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Encyclopedia > Slaves
The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London.
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The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London.

Slavery is a condition in which one person, known as a Slave, is under the control of another. Slavery almost always occurs for the purpose of securing the labour of the slave. A specific form, known as chattel slavery, is defined by the absolute legal ownership of a person or persons, including the legal right to buy and sell them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (557x774, 164 KB)Monument celebrating the Emanciation of Slaves, 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Wesminster, London Erected by Charles Buxtom, MP, also in memory of his father Sir T. Foxwell Buxton. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (557x774, 164 KB)Monument celebrating the Emanciation of Slaves, 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Wesminster, London Erected by Charles Buxtom, MP, also in memory of his father Sir T. Foxwell Buxton. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London. ... The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in history. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Manual labor is a term used for hard physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled manual job such as fruit and vegetable picking, et cetera. ... A type of slavery defined as the absolute legal ownership of a person or persons, including the legal right to buy and sell them ... // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ...

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Definitions

Look up Slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "...the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised..." Therefore, slaves cannot leave an owner or employer without explicit permission, and they will be returned if they escape. Therefore a system of slavery — as opposed to the isolated instances found in any society — requires official, legal recognition of ownership, or widespread tacit arrangements with local authorities, by masters who have some influence because of their social and/or economic status. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary logo Wiktionary is a sister project to Wikipedia intended to be a free wiki dictionary (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... In the General Act of the Brussel Conference of 1889-90 the signatories declared that they were equally animated by the firm intention of putting an end to the traffic in African slaves and with the Convention of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1919, the signatories affirmed their intention of...


The word slave comes from the Latin term sclavus, which is thought to have originally referred to slavs, people from Eastern Europe, including parts of the Byzantine empire. The current usage of the word serfdom is not usually synonymous with slavery, because serfs are considered to have had some rights. In the strictest sense of the word, "slaves" are people who are not only owned, but who have no rights and are also not paid. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ...


The International Labour Organization defines "forced labour" as "all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily", albeit with certain exceptions: military service, convicts, emergencies and minor community services. [1]. The ILO asserts that child labour amounts to forced labour in which the child's work is exacted from the family as a whole. For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ...


In some historical contexts, compulsory labour to repay debts by adults has been regarded as slavery, depending upon the rights held by such individuals. Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ...


Mandatory military service in liberal democracies is a controversial subject: one view is that conscripts are not "slaves", as they have substantial legal rights, and any government which took it upon itself to implement conscription, outside a time of extreme national emergency, would eventually face a backlash at an election. Another view interprets acceptance of conscription as a sign of chauvinist, ultra-nationalist and/or fascist ideologies, justified by philosophies such as the Hegelian notion of nations having rights which supersede those of individuals. Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the ability of elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law and moderated by a constitution which emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals and minorities (also called constitutional democracy and constitutional... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Ultra-nationalists are extreme nationalists or patriots. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


In United States legal usage, the term involuntary servitude means a condition of labouring for another without one's willful consent. It does not necessarily mean the complete lack of freedom found in chattel slavery. Law (from the Old Norse lagu) in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments of/for those who do... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ...


Many left wing thinkers have discussed the idea of "wage slavery", although it is generally accepted that payment of a wage signifies "free labour", with the quite different disadvantages experienced by such workers. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Wage slavery is a condition in which a person is legally (de jure) voluntarily employed but practically (de facto) a slave. ... A wage is the amount of money paid for some specified quantity of labour. ...


Ordinary citizens in totalitarian states are not generally considered slaves, as the only real point of comparison is restrictions on movement. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ...


Unfree labour

Main articles: Unfree labour, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Most people subject to the above conditions are covered by the generic term unfree labour, which includes all forms of slavery and similar labour systems. Unfree labour is now the preferred term of many scholars, because of the wide variety of ambiguities that may be attached to words like "slavery". One reason is that references to disparate, heterogenous types of labour have been translated into the English as "slavery". ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The British historian Sir Moses Finley, one of the most distinguished scholars of ancient slavery, suggested that "slavery" was imprecise and that chattel slavery, in which the slave has no legal rights and could be bought and sold, was sufficiently different from other forms of unfree labour, and a greater violation of human rights, to be labeled distinctively. Moses Finley Moses Finley (d. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


How do people become slaves?

Historically, slaves were often those humans of a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, sex or race than the dominant or aspirationally dominant group; typically taken prisoner as a result of warfare, capture meant death or slavery if no one paid ransom. Societies characterized by poverty, population pressures, and cultural and technological lag are frequently exporters of slaves to more developed nations. Today most slaves are rural people forced to move to cities, or those purchased in rural areas and sold into slavery in cities. These moves take place due to loss of subsistence agriculture, thefts of land, and population increases. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Sex, in the scope of this article and category, refers to the male and female duality of biology and reproduction. ... It has been suggested that Validity of human races be merged into this article or section. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Subsistence agriculture is agriculture carried out for survival — with few or no crops available for sale. ... Real property is a legal term encompassing real estate and ownership interests in real estate (immovable property). ...


Some researchers have recently suggested that ancient Greco-Roman slavery may have been related to the practice of infanticide. Unwanted infants were exposed to nature to die; these were then often rescued by slavetraders, who raised them as slaves. In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species. ...


In many cultures, persons convicted of serious crimes could be sold into slavery. The proceeds from this sale were often used to compensate the victims.


Also, persons have been sold into slavery so that the money could be used to pay off debts. This could range from a king ordering a debtor sold with all his family, to the poor selling off their own children. In times of dire need such as famine, people have offered themselves into slavery not for a purchase price, but merely so that their new master would feed them.


History

Europe and the Mediterranean

The ancient Mediterranean civilizations

See also: Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean; Slavery in Abrahamic religions. Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures was a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures and the Islamic Caliphate was a mixture of debt-slavery, marriage, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the peaceful submission to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Medieval Europe

Main articles: Slavery in medieval Europe, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

For Christian views on slavery see Religion and slavery. Slavery in medieval Europe was the phenomenon of keeping persons under the conditions of Slavery in the Europe of the Middle Ages. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Christianity forbade keeping other Christians as slaves. The traditional slavery disappeared during the Dark Ages in the Continental Europe and in the 12th century in Scandinavia. On the other hand, an unconverted Pagan could be legally be kept and sold as a slave, and during the High Middle Ages, Muslims and Pagans were often raided and sold as slaves. They were traded openly in many cities, including Marseille, Dublin and Prague, and many were sold to buyers in the Islamic Middle East. This practice continued until the end of the 14th century, when the last Pagan country, Lithuania, converted into Catholicism. City motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, German: Prag, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Early Modern Europe

In the 17th century, slavery was used as punishment by conquering English Parliament armies against native Catholics in Ireland. Between the years 1659 and 1663, during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland by the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell, thousands of Irish Catholics were forced into slavery. Cromwell had a deep religious dislike of the Catholic religion, and many Irish Catholics who had participated in Confederate Ireland had all their land confiscated and were transported to the West Indies as slaves. // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Irish Catholics is a term used to describe Irish people or people of Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Item 20 of The Grand Remonstrance[2], a list of grievances committed by King Charles I and presented to him in 1641, contains the following:


"20. And although all this was taken upon pretence of guarding the seas, yet a new unheard-of tax of ship-money was devised, and upon the same pretence, by both which there was charged upon the subject near £700,000 some years, and yet the merchants have been left so naked to the violence of the Turkish pirates, that many great ships of value and thousands of His Majesty's subjects have been taken by them, and do still remain in miserable slavery." This article is about sea pirates. ...


Slavery existed in Eastern Europe during the period (particularly in Russia and Poland). Only in 1768 was a law passed in Poland that discontinued the nobility's control of the right to life or death of serfs. Some of the Roma people were enslaved over five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Roma people (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) are an ethnic group mostly living in Europe. ...


Modern Europe

Main articles: Holocaust; Nazi concentration camps. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazi regime created many Arbeitslager (labour camps) in Germany and Eastern Europe. Prisoners in Nazi labour camps were worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions, or killed if they became unable to work. Hundreds of thousands of people, possibly millions, died as a direct result of forced labour under the Nazis. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ...


Main article: Gulag Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ ▶ (help· info)) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp Administration. ...


Between 1930 and 1960, the Soviet regime created many Lagerey (labour camps) in Siberia. Prisoners in Soviet labor camps were worked to death on extreme production quotas, brutality, hunger and harsh elements. Fatality rate was as high as 80% during the first months in many camps. Hundreds of thousands of people, possibly millions, died as a direct result of forced labour under the Soviets. 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ...


Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East

For Muslim views on slavery see Religion and slavery. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Arab world traded in slaves like many other cultures of the time. The Moors starting in the 8th century raided coastal areas of the mediterranean and Northern European (including British and even as far north as Scandinavian) coastal areas and would carry away sometimes whole villages to the Moorish slave markets on the Barbary Coast. Nautical traders from the United States became targets, and frequent victims, of the Barbary pirates as soon as that nation began trading with Europe. The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia was dominated by Arab and African traders in the coastal cities of Zanzibar, Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. // Origins of the name The name derives from the old tribe of the Mauri and their kingdom, Mauretania. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Battle between the british frigate HMS Mary Rose and seven Algerine pirates, 1669 Though at least a proportion of them are better described as privateers, the Barbary pirates operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salè and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar, Tanzania, comprises a pair of islands off the east coast of Africa called Zanzibar (Unguja) (1994 est. ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya. ...


Many Slavic males from the Balkans, and Turkic and Circassian males from the Caucasus Mountains and the eastern Black Sea regions were taken away from their homes and families and enlisted into special soldier classes of the army of the Ottoman Empire. These soldier classes were named Janissaries in the Balkans and Asia Minor, and Mamelukes in Egypt. The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the intrigues of the Istanbul court of the Ottoman sultans, while the Mamelukes were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine. The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... // General Information The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... YOUNG GREEKS AT THE MOSQUE (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning new troops) comprised infantry units that... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Shows the Location of the Province Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (a Turkish contraction of Greek εις την πολιν into the city, the former Constantinople, Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Slavery in Africa

"Slavery was endemic in Africa, part of the structure of everyday life", Fernand Braudel has noted. "Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders" (Braudel 1984 p 435). During the 16th century Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. The United Kingdom, which held vast colonial territories on the continent (including South Africa), made the practice of slavery illegal in these regions. Ironically, the end of the slave trade and the decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors. This action is what today may be called an instance of cultural imperialism. Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ...


The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar, but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. In some slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family. In others, slaves were brutally abused, and even used for human sacrifices. Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar, Tanzania, comprises a pair of islands off the east coast of Africa called Zanzibar (Unguja) (1994 est. ...


Slavery in North Africa

As practiced in ancient Egypt, slavery was not in accord with the modern view of the term. Persons became "slaves" in ancient Egypt by virtue of being captives (or prisoners) of war, committing criminal or other indecent acts, or indebtedness. In many instances, some peasants in ancient Egypt led better livelihoods as slaves than as free persons: Some Egyptian peasants purposely sold themselves into slavery as a means of repaying their debts! Though slaves in ancient Egypt could be sold, inherited or offered as gifts, they were not prohibited from learning, achieving greater social rank, purchasing property or negotiating other contracts. One papyrus from the New Kingdom even records masters being testified against by slave witnesses. Slave children apparently enjoyed some authoritative protection, as a letter from the 18th dynasty records limits to their use for harsh labor, and Egyptian households further bore the responsibility of adequately raising children of slave parents In the 15th and 16th centuries slaves were imported from Europe to North Africa. Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew. In all, about 1.5 million Europeans were transported to the Barbary Coast. It was a period when Europe was preoccupied by sectarian wars and European navies were depleted. The trade was run by the Moors and the expeditions were often captained by Europeans with North African crews. In the early 19th century, European powers started to take action to free Christian slaves. The first major action was the bombardment of Algiers in 1816. Monumental Statue of Pharaoh. ... Monumental Statue of Pharaoh. ... Monumental Statue of Pharaoh. ... Monumental Statue of Pharaoh. ... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... Battle between the british frigate HMS Mary Rose and seven Algerine pirates, 1669 Though at least a proportion of them are better described as privateers, the Barbary pirates operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salè and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. // Origins of the name The name derives from the old tribe of the Mauri and their kingdom, Mauretania. ... The Bombardment of Algiers took place on August 27, 1816. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa

Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian peninsula. Zanzibar became a leading port on this trade. Arab slave traders differed from European traders in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male slaves. East Africa is a region generally considered to include: Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda Burundi, Rwanda, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, and Sudan are sometimes considered a part of East Africa. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...


The increased presence of European rivals along the coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa. The German explorer Gustav Nachtigal reported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawa in Bornu bound for Tripoli and Egypt in 1870. The slave trade represented the major source of revenue for the state of Bornu as late as 1898. Further south, the eastern regions of the Central African Republic have never recovered demographically from the impact of nineteenth-century raids from the Sudan and still have a population density of less than 1 person/km². The location of Sahel in Africa The Sahel (from Arabic ساحل, sahil, shore, border or coast of the Sahara desert) is the boundary zone in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the more fertile region to the south, known as the Sudan (not to be confused with the country... Gustav Nachtigal (February 23, 1834 - April 20, 1885), German explorer in Central Africa, son of a Lutheran pastor, was born at Eichstedt in the Mark of Brandenburg. ... Kukawa (previously Kuka) is a town in northeastern Nigeria, close to Lake Chad. ... Borno is a commune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. ... Nickname: none Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: none Location Position of Tripoli in Libya Government Country  Municipality Libya  Tarabulus Geographical characteristics Area n/a km² Land n/a km² Water n/a km² Population 1,682,000 (Agglomeration) [1] Total (1996) 990,000 Density n/a/km² Latitude 32°54′ N...


The Middle Passage, the crossing of the Atlantic to the Americas, endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships, was only one element of the well-known triangular trade engaged in by Portuguese, Dutch, French and British. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbean ports would take on sugar, indigo, raw cotton, and later coffee, and make for Liverpool, Nantes, Lisbon or Amsterdam. Ships leaving European ports for West Africa would carry printed cotton textiles, some originally from India, copper utensils and bangles, pewter plates and pots, iron bars more valued than gold, hats, trinkets, gunpowder and firearms and alcohol. Tropical shipworms were eliminated in the cold Atlantic waters, and at each unloading, a profit was made. The Middle Passage was the leg of the Atlantic slave trade that transported people from Africa to North America, South America and the Caribbean. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ...


The transatlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by coastal African kingdoms through more formal trade agreements with European traders or by slave raiding parties through more informal bounty agreements with European traders. The people captured on these expeditions were shipped by European traders to the colonies of the New World. As a result of the Spanish War of Succession, the United Kingdom obtained the monopoly (asiento de negros) of transporting captive Africans to Spanish America. It is estimated that over the centuries, twelve to twenty million people were shipped as slaves from Africa by European traders, of whom some 15 percent died during the terrible voyage, many during the arduous journey through the Middle Passage. The great majority were shipped to the Americas, but also went to Europe and the south of Africa. The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Western World. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... An asiento was similar to a patent in early modern England. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... The Middle Passage was the leg of the Atlantic slave trade that transported people from Africa to North America, South America and the Caribbean. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas commonly refers to the landmass in the Western Hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America, Central America, and South America with their associated islands. ...


Some historians conclude that the total loss in persons removed, those who died on the arduous march to coastal slave marts and those killed in slave raids, far exceeded the 65-75 million inhabitants remaining in Sub-Saharan Africa at the trade's end. Others believe that slavers had a vested interest in capturing rather than killing, and in keeping their captives alive; and that this coupled with the disproportionate removal of males and the introduction of new crops from the Americas (cassava, maize) would have limited general population decline to particular regions of western Africa around 1760-1810, and in Mozambique and neighbouring areas half a century later. There has also been speculation that within Africa, females were most often captured as brides, with their male protectors being a "bycatch" who would have been killed if there had not been an export market for them. Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz The cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Modern Africa

Slavery persists in Africa more than in all other continents. Slavery in Mauritania was legally abolished by laws passed in 1905, 1961, and 1981, but several human rights organizations are reporting that the practice continues there. The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin. In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family. In this instance, the woman does not gain the title of "wife". In the Sudan slavery continues as part of an ongoing civil war. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in west Africa, see the chocolate and slavery article. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Second Sudanese Civil War started in 1983, although it is most accurately a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. ... Chocolate and slavery are alleged to be linked in contemporary chocolate plantations in west Africa. ...


Slavery in the Americas

Slavery among indigenous people of America

In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica the most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners-of-war and debtors. People unable to pay back a debt could be sentenced to work as a slave to the person owed until the debt was worked off. Slavery was not usually hereditary; children of slaves were born free. In Tahuantinsuyu, or the Inca Empire, workers were subject to a mita in lieu of taxes which they paid by working for the government. Each ayllu, or extended family, would decide which family member to send to do the work. Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a government. ... Ayllu were the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life. ...


Slavery in Brazil

During the colonial epoch, slavery was a mainstay of the Brazilian economy, especially in mining and sugar cane production. The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


Brazil obtained 37% of all African slaves traded, and more than 3 million slaves were sent to this one country. The Portuguese were the first to initiate the slave trade, and the last to end the slave trade. Starting around 1550, the Portuguese began to trade African slaves to work the sugar plantations once the native Tupi deteriorated. Tupi is the name of one of the main ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guarani. ...


The African slaves were useful for the sugar plantations in many ways. First, African slaves had immunities to tropical diseases. The white workers were less able to fend off deadly diseases of the Caribbean, such as malaria. Second, the benefits of the slaves far exceeded the costs. After 2-3 years, slaves worked off their worth, and plantation owners began to make profits from them. Plantation owners made lucrative profits even though there was approximately a 10% death rate per year, mainly due to harsh working conditions.


The very harsh manual labour of the sugar cane fields saw slaves use hoes to dig large trenches. The slaves planted sugar cane in the trenches and then used their bare hands to spread manure. The average life span of a slave was eight years. In the mid to late 19th century, many Amerindians were enslaved to work on rubber plantations. See Içá for more information. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Içá or Putumayo River is one of the tributaries of the Amazon river, west of and parallel to the Yapura. ...


The Clapham Sect, a group of Victorian Evangelical politicians, campaigned during most of the 19th century for the United Kingdom to use its influence and power to stop the traffic of slaves to Brazil. Besides moral qualms, the low cost of slave-produced Brazilian sugar meant that British colonies in the West Indies were unable to match the market prices of Brazilian sugar, and each Briton was consuming 16 pounds (7 kg) of sugar a year by the 19th century. This combination led to intensive pressure from the British government for Brazil to end this practice, which it did by steps over several decades. The Clapham Sect was an influential group of like-minded social reformers in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century (active c. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of Protestantism, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ...


Brazil's 1877-78 Grande Seca (Great Drought) in the cotton-growing northeast, led to major turmoil, starvation, poverty and internal migration. As wealthy plantation holders rushed to sell their slaves south, popular resistance and resentment grew, inspiring numerous emancipation societies. They succeeded in banning slavery altogether in the province of Ceará by 1884. (Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 88-90) Slavery was legally ended nationwide on May 13 by the Lei Áurea ("Golden Law") of 1888. May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...


Despite its prohibition, slavery persists in agricultural and rural industrial labor in Brazil (Kevin Bales, Disposable People)


Slavery in the British and French Caribbean

Main articles: Slavery in the British and French Caribbean, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Slavery was commonly used in the parts of the Caribbean controlled by France or the British Empire. The Lesser Antilles islands of Barbados, Antigua, Martinique and Guadeloupe, which were the first important slave societies of the Caribbean, began the widespread use of African slaves by the end of the 17th century, as their economies converted from tobacco to sugar production. Slavery in the British and French Caribbean was the Slavery in the parts of the Caribbean dominated by France or the British Empire. ... The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on the Caribbean Plate. ... The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in history. ... The Lesser Antilles are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas form the West Indies. ... The Caribbean The History of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ...


The slaves were treated terribly, often beaten and raped. They had such miserable lives that death was considered a welcome release.


By the middle of the 18th century, British Jamaica and French Saint-Domingue had become the largest slave societies of the region, rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans. Due to overwork, the death rates for Caribbean slaves were higher than birth rates. The conditions led to increasing numbers of slave revolts, campaigns against slavery in Europe, and the abolition of slavery in the European empires. Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ...


Slavery in North America

Main article: Slavery in Colonial America, Slavery in Canada, History of slavery in the United States, Atlantic slave trade Slavery was introduced to Colonial British North America in the 17th century, in imitation of labor practices used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South American colonies. ... Slavery in Canada was first practised by some aboriginal nations, who routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes as part of their accepted laws of war. ... The history of slavery in the United States began soon after people first settled in the area (and so even before the founding of the United States), and officially ended with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ...


The first imported Africans were brought as indentured servants, not slaves. They were required, as white indentured servants were, to serve seven years. Many were brought to the British North American colonies, specifically Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. However, the slave trade did not immediately expand in North America. For colonies not among the Thirteen colonies, see European colonization of the Americas or English colonization of the Americas. ... Jamestown was established in 1607, on the James River in Virginia, about 45 miles (70 kilometers) southeast of where Richmond, Virginia, is now located. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ...


Slavery under European rule began with importation of European indentured labourers, was followed by the enslavement of indigenous peoples in the Caribbean, and eventually was primarily replaced with Africans imported through a large slave trade. An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on the Caribbean Plate. ...


The shift from indentured servants to African slaves was prompted by a growing lower class of former servants who had worked through the terms of their indentures and thus became competitors of their former masters. These newly freed servants were rarely able to support themselves comfortably, and the tobacco industry was increasingly dominated by large planters. This caused domestic unrest culminating in Bacon's Rebellion. Eventually, chattel slavery became the norm in regions dominated by plantations. An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Bacons Rebellion, also known as the Virginia Rebellion, was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ...


Many slaves were owned by plantation owners who lived in Britain. The British courts had made a series of contradictory rulings on the legality of slavery (National Archives Link) which encouraged several thousand slaves to flee the newly-independent United States as refugees along with the retreating British in 1783. The British courts having ruled in 1772 that such slaves could not be forcibly returned to North America (the Mansfield judgment}, the British Government resettled them as free men in Sierra Leone. 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Example of slave treatment: Back deeply scarred from whipping
Example of slave treatment: Back deeply scarred from whipping

Several slave rebellions took place during the 17th and 18th centuries. Image File history File links Slavetreatment. ... Image File history File links Slavetreatment. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Through the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (also known as the Freedom Ordinance) under the Continental Congress, slavery was prohibited in the Midwest. In the East, though, slavery was not abolished until later. The importation of slaves into the United States was banned on January 1, 1808; but not the internal slave trade, or involvement in the international slave trade externally. The NW ORdinace (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance) was an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. ... The Continental Congress is the label given to three successive bodies of representatives: The First Continental Congress met from September 5, 1774 to October 26, 1774. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Aggregation of northern free states gave rise to one contiguous geographic area, north of the Ohio River and the old Mason-Dixon line. This separation of a free North and an enslaved South launched a massive political, cultural and economic struggle. Ohio River viewed from Liberty Hill in Ripley, Ohio. ... Map of the states and territories claimed by the Confederate States of America The Mason–Dixon Line (or Mason and Dixons Line) is a line of demarcation between states in the United States. ...


Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River to the North via the Underground Railroad, and their presence agitated Northerners. Midwestern state governments asserted States Rights arguments to refuse Federal jurisidiction over fugitives. Map of some Underground Railroad routes This page is about the slave escape route. ... In American politics and constitutional law, states rights are guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, (i. ...


The Dred Scott decision of 1857 asserted that one could take one's property anywhere (Even if one's property was chattel and one crossed into a free state), virtually legalizing slavery in the free states. It also asserted that African Americans could not be citizens, as many Northern states granted blacks citizenship, who (in some states) could even vote. This was an example of Slave Power, the plantation aristocracy's attempt to control the North. This turned Northern public opinion even further against slavery. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, armed conflict broke out in Kansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state had been left to the inhabitants. The radical abolitionist John Brown was active in the mayhem and killing in "Bleeding Kansas." Anti-slavery legislators took office under the banner of the Republican Party. Holding Blacks, whether slaves or free, could not become United States citizens and the plaintiff therefore lacked the capacity to file a lawsuit. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... The Kansas–Nebraska Act was an Act of Congress passed on January 23, 1854 organizing a territorial government for the lands that later became the states of Kansas and Nebraska. ... Kansas Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854 to January 29, 1861, when Kansas became the 34th U.S. state. ... John Browns Oath Engraving from daguerreotype by Augustus Washington, ca. ... Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in the history of Kansas as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving abolitionists (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory and the western frontier towns of the state of Missouri between roughly... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ...


In the election of 1860, the Republicans swept Abraham Lincoln into the Presidency. Lincoln however, did not appear on the ballots in most southern states and his election split the nation along sectional lines. After decades of controlling the Federal Government, the Southern states seceded from the U.S. (the Union) to form the Confederate States of America. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans February 4, 1861–May 1...


Northern leaders like Lincoln viewed the prospect of a new slave nation, with control over the Mississippi River and the West, as unacceptable. This led to the outbreak of the Civil War. The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America between the United States of America, called the Union and the Confederate States of America, a new nation formed by 11 seceding states. ...


The Civil War spelled the end for chattel slavery in America. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was a reluctant gesture that proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy, although not those in strategically important border states. However, the proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal and it was implemented as the Union captured territory from the Confederacy. Slaves in many parts of the south were freed by Union armies or when they simply left their former owners. Many joined the Union Army as workers or troops, and many more fled to Northern cities. The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was a declaration by United States President Abraham Lincoln announcing that all slaves in Confederate territory still in rebellion were freed. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


Legally, slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 6, 1865 (with final recognition of the amendment on December 18), eight months after the cessation of hostilities. Only in Kentucky did a significant slave population remain by that time. Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution abolished slavery and, with the exception of allowing punishments for crimes, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Freed slaves in the United States were treated as second class citizens. For decades after their emancipation many slaves living in the South sharecropped and had a low standard of living. In some states it was only after the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s that blacks obtained legal status as full citizens (see segregation). Sharecropping or sharefarming is a system of farming in which farmers work a parcel of land which they do not own in return for a portion of the parcels crop production and/or a wage. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Segregation means separation. ...


Slavery in Asia

India

Unfree labour has existed in India for millennia, in different forms. The most common forms have been kinds of bonded labour. During the epoch of the Islamic empires in India and the Mughals, debt bondage reached its peak, and it was common for money lenders to make slaves of peasants and others who failed to repay debts. Under these practices, more than one generation could be forced into unfree labour; for example, a son could be sold into bonded labour for life to pay off the debt, along with interest. During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Much of India was ruled by the so-called Slave Dynasty from 1206-1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori rose to power following his master's death. For almost a century his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar. The Slave dynasty served as the first Sultans of Delhi in India from 1206 to 1290. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... the material of this page is written by a a hindu and naturally is full of lies. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... The Qutub Minar and surrounding ruins. ...


Japan

Main articles: Slavery in Japan, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Slavery in Japan was, for most of its history, indigenous, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands. The export of a slave from Japan is recorded in 3rd century Chinese history, although the system involved is unclear. These slaves were called Seikō (生口) (lit. "living mouth"). Slavery in Japan was, for the most of its history, endogenous. ...


In the 8th century, a slave was called Nuhi (奴婢) and series of laws on slavery was issued. In an area of present-day Ibaraki prefecture, out of a population of 190,000, around 2,000 were slaves; the proportion is believed to have been even higher in western Japan. Ibaraki may refer to: Ibaraki, Osaka Ibaraki prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


By the time of the Sengoku period (1467-1615), the attitude that slavery was anachronistic had become widespread. In a meeting with Catholic priests, Oda Nobunaga was presented with a black slave, the first recorded encounter between a Japanese and an African. In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered all slave trading to be abolished. This was continued by his successors. The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... Oda Nobunaga Oda Nobunaga (織田 信長 ▶ (help· info), June 23, 1534 - June 21, 1582) was a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ...


As the Empire of Japan annexed Asian countries, from the late 19th century onwards, archaic institutions including slavery were abolished in those countries. However, during the Pacific War of 1937-45, the Japanese military used hundreds of thousands of civilians and prisoners of war as forced labour, on projects such as the Burma Railway. (For further details, see Japanese war crimes.) Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Thailand to Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support the Japanese occupation of Burma. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ...


Korea

Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. It is widely known that the last names "Chun", "Bang", "Ji", and "Chuk" are recognizable as last names having once been given to slaves. For other places called Korea, see: Korea (disambiguation) Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ...

Child Slavery: Trafficked children as young as 2 years old are forced to work up to 18 hours a day as camel jockeys in the Middle East - Pic by Ansar Burney Trust
Child Slavery: Trafficked children as young as 2 years old are forced to work up to 18 hours a day as camel jockeys in the Middle East - Pic by Ansar Burney Trust

Image File history File linksMetadata Camel_jockey_ansarburney. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Camel_jockey_ansarburney. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ...

Middle East

Children as young as 2 years old are used for slavery as child camel jockeys across the Middle East. Though strict laws have been introduced recently in Qatar and UAE - thanks to better awareness of the issue and lobbying by human rights organisations such as the Ansar Burney Trust - the use of children still continues in the far flung areas and during secret night time races. Camel racing is a popular sport in Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. ... // Background www. ...


Abolitionist movements

Main articles: Abolitionism, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Slavery has existed, in form or another, for several thousand years. So, too, have movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. Moses led Israelite slaves from ancient Egypt in the Biblical Book of Exodus - possibly the first detailed account of a movement to free slaves. Though modern archeology throws doubt on the claims of such a mass exodus. However, abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade. This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Monumental Statue of Pharaoh. ... Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...


In 1772, a legal case concerning James Somersett made it illegal to remove a slave from England against his will. A similar case, that of Joseph Knight, took place in Scotland five years later and ruled slavery to be contrary to the law of Scotland. James Somersett or Somerset was a slave who was brought by his owner from Virginia to England. ... Joseph Knight was a slave born in Africa and sold in Jamaica to a Scottish owner. ...


Following the work of campaigners in the United Kingdom, the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act was passed by Parliament on March 25, 1807. The act imposed a fine of £100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. The intention was to entirely outlaw the slave trade within the whole British Empire. The Slave Trade Act was passed by the British parliament in 1807 abolishing the slave trade in the British empire. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ...


The Slavery Abolition Act, passed on August 23, 1833, outlawed slavery itself in the British colonies. On August 1, 1834 all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838. The Slavery Abolition Act was an 1833 act of the British Parliament abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Proclammation of the abolition of slavery by Victor Hughes in the Guadeloupe, the 1st November 1794
Proclammation of the abolition of slavery by Victor Hughes in the Guadeloupe, the 1st November 1794

France never authorized slavery on its mainland, but authorized it in some of its overseas possessions. On February 4, 1794, Abbé Grégoire and the Convention abolished slavery. Slaves in Haiti revolted when their masters did not accept the new rules from the metropolis. Slavery was re-established in 1802 by Napoleon, but failed to take hold because of the Haitian Slave Revolt in 1803 which gained the slaves their independence. Haiti became the first Black republic in 1803. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Overseas, meaning literally a place over an ocean, the term is for some countries synonymous with the word international. ... Possession is having some degree of control over something else. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Grégoire Henri Grégoire (December 4, 1750-May 20, 1831) was a French Revolutionary leader and constitutional bishop of Blois. ... Convention has at least two very distinct but related meanings. ... --69. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Sierra Leone was established as a country for former slaves of the British Empire in Africa. Liberia served an analogous purpose for American slaves. The goal of the abolitionists was repatriation of the slaves to Africa. Also some trade unions did not want the cheap labour of former slaves around. Nevertheless, most former slaves stayed in America. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Slaves in the United States who escaped ownership would often make their way north to Canada via the "Underground Railroad". Famously active abolitionists of the U.S. include Harriet Tubman, Nat Turner, Frederick Douglass and John Brown. Slavery was abolished in the United States in 1865. Map of some Underground Railroad routes This page is about the slave escape route. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Harriet Tubman in 1880 Harriet Tubman (born 1820 or 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland, died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York), also known as Black Moses, Grandma Moses, or Moses of Her People, was an African-American freedom fighter. ... Nat Turner preaches religion. ... Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (February 14, 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. ... John Browns Oath Engraving from daguerreotype by Augustus Washington, ca. ... Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution abolished slavery and, with the exception of allowing punishments for crimes, prohibits involuntary servitude. ...


The 1926 Slavery Convention, an initiative of the League of Nations, was a turning point in banning global slavery. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly, explicity banned slavery. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery was convened to outlaw and ban slavery worldwide, including child slavery. In December 1966, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which was developed from the Universal Declaraction of Human Rights. Article 8 of this international treaty bans slavery. The treaty came into force in March 1976 after it had been ratified by 35 nations. As of November 2003, 104 nations had ratified the treaty. The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining a view on basic human rights. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...


Apologies

In June 1997, Tony Hall, a Democratic representative for Dayton, Ohio proposed a national apology by the U.S. government for slavery. This was at a time when the Catholic Church in France apologised for its silence and begged "forgiveness for Catholic inaction as regime sent Jews to their deaths in '40s". 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tony Patrick Hall (born Jan. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States with a population of 166,179 (2000). ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ...


At the 2001 World Conference Against Racism, at Durban, South Africa, the US representatives walked out, on the instructions of Colin Powell. A South African Government spokesman claimed that "the general perception among all delegates is that the US does not want to confront the real issues of slavery and all its manifestations." However, the US delegates argued that they left over a resolution that equated Zionism with racism. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The World Conference against Racism (WCAR) has been held three times: in 1978, 1983, and 2001. ... Central area of Durban Durban is a city in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (29°53′S 31°03′E). ... Colin Luther Powell, KCB, (born April 5, 1937) was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving from January 20, 2001 to January 23, 2005 under President George W. Bush. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ...


At the same time the British, Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese delegations blocked an EU apology for slavery.


The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued across the world. E.g. The Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action Plan.


Reparations

Main articles: Reparations for slavery, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

As noted above, there have been movements to achieve reparations for those held in involuntary servitude, or sometimes their descendants. There is a growing modern movement to donate funds achieved in reparations efforts not to the descendants of those held as slaves in prior generations, but instead to donate them to those freed from slavery in this generation, in other countries and circumstances. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In general, reparation for being held in slavery is handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. This is often decried as a serious problem, since slaves are exactly those people who have no access to the legal process. Systems of fines and reparations paid from fines collected by authorities, rather than in civil courts, have been proposed to alleviate this in some nations. Civil law has at least three meanings. ...


In the United States, the reparations movement often cites the 40 acres and a mule decree. Recent effort have also targeted businesses that profited from the slave trade and issuing insurance on slaves. 40 acres and a mule is the colloquial term for compensation that was to be awarded to freed American slaves after the Civil War—40 acres (16 ha) of land to farm, and a mule with which to drag a plow so the land could be cultivated. ...


In Africa, the 2nd World Reparations and Repatriation Truth Commission was convened in Ghana in 2000. Its deliberations concluded with a Petition being served in the International Court at the Hague for US$777 trillion against the United States, Canada, and European Union members for "unlawful removal and destruction of Petitioners' mineral and human resources from the African continent" between 1503 up to the end of the colonialism era in the late 1950s and 1960s. This was the first time a price had been put on African Reparations but totally ignores the fact the Africans enslaved and exported their own people for generations. [3] 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economics of slavery

According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which recognizes any claim by a person to a right of property over another, there are an estimated 2.7 million people throughout the world, mainly children, in conditions of slavery."[4] It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as pawnage, bonded labor and servile concubinage, which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. According to a broader definition used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves, another advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there are 27 million people in slavery today, spread all over the world. This is, also according to that group: Free the Slaves is an international non-governmental organization and lobby group, established to campaign against the modern practice of slavery around the world. ...

  • The largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history.
  • The smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.
  • Reducing the price of slaves to as low as US$40 in Mali for young adult male labourers, to a high of US$1000 or so in Thailand for HIV-free young females suitable for use in brothels (where they invariably contract HIV). This represents the price paid to the person, or parents.
  • This represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave in raw labour terms—while the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 America would have been about US$1000 in the currency of the time, that represents US$38,000 in today's dollars, thus slaves, at least of that category, now cost only one one-thousandth (0.1%) of their price 150 years ago.

As a result, the economics of slavery is stark: the yield of profit per year for those buying and controlling a slave is over 800% on average, as opposed to the 5% per year that would have been the expected payback for buying a slave in colonial times. This combines with the high potential to lose a slave (have them stolen, escape, or freed by unfriendly authorities) to yield what are called disposable people—those who can be exploited intensely for a short time and then discarded, such as the prostitutes thrown out on city streets to die once they contract HIV, or those forced to work in mines. Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Potential for total abolition

Those 2.7 million people produce a gross economic product of US $1.4 billion. This is also a smaller percentage of the world economy than slavery has produced at any prior point in human history. That, plus the universal criminal status of slavery, the lack of moral arguments for it in modern discourse, and the many conventions and agreements to abolish it worldwide, make it likely that it can be eliminated in this generation, according to Free The Slaves. There are no nations whose economies would be substantially affected by the true abolition of slavery. The world economy can be represented in various ways, and broken down in various ways. ...


A first step towards this objective is the Cocoa Protocol, by which the entire cocoa industry worldwide has accepted full moral and legal responsibility for the entire comprehensive outcome of their production processes. Negotiations for this protocol were initiated for cotton, sugar and other commodity items in the 19th century—taking about 140 years to complete. Thus it seems that this is also a turning point in history, where all commodity markets can slowly lever licensing and other requirements to ensure that slavery is eliminated from production, one industry at a time, as a sectoral simultaneous policy that does not cause disadvantages for any one market player. The Harkin-Engel Protocol, also known as the Cocoa Protocol is an agreement signed by the cocoa and chocolate industries to eliminate child slavery in their field. ... Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Ethical consumerism is the practice of boycotting products which a consumer believes to be associated with unnecessary exploitation or other unethical behaviour. ... In economics, a comprehensive outcome is the entire result of an event or process. ... Cotton From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... The word commodity is a term with distinct meanings in business and in Marxian political economy. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Simultaneous policy requires governments in all jurisdictions at once, worldwide, to implement a policy shift at once, so that none is disadvantaged. ...


Famous slaves and former slaves

From the list of famous slaves: . ...

Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17?, 492/493) is the patron saint of Ireland, along with Saint Brigid and Saint Columba. ... John Brown For the abolitionist, redirect to John Brown John Brown [1810]-[1876] also known by his slave name of Fed, was a slave in Virginia. ... Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano (c. ... Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (February 14, 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. ... Enrique of Malacca (“Henry the Black”) or Enrique de Malaca, may be historically significant as the first person to circumnavigate the world. ... Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA pron. ... La Malinche (c. ... Onesimus In the New Testament, Onesimus (d. ... Philemon is the recipient of the Epistle to Philemon, which is a book of the Bible from the New Testament. ... The Bible (tanak/h in hebrew language) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle. ... Aesops Fables or Aesopica refers to a collection of fables credited to Aesop (circa 620 BC – 560 BC), a slave and story-teller living in Ancient Greece. ... Kirk Douglas in the title role of the 1960 film Spartacus. ... The Third Servile War was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Romans in Italy, under command of the famous Spartacus. ... François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ... Harriet Tubman in 1880 Harriet Tubman (born 1820 or 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland, died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York), also known as Black Moses, Grandma Moses, or Moses of Her People, was an African-American freedom fighter. ... This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ... Nat Turner preaches religion. ... Southampton County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Zumbi (1655 - November 20, 1695, Pronounced: zoom-bee) was the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares, in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil. ... Zumbi (1655 - November 20, 1695, pronounced: Zoom-bee) was the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares, in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ...

Films

  • Carlos Diegues, "Quilombo", 1984
  • Sergio Giral,
    • El Otro Francisco - "The Other Francisco, 1975
    • "Cimarron," 1967
    • "Maluala", 1979

Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was a Jewish American film director and producer who is widely considered to have been one of the most innovative and influential filmmakers of the late20th century. ... Biography Cuban cinematographer Tomás Gutiérrez Alea was born in Havana on December 11th, 1928. ... Charles Burnett - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Julie Dash (born 1952) is a United States filmmaker. ... Jonathan Demme (born February 22, 1944, in Baldwin, New York) is an American film director, producer and writer. ... Haile Gerima (* 1946) is an ethiopian filmmaker who came to the United States in 1968. ... Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (born December 18, 1946) is a three time Academy Award winning American film director, and among the most successful filmmakers in history. ...

References

  • Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, vol. III: The Perspective of the World (1984, originally published in French, 1979.)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (1999)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988)
  • Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
  • Rodriguez, ed. Junius P. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)

Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

USA

Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (born November 4, 1877 in La Grange, Georgia; died January 21, 1934) was a historian, focusing on the United States South and slavery. ...

Primary Sources

  • The Slavery Reader, ed. by Rigas Doganis, Gad Heuman, James Walvin, Routledge 2003

See also

Slave transport in Africa, from a 19th century engraving The African slavery trade dates back thousands of years and reportedly continues today in some isolated parts of Africa. ... The Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Britain in 1823. ... The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was the English legal code set up to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Chocolate and slavery are alleged to be linked in contemporary chocolate plantations in west Africa. ... Corporate colonialism relates to the involvement of corporate bodies in the practice of colonialism or imperialism. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The history of slavery in the United States began soon after people first settled in the area (and so even before the founding of the United States), and officially ended with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. ... The origins of the American Civil War lay in the complex issues of political party politics, disagreements over the scope of state and federal powers,slavery, expansionism, sectionalism, and of the Antebellum Period. ... North Carolina v. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... 2004 was declared the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sambos Grave is the burial site of a young African cabin boy or slave, in the small village of Sunderland Point, near Heysham and Overton, Lancashire. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available... The slave narrative is a literary form which grew out of the experience of enslaved Africans in the New World. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... YOUNG GREEKS AT THE MOSQUE (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning new troops) comprised infantry units that... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes, Mamlukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // Viking and pre-Viking slavery In pre-Viking times, as well as during the Viking period, Swedish tribes regularly made slaves of members of neighbouring tribes. ... Trafficking in human beings includes recruiting, harbouring, obtaining, and transporting people by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labour, i. ... ... The William (or Willie) Lynch Speech (or Letter) is a text of spurious origin which drew widespread attention when it circulated throughout the Internet during the 1990s. ... The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... William Wilberforce William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 - 29 July 1833) was an English parliamentarian and leader of the campaign against the slave trade. ... This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in history. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Trekboers on the karoo. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Wage slavery is a condition in which a person is legally (de jure) voluntarily employed but practically (de facto) a slave. ...

External links - The contemporary status of slavery

Media

Video on Child Slavery in the Middle East - an Emmy and duPont award winning documentary


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anti-Slavery Homepage (247 words)
Recovered Histories: Reawakening the narratives of enslavement, resistance and the fight for freedom is Anti-Slavery International's newest website.
It provides insight into the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the struggle between those seeking to maintain the trade and those fighting for its abolition.
Containing over 40,000 digitised pages of literature on the slave trade, the website covers over 100 years of campaigning in Europe and the Americas, capturing the voices of the enslaved, enslavers, slave ship surgeons, abolitionists, parliamentarians, clergy and rebels...
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Slavery and Christianity (3592 words)
slave was not an object of contempt, because labour was not despised as it was elsewhere.
slaves who were Christians had pagan masters to whom this sentiment of fraternity was unknown, and who sometimes exhibited that cruelty of which moralists and poets so often speak.
slaves to seek in all things to please their masters, not to contradict them, to do them no wrong, to honour them, to be loyal to them, so as to make the teaching of God Our Saviour shine forth before the eyes of all, and to prevent that name and teaching from being
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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