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Encyclopedia > Slavery in antiquity
Slavery
Period and context

Slavery in antiquity
Slavery and religion
Atlantic slave trade
Human trafficking
Sexual slavery
Abolitionism
Servitude The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The issue of religion and slavery is an area of historical and theological research into the relationship between the worlds major religions and the practice of slavery. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the purchase of slaves in and transport from West Africa and Central Africa, into slavery in the New World. ... A poster from the Canadian Department of Justice Trafficking in human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Servitude may refer to: Service conscription employment Slavery indentured servitude ...

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List of slaves
Legal status
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Immigration
Political prisoner
. ... In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ...

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Category:Slavery
Category:Slave trade

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Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


The institution of slavery condemned a majority of slaves to agricultural or industrial labour and they lived hard lives. In some of the city-states of Greece and in the Roman Empire, slaves formed a very large part of the economy, and the Roman Empire built a large part of its wealth on slaves acquired through conquest. The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Masters could free slaves, and in many cases such freedmen went on to rise to positions of power. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ...

Contents

Slavery in ancient Egypt

Historians can trace slavery in Egypt from an early date.[citation needed] Private ownership of slaves, captured in war and given by the king to their captor or otherwise, certainly occurred at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550 - 1295 BCE). Sales of slaves occurred in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty (732 - 656 BC), and contracts of servitude survive from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (ca 672 - 525 BCE) and from the reign of Darius: apparently such a contract then required the consent of the slave. The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550-1292 BCE) - often combined with the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties under the group title, New Kingdom - is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... The Saïte or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest, and had its capital at Sais. ... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Darayavahus)) is a common Persian male name. ...


The Old Testament also recounts tales of slavery in Egypt: slave-dealers sold Joseph into bondage there, and the Hebrews suffered collective enslavement (Exodus, chapter 1) prior to the Exodus. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... The Exodus, more fully The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, was the departure of the Hebrew slaves from Egypt under the leadership of Moses and Aaron as described in the biblical Book of Exodus. ...


Slavery in the Bible

See Sabbatical year, Onesimus, Bible-based advocacy of slavery, in addition to the details of the Book of Exodus. The Sabbatical Year, (in Hebrew: שְׁמִטָּה Shemittah -- [Year of] Remission) was promulgated in the Torah and was practiced within Judaism. ... Onesimus In the New Testament, Onesimus (d. ... The Christian understanding of slavery has seen significant internal conflict and endured dramatic change. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...


Old Testament or Tanakh

Leviticus draws a distinction between Hebrew debt slavery: Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labour of family members or heirs. ...

  • 25:39 If your brother becomes impoverished with regard to you so that he sells himself to you, you must not subject him to slave service.
  • 25:40 He must be with you as a hired worker, as a resident foreigner; he must serve with you until the year of jubilee,
  • 25:41 but then he may go free, he and his children with him, and may return to his family and to the property of his ancestors.
  • 25:42 Since they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt, they must not be sold in a slave sale.
  • 25:43 You must not rule over him harshly, but you must fear your God.

and "bondslaves", foreigners:

  • 25:44 As for your male and female slaves who may belong to you, you may buy male and female slaves from the nations all around you.
  • 25:45 Also you may buy slaves from the children of the foreigners who reside with you, and from their families that are with you, whom they have fathered in your land, they may become your property.
  • 25:46 You may give them as inheritance to your children after you to possess as property. You may enslave them perpetually. However, as for your brothers the Israelites, no man may rule over his brother harshly.

Slavery in Greece

Black slave, Ptolemaic Egypt, Louvre.
Black slave, Ptolemaic Egypt, Louvre.

The study of slavery in ancient Greece remains a complex subject, in part because of the many different levels of servility, from traditional chattel slave through various forms of serfdom, such as Helots, Penestai, and several other classes of non-citizen. Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component throughout the development of Ancient Greece. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (630x1260, 454 KB) Description Description: Black youth with hands bound behing his back. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (630x1260, 454 KB) Description Description: Black youth with hands bound behing his back. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest. ... This article is about the museum: for building history, see Palais du Louvre. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into slavery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ... The Penestae (in Greek oι Πενέσται, hoi penestai) were a a class of unfree laborers tied to the land once inhabiting Thessaly, whose status is comparable to that of the Spartan Helots. ...


Most philosophers of Classical antiquity defended slavery as a natural and necessary institution; Aristotle believed that the practice of any manual or banausic job should disqualify the practitioner from citizenship. Quoting Euripides, Aristotle declared all non-Greeks slaves by birth, fit for nothing but obedience. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Aristotle (Greece: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Banausos (Ancient Greek , plural , banausoi) is an epithet of the class of manual laborers or artisans in Ancient Greece. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ...


By the late 4th century BCE passages start to appear from other Greeks, especially in Athens, which opposed slavery and suggested that every person living in a city-state had the right to freedom subject to no one, except only to laws decided using majoritarianism. Alcidamas, for example, said: "God has set everyone free. No one is made a slave by nature." Furthermore, a fragment of a poem of Philemon also shows that he opposed slavery. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ... Alcidamas, of Elaea, in Aeolis, Greek sophist and rhetorician, flourished in the 4th century BC. He was the pupil and successor of Gorgias and taught at Athens at the same time as Isocrates, whose rival and opponent he was. ... Philemon (c. ...


Greece in pre-Roman times consisted of many independent city-states, each with its own laws. All of them permitted slavery, but the rules differed greatly from region to region. A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) — plural: poleis (πόλεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ...


Greek slaves had some opportunities for emancipation; though all of these came at some cost to their masters. The law protected slaves, and though a slave's master had the right to beat him at will, a number of moral and cultural limitations existed on excessive use of force by masters.


The system in Athens encouraged slaves to save up to purchase their freedom, and records survive of slaves operating businesses by themselves, making only a fixed tax-payment to their masters. Athens also had a law forbidding the striking of slaves — if a person struck an apparent slave in Athens, that person might find himself hitting a fellow-citizen, because many citizens dressed no better. It startled other Greeks that Athenians tolerated back-chat from slaves (Old Oligarch, Constitution of the Athenians). Pausanias (writing nearly seven centuries after the event) states that Athenian slaves fought together with Athenian freemen in the Battle of Marathon, and the monuments memorialize them [1]. Spartan serfs, Helots, could win freedom through bravery in battle. Plutarch mentions that during the Battle of Salamis Athenians did their best to save their "women, children and slaves". Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Combatants Athens and Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades Callimachus† Darius I of Persia Datis†? Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians 1,000 Plataeans 20,000-60,000 by modern estimates 1 Casualties 192 Athenians dead 11 Plateans dead 6,400 dead 7 ships captured 1 Ancient sources give numbers ranging from 200... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Halicarnassus Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Aristides of Athens Xerxes I of Persia Ariamenes † Artemisia Strength 366-380 ships 1 1000 - 1207 ships [1]2 Casualties 40 ships 200 ships 1 Herodotus gives 378 of the alliance, but the numbers...


On the other hand, much of the wealth of Athens came from its silver-mines at Laurion, and slaves, working in extremely poor conditions, produced the greatest part of the silver (although recent excavations seem to suggest the presence of free workers at Laureion). During the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, twenty thousand Athenian slaves, including both mine-workers and artisans, escaped to the Spartans when their army camped at Decelea in 413 BC. The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought between Athens and its... Decelea, modern Dekeleia or Dekelia, Deceleia or Decelia, previous name Tatoi was a decisive source of supplies for Athens. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC - 413 BC - 412 BC 411 BC 410...


Other than flight, resistance on the part of slaves occurred only rarely. GEM de Ste. Croix gives two reasons: Geoffrey Ernest Maurice de Ste. ...

  1. slaves came from various regions and spoke various languages
  2. a slave-holder could rely on the support of fellow slave-holders if his slaves offered resistance.

Athens had various categories of slave, such as:

  • House-slaves, living in their master's home and working at home, on the land or in a shop.
  • Freelance slaves, who didn't live with their master but worked in their master's shop or fields and paid him taxes from money they got from their own properties (insofar as society allowed slaves to own property).
  • Public slaves, who worked as police-officers, ushers, secretaries, street-sweepers, etc.
  • War-captives (andrapoda) who served primarily in unskilled tasks at which they could be chained: for example, rowers in commercial ships; or miners.

The comedies of Menander show how the Athenians preferred to view a house-slave: as an enterprising and unscrupulous rascal, who must use his wits to profit from his master, rescue him from his troubles, or gain him the girl of his dreams. We have most of these plays in translations by Plautus and Terence, suggesting that the Romans liked the same genre. And the same sort of tale has not yet become extinct, as the popularity of Jeeves and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum attest. Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... Although we cannot verify much about Plautus’ early life, we have certain ideas. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... Jeeves, here portrayed by Stephen Fry in ITVs Jeeves and Wooster series, is P.G. Wodehouses most famous character. ... Hi! Youre car can speak <a href=http://immobilizer. ...


In some areas of Greece there existed a class of unfree laborers tied to the land and called penestae in Thessaly and helots in Sparta. Penestae and helots did not rate as chattel slaves; one could not freely buy and sell them. The Penestae (in Greek oι Πενεσται, hoi penestai) were a a class of unfree laborers tied to the land once inhabiting Thessaly, whose status is comparable to that of the Spartan Helots. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ... Coordinates 37°4′ N 22°26′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Laconia Population 18,184 source (2001) Area 84. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into slavery. ...


Slavery in Rome

Estimates for the prevalence of slavery in the Roman Empire vary. Some estimate that the slave population in the 1st century consisted of approximately one-third of the total. A high proportion of the populations in Italy, present-day Tunisia, southern Spain and western Anatolia consisted of slaves. The overall proportion of slaves may have not have reached 20% for the whole Empire of 12-15 million people, but there are few reliable statistics. The best statistic that we have refers to Roman Egypt, in which slaves made up only 7% of the total population. The provinces with more expensive labour (like Roman Italy) absorbed a large number of slaves that came from provinces with low wages.


In Republican Rome, the law recognised slaves as a social class, and some authors have found in their condition the earliest concept of a proletariat, given that the only property they might own was the gift of reproduction. Slaves lived then within this class with very little hope of a better life; and free men owned and exchanged them just like goods. They had a price as "human instruments"; their life had not, and their patron could freely even kill them. See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ...


Most of the gladiators came from the ranks of the slaves. One of them, Spartacus, formed an army of slaves that battled the Roman senatorial forces for several years in the Third Servile War (73 - 71 BCE). Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus â€ , Oenomaus â€ , Spartacus â€  a, Castus â€ , Gannicus â€  Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and...


Augustus punished a wealthy Roman, one Vedius Pollio, for feeding clumsy slaves to his eels; and the Empire brought into force and steadily extended laws restricting the power of masters over their slaves and children; however, we cannot know how well the authorities enforced such laws. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Martial's epigrams refer to the extreme cruelty shown to slaves in Roman society. He chides, for example, a man named Rufus for flogging his cook for a minor mistake: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...

"You say, Rufus, that your rabbit has not been cooked well,
and you call for a whip.
You prefer to cut up your cook,
rather than your rabbit."
Book III, No. 94

Claudius (ruled 41 - 54 CE) ruled that if a master abandoned an old or sick slave and the slave recovered, the slave became free. Under Nero (ruled 54 - 68 CE), slaves gained the right to complain against their masters in court. Under Antoninus Pius (ruled 138 - 168), a slave could claim his freedom if treated cruelly, and a master who killed his slave without just cause could go on trial for homicide. At the same time, it became more difficult for a person to fall into slavery under Roman law. By the time of Diocletian (ruled 284 - 305), free men could not sell their children — or even themselves — into slavery, and creditors could not claim insolvent debtors as slaves. For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Etymology: Latin homicidium, from homo- human being + caedere- to cut, kill Homicide refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( 245– 312), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[1] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ...


Freedmen and freedwomen, called liberti, formed a separate class in Roman society at all periods. They had the Phrygian cap as their symbol. These people remained few in numbers, but Rome needed to demonstrate at times the great frank spirit of this "civitas", and so trumpeted the freed slaves as hopeful examples. Freed people suffered some minor legal disabilities that show in fact how otherwise open the society was to them — they could not hold certain high offices and they could not marry into the senatorial classes. They might grow rich and influential, but free-born Romans still looked down on them as vulgar nouveaux riches, like Trimalchio. Their children had no prohibitions. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The Phrygian cap or Liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia in antiquity. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Nouveau riche (Fr. ... Trimalchio is a character in the Roman novel The Satyricon by Petronius. ...


The Latin poet Horace, the son of a freedman, served as a military officer in the army of Marcus Junius Brutus and seemed headed for a political career before the defeat of Brutus by Octavian and Mark Antony. Though Horace may count as an exceptional case, freedmen did become an important part of Roman administration. Freedmen of the Imperial families often provided the main functionaries in the Imperial administration. Some rose to positions of great power and influence, for example Narcissus, a freedman of the Emperor Claudius. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC–August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Tiberius Claudius Narcissus ( 1st century AD) was one of the freedmen who formed the core of the civil service under the Roman emperor Claudius. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...


Many historians credit this improvement to the influence of Stoicism and of Christianity. The Stoics regarded all men as manifestations of the same universal spirit, and thus by nature equal. At the same time, however, Stoicism held that external circumstances (such as being enslaved) did not truly impede a person from practicing the Stoic ideal of inner self-mastery: one of the more important Roman stoics, Epictetus, spent his youth as a slave. A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Epictetus (c. ...


Both the Stoics and the early Christians opposed the ill-treatment of slaves, rather than slavery itself, and Saint Paul's Epistle to Philemon directly addressed a Christian master's treatment of his Christian slave. Keith R. Bradley argues, indeed, that the influence of such texts as "obey your masters...with fear and trembling" may have made beatings more common in late Antiquity. Many Christian leaders (such as Gregory of Nyssa and John Chrysostom) often called for good treatment for slaves and condemned slavery. In fact, tradition describes Pope Clement I (term c. 92 - 99), Pope Pius I (term c. 158 - 167) and Pope Callixtus I (term c. 217 - 222) as former slaves. [2] Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... John Chrysostom (349 - 407, Greek Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος ) was a Christian bishop from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Pope Clement I, the bishop of Rome also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, is considered to be the fourth pope, after Anacletus, according to the Roman Catholic tradition. ... For other uses, see number 92. ... For other uses, see number 99. ... Pope Pius I was pope, perhaps from 140 to 154, though the Vaticans 2003 Annuario Pontificio lists 142 or 146 to 157 or 161. ... Events Change of era name from Yongshou to Yangxi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 158 ... Events Germanic tribe Marcomanni waged war against the Romans at Aquileia Change of era name from Yanxi to Yongkang of the Chinese Han Dynasty King Chogo of Baekje waged war against Silla in Korean peninsula. ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... Events Pope Urban I succeeds Pope Callixtus I Roman Emperor Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus Kingdom of Wu is established in China Sun Quan defeats Liu Bei at the Battle of Yi Ling Deaths March 11 - Roman Emperor Heliogabalus murdered Tertullian, theologian Pope Callixtus I Claudius Aelianus, teacher and rhetorician Ma...


References

  • The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity, W.L. Westermann 1955

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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Slavery in antiquity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2656 words)
Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Most philosophers of antiquity defended slavery — douleia (the idea that not everyone should have voting rights and that some people should be forced to obey masters) as a natural and necessary institution; Aristotle believed that the practice of any manual or banausic job should be disqualifying for citizenship.
Some other philosophers, especially in Athens, opposed slavery and believed that every person who lives in a city-state has the right to be free and to be subject to no one, except only to laws that are decided using majoritarianism.
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