Perun, their marriage brings peace between two great gods; in other words, it ensures there will be no storms which could damage the harvest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 700 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Modern manequin of Marzanna - drowning of Marzanna is a folk tradition in Poland (it includes burning before drowning). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 700 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Modern manequin of Marzanna - drowning of Marzanna is a folk tradition in Poland (it includes burning before drowning). ... In astronomy, the vernal equinox (spring equinox, March equinox, or northward equinox) is the equinox at the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere: the moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading northward. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


After the harvest, however, Jarilo is unfaitfhul to his wife, and she vengfully slays him (returns him into the underworld), renewing the enmity between Perun and Veles. Without her husband, god of fertility and vegetation, Morana - and all of nature with her - withers and freezes in the upcoming winter; she turns into a terrible, old, and dangerous goddess of darkness and frost, and eventually dies by the end of year. The whole myth would repeat itself anew each following year, and retelling of its key parts was accompanied by major yearly festivals of the Slavic calendar. The story also shows numerous parallels to similar myths of Baltic and Hittite mythology. For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... Heavily influenced by Mesopotamian mythology, the religion of the Hittites and Luwians retains noticeable Indo-European elements, for example Tarhun the god of thunder, and his conflict with the serpent Illuyanka. ...


Svarog, Svarogich, Dazhbog

Nicholas Roerich. Slavic Idols (1901).
Nicholas Roerich. Slavic Idols (1901).

The name of Svarog is found only in East Slavic manuscripts, where it is usually equated with the Greek smith god Hephaestus. However, the name is very ancient, indicating that Svarog was a deity of Proto-Slavic pantheon. The root svar means bright, clear, and the suffix -og denotes a place. Comparison with Vedic Svarga indicates that Svarog simply meant (daylight) sky. It is possible he was the original sky god of the pantheon, perhaps a Slavic version of Proto-Indo-European *Dyēus Ph2ter. Svarog can be also understood as meaning a shining, fiery place; a forge. This, and identification with Hephaestus from historic sources, indicates he was also a god of fire and blacksmithing. According to the interpretation by Ivanov and Toporov, Svarog had two sons: Svarogich, who represented fire on earth, and Dazhbog, who represented fire in the sky and was associated with Sun. Svarog was believed to have forged the Sun and have given it to his son Dazhbog to carry it across the sky. Image File history File links Idoly. ... Image File history File links Idoly. ... Guests from Overseas, 1899 (Varangians in Russia) Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs (1903) Nicholas Roerich, (October 9, 1874 - December 13, 1947) also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Николай Константинович Рёрих), was a Russian painter and spiritual teacher. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In Hinduism, (Sanskrit: स्वर्ग) Svarga (or Swarga) is set of nether worlds located on Mt. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... *DyÄ“us is the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог), (Wendish: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic god and spirit of fire; meaning bright and clear. ... Also Dajbog, Dabog, Dazhbog, Dazsbog, Cyrillic Дажбог; from dazh, the Slavic epithet for Sun (The Giver) and bog (god). ...


In Russian manuscripts he is equated with Sun, and folklore remembers him as a benevolent deity of light and sky. Serbian folklore, however, presents a far darker picture of him; he is remembered as Dabog, a frightful and lame deity guarding the doors of the underworld, associated with mining and precious metals. Veselin Čajkanović pointed out that these two aspects fit quite nicely into a symbolism of Slavic solar deity; a benevolent side represents the Dazhbog during day, when he carries the Sun across the sky. The malevolent and ugly Dabog carries the Sun through the underworld at night. This pattern can also be applied to Sun's yearly cycle; a benevolent aspect is associated with young, summer Sun, and a malevolent one with old, winter Sun.


Svarogic was worshipped as a fire spirit by Russian peasants well after Christianisation. He was also known amongst Western Slavs, but there he was worshipped as a supreme deity in the holy city of Radegast. Svarogich is a simply diminutive of Svarog's name, and thus it may simply be another aspect (a surname, so to speak) of Dazhbog. There is also a point of view that Svarog was the ancestor of all other Slavic gods, and thus Svarogich could simply be an epithet of any other deity, so that Dazhbog, Perun, Veles, and so on, were possibly all Svarogichs.


Svantevit and Triglav

Svantevit
Svantevit

It is somewhat ironic that for now we cannot clearly determine the position of these two gods in Proto-Slavic pantheon, yet we have the most extensive historic accounts written about them. That they were important to all pagan Slavs is indicated by a significant number of toponyms whose names can be associated with them and by discoveries of multi-headed statues in various Slavic lands. Both of these gods were considered supreme in various locations; they were associated with divination and symbolized by the horse. A possibly significant difference is that Svantevit had a white horse whilst Triglav a black one, and Svantevit was represented with four heads whilst Triglav (whose name simply means Three-headed) with three. Svantevit was also associated with victory in war, harvest, and commerce. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Various hypotheses about them were proposed: that they are in fact one and the same deity, being somewhat similar; that they are not gods at all but compounds of three or four gods, a kind of mini-pantheons. Slavic neopagans tend to think of Triglav in particular as a concept of Trinity. Svantevit has also been proclaimed as a late West Slavic alternation of Perun or Jarilo, or compared with Svarogich and deemed a solar deity. None of these hypotheses is quite satisfactory, and mostly they are just wild speculation, another attempt to reconstruct Slavic mythology as it should be, rather than discovering what it was really like. Further research is necessary before more can be said of these deities. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Zorya and Danica

These names mean simply Dawn and Daystar, but in folklore accounts of all Slavic nations, they are often described as persons, or associated with persons, in pretty much the same way as Sun and Moon. Danica is often called Sun's younger sister or daughter, and was probably associated with Morana. Consequently, Zorya was either Sun's mother or older sister. It is quite possible this was a Slavic relic of the Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess Hausos, but further research into the matter will be necessary before more can be said of these deities. Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... *Hausos (h2aus-os-) was the goddess of Dawn in Proto-Indo-European religion. ...


Gods other than these cannot, at the moment, be established as Proto-Slavic deities. It should be noted, however, that it is very likely many of these gods were known by different names even in the same language. Religious taboos of using true names of deities certainly existed amongst Slavs, and thus gods were often called by additional names or adjectives, describing their qualities. Over time, these adjectives took on lives of their own.


Further developments

Ivanov and Toporov also schematically periodised various stages of development of Slavic mythology, attempting to show how it evolved from the original pantheon:

  • The first subsequent development occurring after the Proto-Slavs had split into East, West, and South Slavs. Each branch of the Slavic family devised disparate deities associated with crafts, agriculture, and fertility, such as Rod and Chur, and various feminine deities of household such as Mokosh. Deities such as Hors and Simargl are sometimes interpreted as the East Slavic borrowings from their Iranian neighbours.
  • At the level of abstract personification of divine functions, we have such concepts as Pravda/Krivda (Right/Wrong), Dobra Kob/Zla Kob (Good Fortune/Evil Fortune). These concepts, found in many Slavic fairy tales, are presumed to have originated at a time when old myths were already being downgraded to the level of legends and stories. Loius Leger pointed out that various Slavic words describing success, destiny, or fortune are all connected with the ancient Slavic word for God - "bog". Although used to denote the God of Christianity, the word is of pagan origin and quite ancient. It originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhag (meaning fortune), being cognate to Avestic baga and Sanskrit bhagah (epithets of deities).
  • The next level of development is a mythologisation of historical traditions. Beginning in pagan times, it continued well after the advent of Christianity. It is characterised by tales and songs of legendary heroes, ranging from purely legendary founders of certain tribes, such as the stories about Lech, Czech, and Rus, to quite historical persons such as the 15th century Croatian-Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus or the Serbian Prince Marko, who were both immortalised in folk legend or poetry. Russian bylinas about bogatyrs, Polish legends of Krak the Dragonslayer, Czech legends about Libuše, and the foundation of Prague all fall into this category. Various elements of these tales will still reveal elements of old myths (such as a hero slaying a dragon, a faint echo of an ancient concept of a cosmic battle between Perun the Thunderer and the serpentine Veles).
  • On an even lower level, certain mythical archetypes evolved into fairy-tale characters. These include Baba Yaga, Koschei the Immortal, Nightingale the Robber, Vodyanoy, Zmey Gorynych, and so on. At this point of development, one can hardly speak of mythology anymore. Rather, these are legends and stories which contain some fragments of old myths, but their structure and meaning are not so clear.
  • The lowest level of development of Slavic mythology includes various groups of home or nature spirits and magical creatures, which vary greatly amongst different Slavic nations. Mythic structure on this level is practically incomprehensible, but some of the beliefs nevertheless have a great antiquity. As early as the 5th century, Procopius mentioned that Slavs worshipped river and nature spirits, and traces of such beliefs can still be recognised in the tales about vilas, vampires, witches, and werewolves.

Rod, sometimes referred to simply as god (Div, Diy; in the Veda Slovena Diy or Dia), is probably the most ancient deity in the Slavic pantheon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Matka Ziema. ... Hurs or Hors is the Slavic god of the winter sun. ... Semargl, Simargl, Semargl-Pereplut is a mythical creature in Slavic mythology. ... Baba Yaga, by Ivan Bilibin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baba Yaga, by Ivan Bilibin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ivan Ya. ... According to an old legend, Lech, Czech and Rus were eponymous brothers who founded the three Slavic nations: Poland (formerly also known as Lechia), Bohemia (ÄŒechy – now the major part of the Czech Republic), and Ruthenia (Rus, whose successor states are now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) respectively. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... Contemporary fresco of Marko, Markos monastery, Skopje, Macedonia, 14th century This article is about the epic Serbian prince. ... Bylina (Russian: были́на, also Byliny and Stariny) is a traditional epic, heroic narrative poetry of early East Slavs of Kievan Rus, the tradition continued in Russia and Ukraine. ... Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich are represented together in Viktor Vasnetsovs famous 1898 painting Bogatyrs. ... KRAK is located in the Riverside, California area and broadcasts at 910 AM. External links KRAK Category: ... PÅ™emysl and LibuÅ¡e, sculpture by Josef Václav Myslbek (1881), today in VyÅ¡ehrad LibuÅ¡e (Czech; in German Libussa or Libuscha) is a mythical ancestor of the PÅ™emyslid dynasty and the Czech people as whole. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ivan Bilibin: Koshchey the Deathless In Russian mythology, Koschei (Russian: , Koshchey, also Kashchei or Kashchey or KoÅ›ciej (Polish)) is an evil person of ugly senile appearance, menacing principally young women. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wodjanoj or Vodyanoy (literally watery) in Slavic mythology is the male water spirit, a master shape-shifter who is said to live in a whirlpool, or in an underwater palace made from the treasures of sunken ships. ... Zmey is a mythical opponent of Slavic gods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Slavic paganism today

A Slavic pagan ritual in modern Russia.
A Slavic pagan ritual in modern Russia.

For the last few decades, Slavic paganism has gained certain popularity in the Russian public, with many web sites and organizations dedicated to the study of Slavic mythology .[1][2] and who openly call for "returning to the roots".[3]. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Most of those activities take place in Russia and Belarus, but they also take place in other Slavic countries like Poland, Serbia, Macedonia and Ukraine. Slavic and Slavonic are used interchangably in English, with the former perferred in US English, and the latter in English. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Many Slavic pagans[citation needed] believe that the Slavic peoples should unite to become one nation based on the original religion of the Slavs, much like Kievan Rus[citation needed]. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


See also

For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Baba Yaga, by Ivan Bilibin. ... Dazbog, Dazhbog or Dazhdbog (South-Slavic Dabog or Dajbog, Czech Dažbog, Polish Dażbóg) was one of major gods of Slavic mythology, most likely a solar deity and possibly a culture hero. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ... This article is about the Slavic goddess. ... The Zbruch idol, on display in the National Museum in Kraków, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in GÅ‚ogów, Poland Modern Svetovid statue in Otrebusy, Poland Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit, Svantovít, Swantovít, Sventovit, Zvantevith, ÅšwiÄ™towit, Sutvid, Vid. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... Triglav (three headed) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology, similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity or Trimurti in Hinduism. ... Veles, Volos, Weles, or Voloh is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, divination and the underworld. ... In Slavic neo-paganism, Zaria or Zoria is the goddess of beauty. ... In Slavic mythology, the Zorya (alternately: Zarya, Zvezda, Zwezda) are the three (sometimes two) guardian goddesses, known as the Auroras. ... In Slavic mythology, Belabog (alternately Bialbog, Byelobog, Bielobog, Belun, Bylun) (bel-oh-bog | byal-bog | bel-oon, from Slavic bel, byal (white or light) and bog (god), literally meaning White God) is a solar deity in the Slavic pantheon. ... Berstuk or Berstuc is the evil god of the forest in wendish mythology. ... Chernobog (also spelled Crnobog, Czernobog, ÄŒernobog or Zernebog, each name meaning Black God) is a mysterious Slavic deity of whom much has been speculated but little can be said. ... In Slavic and Polish mythology, Dziewona (or Zewana) is the equivalent of Diana, whose name is said to appear very late in Slavic history. ... Hurs or Hors is the Slavic god of the winter sun. ... Flins is the god of death in Wendish mythology. ... In wendish mythology Karewit is the protector of the town of Korzenica (nowadays Garz) on Rugia. ... Lada or Lado is a fictional Slavic pagan diety of harmony, merriment, youth, love and beauty which almost certainly never existed in the ancient Slavic pantheon. ... Mat Zemlya, also Matka Ziemia (literally Mother Earth, various other names are in use as well) is the collective term applied to a number of Slavic deities devoted to plants, growth, birth, creation and patrons of field works. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Matka Ziema. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dodola (also spelled Dudulya and Didilya, pronounced: doh-doh-la, doo-doo-lya, or dee-dee-lya) is a being in old Slavic mythology. ... Porenut was one of the Slavic deities worshipped by the Polabian Slavs in the town of Korzenica (nowadays Garz) on Rugia. ... Porewit was one of the Slavic deities worshipped by the Polabian Slavs in the town of Korzenica (nowadays Garz) on Rugia. ... In Polish mythology, Porvata is the god of the woods; he has no idol or image; and is manifest throughout the primeval forest. ... // Radegast, also called Radigost, Radhost, Redigast, is a hypothetical West Slavic god of hospitality, fertility, and crops, associated with war and Sun. ... Rod, sometimes referred to simply as god (Div, Diy; in the Veda Slovena Diy or Dia), is probably the most ancient deity in the Slavic pantheon. ... Rugiewit or Rugiwit is a Slavic deity. ... Stribog (Strzybog, Стрибог), in the Slavic pantheon, is the god and spirit of the winds, sky and air; he is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions. ... In wendish mythology Zirnitra or simply Zir is a black Slavic dragon and the god of sorcery. ... In Polish mythology, ZÅ‚ota Baba is a goddess called Golden Woman. She received many sacrifices and gave oracles, depicted in gold. ... Bogatyrs (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov Alyosha Popovich (Russian: ), alongside Dobrynya Nikitich and Ilya Muromets, is a bogatyr (i. ... Bash Chelik (Man of Steel) is a famous Serbian folklore tale. ... Burislav, Burisleif, BurysÅ‚aw is the name of mythical Wendish king from Scandinavian sagas who is said to rule over Wendland. ... Bogatyrs (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov Alongside Alyosha Popovich and Ilya Muromets, is a bogatyr (i. ... For the Russian bomber Ilya Muromets, see Ilya Muromets. ... Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Lech by Walery Eljasz-Radzikowski (1841-1905) Duke Czech Lech, Czech and Rus oaks in Rogalin, Poland According to an old legend, Lech, Czech and Rus were eponymous brothers who founded the three Slavic nations: Poland (poetically also known as Lechia), Bohemia (ÄŒechy – now the major part of the Czech... PÅ™emysl and LibuÅ¡e, sculpture by Josef Václav Myslbek (1881), today in VyÅ¡ehrad LibuÅ¡e (Czech; in German Libussa or Libuscha) is a mythical ancestor of the PÅ™emyslid dynasty and the Czech people as whole. ... The tower where, according to legend, Popiel perished Prince Popiel (or Duke Popiel), legendary 9th century ruler of the Polanie or Goplanie tribe. ... Contemporary fresco of Marko, Markos monastery, Skopje, Macedonia, 14th century This article is about the epic Serbian prince. ... Sadko, Palekh painting Sadko (Russian: ) was a legendary hero of a Russian bylina (epic tale) with the same name, a merchant and gusli musician from Novgorod. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ivan Bilibins Alkonost In Russian legends Alkonost is the bird of paradise, a miraculous bird with a womans face. ... Cikavac is a mythical creature in Serbian mythology, imagined as a winged animal (a bird) with long beak and a sack[1]. A cikavac could be acquired by taking an egg from a black hen, which would then be carried by a woman under her armpit for 40 days, during... In Russian folklore, the Firebird (жар-птица, zhar-ptitsa, literally ember bird from жар ember, flameless fire) is a magical glowing bird from a faraway land, which is both blessing and doom of its captor. ... The fern flower is a magic flower in Slavic mythology (Polish: , Russian: ) and Baltic mythology (e. ... Gamayun is a prophetic bird of Russian folklore which lives on an island in the east. ... Raskovnik is a fictional plant in Serbian mythology. ... Semargl, Simargl, Semargl-Pereplut is a mythical creature in Slavic mythology. ... Sirin bird on a grape tree. ... Dobrynya Nikitich slaying Zmey Gorynych, by Ivan Bilibin Dobrynya Nikitch rescues Princess Zabava from Zmey Gorynych, by Ivan Bilibin In Slavic mythology, European dragons have their peculiarities. ... To farmers, ala was a demon that led hail and thunderstorms over their fields, ruining the crops. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bagiennik was the name of water demons in the Slavic mythology. ... Bannik is the Bathhouse Spirit in Slavic mythology. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Boginki (Polish for Little Goddess) are spirits in Polish mythology. ... Bukavac is a demonic mythical creature in Serbian mythology; belief about it existed in Srem[1]. Bukavac was sometimes imagined as a six-legged monster with gnarled horns[1]. He lives in lakes and big pools, coming out of the water during the night making big noise (hence the name... For other uses, see Domovoi (disambiguation). ... Drekavac /drekavats/ (literally the yeller), also called drek and drekalo is a mythical creature in south Slavic mythology. ... Skarbnik in Wieliczka salt mine. ... 1934 Illustration by Ivan Bilibin Kikimora is a female house spirit in Slavic mythology, sometimes said to be married to the Domovoi. ... Ivan Bilibin: Koshchey the Deathless In Russian mythology, Koschei (Russian: , Koshchey, also Kashchei or Kashchey or KoÅ›ciej (Polish)) is an evil person of ugly senile appearance, menacing principally young women. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lechies. ... One-eyed Likho by Anton Kvasovarov, 2003 Likho, liho (Russian: Лихо), licho (in Polish) is an embodiment of evil fate and misfortune in Slavic mythology, a creature with one eye, usually depicted as an old, skinny woman in black (Лихо одноглазое, One-eyed Likho). ... A Polevik is a Slavic mythological creature that hid in corn fields. ... Rusalka may refer to: Rusalkas, Slavic water nymphs. ... The skrzak or skrzat is a little flying imp in wendish mythology. ... Stuhać is a demonic mythical creature in Serbian mythology, recorded in Herzegovina[1]. Though its name is similar with zduhać, there is no actual similarity. ... The Sudice are the Fates of Polish mythology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topielec (plural Topielce) is a name applied to Slavic spirits of water. ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... Wodjanoj or Vodyanoy (literally watery) in Slavic mythology is the male water spirit, a master shape-shifter who is said to live in a whirlpool, or in an underwater palace made from the treasures of sunken ships. ... Zduhać (plural: zduhaći; pronounce: zdoo-hach /s. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Slavonian mythology

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ A web-site with information about current pagan activity in Russia. (Russian).
  2. ^ A site with a lot of information on Slavic Paganism. (Russian).
  3. ^ A Slavic spiritualism site calling for returning to the roots. (Russian).
  • Bonnerjea, B. A Dictionary of Superstitions and Mythology. London 1927
  • Chrypinski, Anna, editor. Polish Customs. Friends of Polish Art: Detroit, MI, 1977.
  • Contoski, Josepha K., editor. Treasured Polish Songs with English Translations. Polanie Publishing Co.: Minneapolis, MN, 1953.
  • Estes, Clarissa Pinkola, Ph.D. Women Who Run With the Wolves. Ballantine Books: New York, 1992.
  • Gimbutas, Marija. The Slavs. Preager Publishers: New York, 1971.
  • Ingeman, B. S. Grundtræk til En Nord-Slavisk og Vendisk Gudelære. Copenhagen 1824.
  • Knab, Sophie Hodorowicz. Polish Customs, Traditions, & Folklore. Hippocrene Books: New York, 1993.
  • Knab, Sophie Hodorowicz. Polish Herbs, Flowers, and Folk Medicine. Hippocrene Books: New York, 1995.
  • Krasicki, Ignacy (tr by Gerard Kapolka) Polish Fables: Bilingual. 1997
  • Leland, Charles Godfrey. Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling. New York: University Books, 1962
  • Zajdler, Zoe. Polish Fairy Tales. Chicago, Ill: Follett Publishing, 1959
  • Sekalski, Anstruther J. Old Polish Legends. 1997
  • Singing Back The Sun: A Dictionary of Old Polish Customs and Beliefs, Okana, 1999
  • Szyjewski, Andrzej: Slavic Religion, WAM, Kraków, 2003
  • Boris Rybakov. Ancient Slavic Paganism. Moscow, 1981.
  • Franjo Ledić. Mitologija Slavena - knjiga I, Zagreb, 1970. god.
  • V. Belaj. Hod kroz godinu, mitska pozadina hrvatskih narodnih vjerovanja i obicaja", Golden Marketing, Zagreb 1998.
  • Svarog, [2]

  Results from FactBites:
 
OLD SLAVS - slavic Gods - Perun - Veles - Svantevit - Slavic mythology, Slavic weapons - Wulflund (654 words)
Slavic Shop (Stroe) - Slavs The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples which original homeland was woody area between rivers of the Dniester and the Visla.
This symbol is known from Slavic excavations (brooches, pottery etc.) and represents Supreme God and universe.
Lime tree is one of the Slavic symbols.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m