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Encyclopedia > Slavery
From the title page to abolitionist Anthony Benezet's book Some Historical Account of Guinea, London, 1788
From the title page to abolitionist Anthony Benezet's book Some Historical Account of Guinea, London, 1788

Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. The term also refers to the status or condition of those persons who are treated as the property of another person or household. This is referred to as "chattel slavery". Slavery refers to forced, unpaid labour. ... Look up slave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 553 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (611 × 662 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The image is from a book from 1788, so there can be no effective copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 553 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (611 × 662 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The image is from a book from 1788, so there can be no effective copyright. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Anthony Benezet (1713-1784) American educator and abolitionist. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation in return for their labour. As such, slavery is one form of unfree labour. Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ...


Although outlawed in nearly all countries today, slavery is still secretly practiced in many parts of the world. There are an estimated 27 million victims of slavery worldwide.[1][2]


In Mauritania alone, it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour.[3][4] Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007.[5] In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerien study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.[6][7] The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ...

Contents

Etymology

Slave market in early medieval Eastern Europe. Painting by Sergei Ivanov
Slave market in early medieval Eastern Europe. Painting by Sergei Ivanov

The word slave in the English language originates from the Middle English sclave, from the Old French esclave, the Medieval Latin sclavus, the early Greek sklabos, from sklabenoi Slavs, of Slavic origin; akin to Old Russian Slovene, an East Slavic tribe.[8][9] The term sclavus originally referred to the Slavs of Eastern and Central Europe, as many of these people had been captured and then sold as slaves. Image File history File links Ruslavery. ... Image File history File links Ruslavery. ... Sergei V. Ivanov Sergei Vasilyevich Ivanov (Russian: , July 14 (July 4 (O.S.)) 1864— 16 August 1910) was a Russian painter and graphic artist. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


Definitions

The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "...the status and/or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised..." Slaves cannot leave an owner, an employer or a territory without explicit permission (they must have a passport to leave), and they will be returned if they escape. Therefore a system of slavery — as opposed to the isolated instances found in any society — requires official, legal recognition of ownership, or widespread tacit arrangements with local authorities, by masters who have some influence because of their social and/or economic status. 1926 Slavery Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines forced labour as "all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily", albeit with certain exceptions of: military service, convicted criminals, emergencies and minor community services.[10] The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ...


The current usage of the word serfdom is not usually synonymous with slavery, because medieval serfs were considered to have rights, as human beings, whereas slaves were considered “things” — property.[11] Serf redirects here. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ...

Nikolai Getman Moving out. The Gulag Collection.[12]

Slaves are people who are owned and controlled by others in a way that they have almost no rights or freedom of movement and are not paid for their labour, aside from food, clothing and shelter needed for basic subsistence. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...

Other uses of the term

Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (e. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to involuntarily behave in a certain way (whether through action or inaction) by use of threats, intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ...

History

Main article: History of slavery
Captive Andromache by Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton — a Trojan princess enslaved after the Trojan war

Evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Slavery can be traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (~1800 BCE.), which refers to slavery as an already established institution. The forced labor of women in some ancient and modern cultures may also be identified as slavery. Slavery, in this case, includes sexual services. The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... Image File history File links Leighton_Captive_Andromache. ... Image File history File links Leighton_Captive_Andromache. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton Flaming June Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (3 December 1830–25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


Historically, most slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped in isolated raids, but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents as a means of surviving extreme conditions. Numerically, most slaves were born into that status, to parents who were enslaved. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families, who were either killed, ransomed or sold as slaves. Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Slavery may originally have been more humane than simply executing those who would return to fight if they were freed, but the effect led to widespread enslavement of particular groups of people. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors. The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves with little fear of suffering the like fate. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune, as when Seneca warned, at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone might find himself enslaved. Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Brief sporadic raids or kidnapping could mean enslavement of persons otherwise not at war. St. Patrick recounted in his Confession having been kidnapped by pirates. In the Genesis, Joseph was sold into slavery by brothers who were jealous of him. For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ...


In ancient societies

The Slave Market (c. 1884), painting by Jean-Leon Gerome.
The Slave Market (c. 1884), painting by Jean-Leon Gerome.[15]

Ancient societies characterized by poverty, rampant warfare or lawlessness, famines, population pressures, and cultural and technological lag are frequently exporters of slaves to more developed nations. Today the illegal slave trade (mostly in Africa) deals with slaves who are rural people forced to move to cities, or those purchased in rural areas and sold into slavery in cities. These moves take place due to loss of subsistence agriculture, thefts of land, and population increases. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 860 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 860 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - 1904) was a French painter who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In many ancient cultures, persons (often including their family) convicted of serious crimes could be sold into slavery. The proceeds from this sale were often used to compensate the victims. The Code of Hammurabi (~1800 BCE) prescribes this for failure to maintain a water dam, to compensate victims of a flood. The convicted criminal might be sold into slavery if he lacked the property to make compensation to the victims. Other laws and other crimes might enslave the criminal regardless of his property. Some laws called for the criminal and all his property to be handed over to his victim. An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ...


Child slavery

Persons have been sold into slavery so that the money could be used to pay off their debts. This could range from a judge, king or Emperor ordering a debtor sold with all his family, to the poor selling off their own children to prevent starvation. In times of dire need such as famine, people have offered themselves into slavery not for a purchase price, but merely so that their new master would feed and take care of them.


In most institutions of slavery throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the master. Local laws varied as to whether the status of the mother or of the father determined the fate of the child, but it was usually determined by the status of the mother. In many cultures, slaves could earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own freedom. This was not possible in all cultures.

Slavery in Zanzibar. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence. The log weighed 32 pounds, and the boy could only move by carrying it on his head.' Unknown photographer, c. 1890.[16]

According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. There are millions of people throughout the world — mainly children — in conditions of virtual slavery, as well as in various forms of servitude which are in many respects similar to slavery." [3] It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. Critics claim they are stretching the definition and practice of slavery beyond its original meaning, and are actually referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery. In China in 2007, dozens of people have been jailed for enslaving hundreds of people [4]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... The Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Britain in 1823. ... The word peon, derived from the Spanish peón, in its root connoting a person who is on foot rather than mounted (see caballero), and the derivation peonage are English words which have a variety of related meanings: In Spanish-speaking countries, especially those in Latin America, where the hacienda... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ...


Slave work

The type of work slaves did depended on the time period and location of their slavery. In general, they did the same work as everyone else in the lower echelons of the society they lived in but were not paid for it beyond room and board, clothing etc. The most common types of slave work are domestic service, agriculture, mineral extraction, army make-up, industry, and commerce.[17] Prior to about the 18th century, domestic services were acquired in some wealthier households and may include up to four female slaves and their children on its staff. The chattels (as they are called in some countries) are expected to cook, clean, sometimes carry water from an outdoor pump into the house, and grind cereal. Most hired servants to do the same tasks. Domestic service also called simply service is the employment of people for wages in their employers residence. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many slaves were used in agriculture and cultivation from ancient times to about 1860. The strong, young men and women were sometimes forced to work long days in the fields, with little or no breaks for water or food. Since slaves were usually considered valuable property, they were usually taken care of in the sense that minimally adequate food and shelter were provided to maintain good health, and that the workload was not excessive to the point of endangering health. However, this was not always the case in many countries where they worked on land that was owned by absentee owners. The overseers in many of these areas literally worked the slaves to death. Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... This article is about the English DJ. For a definition of the word overseer, see the Wiktionary entry overseer. ...


In mineral extraction, the majority of the work, when done by slaves, was done nearly always by men. In some places, they mined the salt that was used during extensive trade in the 19th century.[18] This article is about mineral extraction. ...


Some of the men in ancient civilizations who were bought into chattel slavery were trained to fight in their nation's army and other military services. Chattel slaves were occasionally trained in artisan workshops for industry and commerce.[19] The men worked in metalworking, while the females normally worked in either textile trades or domestic household tasks. The majority of the time, the slave owners did not pay the chattels for their services beyond room and board, clothing etc. An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... A workshop is a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...


Female slavery

Female slaves, who were mostly from Africa, were long traded to the Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab traders, and sold into sexual slavery to work as concubines or prostitutes. Typically, females were sold at a lower price than their male counterparts, with one exception being when (predominantly) Irish women captured in Viking raids were sold to the Middle East in the 800-1200 period. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... A swampy marsh area ... Whore redirects here. ... Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 8th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and...

The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (557x774, 164 KB)Monument celebrating the Emanciation of Slaves, 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Wesminster, London Erected by Charles Buxtom, MP, also in memory of his father Sir T. Foxwell Buxton. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (557x774, 164 KB)Monument celebrating the Emanciation of Slaves, 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Wesminster, London Erected by Charles Buxtom, MP, also in memory of his father Sir T. Foxwell Buxton. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Western slavery

In the West, slavery ended during the Medieval period, only to be revived after the Renaissance and its appreciation of the organization of classical society (i.e. ancient Greece and Rome).[20]


Human trafficking

Trafficking in human beings, sometimes called human trafficking, or sex trafficking (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into prostitution) is not the same as people smuggling. A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked: they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into it. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims. Whilst the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, forced into prostitution, other victims include men, women and children forced into manual labor. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000-900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally. The trafficking of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ...


Economics

Gustave Boulanger's painting The Slave Market.
Gustave Boulanger's painting The Slave Market.

Economists have attempted to model during which circumstances slavery (and milder variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for land owners when land is abundant but labor is not, so paid workers can demand high wages. If labor is abundant but land is scarce, then it becomes more costly for the land owners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages due to the competition. Thus first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew. It was reintroduced in the Americas and in Russia (serfdom) as large new land areas with few people become available. Another observation is slavery is more common when the labor done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large scale growing of a single crop. It is much more difficult and costly to check that slaves are doing their best and with good quality when they are doing complex tasks. Thus, slavery tends to decrease with technological advancements requiring more skilled people, even as they are able to demand high wages.[5] It has also been argued that slave societies tend to have low technological advancement, since the focus is on increasing the number of slaves rather than looking for new production methods or new energy sources. Because of this, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece—and later in Rome—was largely separated from physical labor and manufacturing. [6] Image File history File links Boulanger_Gustave_Clarence_Rudolphe_The_Slave_Market. ... Image File history File links Boulanger_Gustave_Clarence_Rudolphe_The_Slave_Market. ... Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger (1824-88) was a French figure painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Serf redirects here. ...


Contemporary slavery

Since 1945, debate about the link between economic growth and different relational forms (most notably unfree social relations of production in Third World agriculture) occupied many contributing to discussions in the development decade (the 1960s). This continued to be the case in the mode of production debate (mainly about agrarian transition in India) that spilled over into the 1970s, important aspects of which continue into the present (see the monograph by Brass, 1999, and the 600 page volume edited by Brass and van der Linden, 1997). Central to these discussions was the link between capitalist development and modern forms of unfree labour (peonage, debt bondage, indenture, chattel slavery). Within the domain of political economy it is a debate that has a very long historical lineage, and - accurately presented - never actually went away. Unlike advocacy groups, for which the number of the currently unfree is paramount, those political economists who participated in the earlier debates sought to establish who, precisely, was (or was not) to be included under the rubric of a worker whose subordination constituted a modern form of unfreedom. This element of definition was regarded as an epistemologically necessary precondition to any calculations of how many were to be categorized as relationally unfree. The word peon, derived from the Spanish peón, in its root connoting a person who is on foot rather than mounted (see caballero), and the derivation peonage are English words which have a variety of related meanings: In Spanish-speaking countries, especially those in Latin America, where the hacienda... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


According to a broader definition used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves, another advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there are 27 million people (though some put the number as high as 200 million) in virtual slavery today, spread all over the world (Kevin Bales, Disposable People). This is, also according to that group: Free the Slaves is an international non-governmental organization and lobby group, established to campaign against the modern practice of slavery around the world. ...

  • The largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history.
  • The smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.
  • Reducing the price of slaves to as low as US$40 in Mali for young adult male laborers, to a high of US$1000 or so in Thailand for HIV-free young females suitable for use in brothels (where they frequently contract HIV). This represents the price paid to the person, or parents.
  • This represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave in raw labor terms — while the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 America would have been about US$1000 in the currency of the time (US$38,000 today), thus slaves, at least of that category, now cost one thirtyeighth of their price 150 years ago, although this does not refer to the price of an 1850 slave in Africa.

As a result, the economics of slavery is stark: the yield of profit per year for those buying and controlling a slave is over 800% on average, as opposed to the 5% per year that would have been the expected payback for buying a slave in colonial times. This combines with the high potential to lose a slave (have them stolen, escape, or freed by unfriendly authorities) to yield what are called disposable people — those who can be exploited intensely for a short time and then discarded, such as the prostitutes thrown out on city streets to die once they contract HIV, or those forced to work in mines. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Although outlawed in most countries today slavery is, nonetheless, practiced in secret in many parts of the world — with outright enslavement still taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.[21] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


There are three general types of slavery today: wage slaves, contract slaves, and slaves in the traditional sense.

  • Wage slavery is most common in underdeveloped areas, where employers can afford to employ people at low wages, knowing they can't afford to risk their employment. Most child laborers can be considered to be wage slaves.
  • Contract slaves are generally poor, often illiterate, people who have been tricked into signing contracts they do not understand.
  • Slavery in its traditional sense is still very active; only its activities are carried out underground. Actual slavery is still carried out much the same way it has been for centuries: people, often women and children, are abducted (usually from an underdeveloped country such as in the Middle East, South America, Africa and the former Soviet Bloc countries), loaded aboard a ship and smuggled to a foreign country (usually Asia or the Middle East) and they are sold, the men and male children sold for labor, while the women and girls for domestic slavery or to work as unwilling prostitutes primarily in the West.

A combination of wage and contract slavery is found in Sarawak mining towns among Indonesian Dayak immigrants looking for work. They have to buy the tools they need to work with, but often don't have the required money, so they need to buy them on a loan. Then they discover that local food is so expensive that all their wages are spent on that, so they can't pay off the loan and are forced by law to keep working for no gain. Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (e. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ...


Slavery still exists today all across the world. Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International and Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to rid the world of slavery. The American Anti-Slavery Group is an abolitionist group fighting slavery in the modern world. ... Anti-Slavery International is a charity and lobby group, based in the United Kingdom. ... Free the Slaves is an international non-governmental organization and lobby group, established to campaign against the modern practice of slavery around the world. ... The Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Britain in 1823. ...


On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 4 states: is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one which all member nations have equal representation. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Since 1997, the United States Department of Justice has, through work with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, prosecuted six individuals on charges of slavery in the agricultural industry. These prosecutions have led to freedom for over 1000 slaves in the tomato and orange fields of South Florida. The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW) is a community-based worker organization whose members are largely Latino, Haitian, and Mayan Indian immigrants working in low-wage jobs throughout the state of Florida. ...


This is only one example of the contemporary fight against slavery worldwide, which is especially pervasive in agriculture, apparel and the sex industry.


In the contemporary United States, the mantle of "abolitionist" has been widely embraced by those who seek to abolish the death penalty, those advocating immigration rights, and anarchists seeking to abolish the state. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Abolitionist movements

Main article: Abolitionism

This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...

History of abolitionism

Three slaves in chains
Three slaves in chains

Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of recorded human history — as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. According to the Biblical Book of Exodus, Moses led Israelite slaves out of ancient Egypt — possibly the first written account of a movement to free slaves. Later Jewish laws (known as Halacha) prevented slaves from being sold out of the Land of Israel, and allowed a slave to move to Israel if he so desired. The Cyrus Cylinder, inscribed about 539 B.C.E. in Persia, abolished slavery and allowed Jews and other nationalities who had been enslaved under Babylonian rule to return to their native lands. Abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x657, 249 KB) Motive: Probably a photography of slaves in chains, probably somewhere in East-Africa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x657, 249 KB) Motive: Probably a photography of slaves in chains, probably somewhere in East-Africa. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Halakha (&#1492;&#1500;&#1499;&#1492; in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Apologies

On May 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed the Taubira law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity. At the same time the British, Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese delegations blocked an EU apology for slavery.[citation needed] Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, also remain an open issue since slavery was practiced in Africa even before the first Europeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade was performed with a high degree of involvement of several African societies. The black slave market was supplied by well-established slave trade networks controlled by local African societies and individuals.[22] is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Christiane Taubira (February 2, 1952, Cayenne, French Guiana -) is a French politician. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued across the world. For example, the Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action Plan.


In September 2006 it was reported[23] that the UK Government may issue a "statement of regret" over slavery, an act that was followed through by a "public statement of sorrow" from Tony Blair on November 27, 2006.[24] is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On February 25, 2007 the state of Virginia resolved to 'profoundly regret' and apologize for its role in the institution of slavery. Unique and the first of its kind in the U.S., the apology was unanimously passed in both Houses as Virginia approached the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, where the first slaves were imported into North America in 1619.[25] is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Sketch of Jamestown c. ...


On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London, England apologized publicly for England's role in colonial slave trade. "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Jesse Jackson praised Mayor Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made.[26] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ...


Reparations

Sporadically there have been movements to achieve reparations for those formerly held as slaves, or sometimes their descendants. Claims for reparations for being held in slavery are handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. This is often decried as a serious problem, since former slaves' relative lack of money means they often have limited access to a potentially expensive and futile legal process. Mandatory systems of fines and reparations paid to an as yet undetermined group of claimants from fines, paid by unspecified parties, and collected by authorities have been proposed by advocates to alleviate this "civil court problem". Since in almost all cases there are no living ex-slaves or living ex-slave owners these movements have gained little traction. In nearly all cases the judicial system has ruled that the statute of limitations on these possible claims has long since expired. Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Religion and slavery

Main article: Slavery and religion

Some argue that the Bible - particularly the Old Testament - condones slavery in Ancient Israelite society by failing to condemn the widespread existing practice[27] present in other cultures. It also explicitly states that slavery is morally acceptable, but only under certain circumstances (Leviticus 25:44-46; Exodus 21:7-11). This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...


External links

See also

Various
Slavery by region
Films
Part of a series of articles on
Dissaproval
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This is a listing of notable opponents of slavery. ... The abolition of slavery must rank as one of the greatest achievements of recorded history. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Blackbirding refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland (Australia) and Fiji[1] , as well as in the early days of the pearling industry in Broome. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coolie refers to unskilled laborers from Asia of the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and the West Indies. ... Corporate colonialism relates to the involvement of corporate bodies in the practice of colonialism or imperialism. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... Fazendas were coffee estates that spread within the interior of Brazil between 1840 and 186, which created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... 2004 was declared the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ... The Master-Slave dialectic is a is key element in Hegels philosophy. ... Sambos Grave is the burial site of a young African cabin boy or slave, in the small village of Sunderland Point, near Heysham and Overton, Lancashire. ... Serf redirects here. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... The slave narrative is a literary form which grew out of the experience of enslaved Africans in the New World. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... The Servile Wars were a series of three slave revolts (servile is derived from servus, Latin for slave) in the late Roman Republic. ... It is sometimes said that slavery at common law did not exist, often on the basis of pronouncements such as those attributed (incorrectly) to Lord Mansfield, that the air of England is too pure for any slave to breathe. ... Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ... The Janissaries (derives from Ottoman Turkish: يكيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (&#1587;&#1602;&#1575;&#1604;&#1576;&#1577;, sg. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... The trafficking of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (e. ... The William (or Willie) Lynch Speech (or Letter) is a text of unknown origin which drew widespread attention when it circulated throughout the Internet during the 1990s. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 A workhouse was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work. ... Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in 1980 and affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery before generations, who live now in Mauritania as black Moors or haratin and who partially still serve the white Moors, or bidhan, as slaves. ... Slavery in Canada was first practised by some aboriginal nations, who routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes as part of their laws of war. ... Slavery in Japan involved only indigenous Japanese during most of the history of the country, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by the fact that Japan is a group of islands. ... Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... Slavery in medieval Europe was the keeping of people in slavery in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... The coastwise slave trade existed along the eastern coastal areas of North America. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Throughout the history of Sweden, there have been instances of slave trade. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States (1619-1865) began soon after the English colonists first settled in Virginia and lasted until the passage of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... The requested page title was invalid, empty, an incorrectly linked inter-language or inter-wiki title, or contained illegal characters. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The United States National Slavery Museum is a non-profit organization based in Fredericksburg, Virginia, that is fundraising and campaigning to establish a national museum on slavery in America. ... Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ... Roots is a 1977 American television miniseries based on Alex Haleys work Roots: The Saga of an American Family, his critically acclaimed genealogical novel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 500 Years Later (፭፻-ዓመታት በጓላ) is the title of an independent documentary film directed by Owen Alik Shahadah, written by M.K. Asante, Jr. ... Haile Gerima (* 1946) is an ethiopian filmmaker who came to the United States in 1968. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Burn! (Italian title: Queimada) is a 1969 film starring Marlon Brando and directed by Gillo Pontecorvo. ... Biography Cuban cinematographer Tomás Gutiérrez Alea was born in Havana on December 11th, 1928. ... Carlos Diegues, also known as Cacá Diegues, (born 19 May 1940 in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil) is a Brazilian film director. ... Eugene Allen Gene Hackman[1] (born January 30, 1930) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Mississippi Burning is a 1988 film based on the investigation into the real-life murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi in 1964. ... Julie Dash (born 1952) is a United States filmmaker. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... This article is about the historical figure. ... Jonathan Demme (born February 22, 1944, in Baldwin, New York) is an American film director, producer and writer. ... Michael Apted (born 10 February 1941;) is an English director, producer, writer and actor. ... Amazing Grace is a 2007 film directed by Michael Apted about the anti-slavery movement in 19th Century England led by the famous abolitionist William Wilberforce. ... Charles Burnett (b. ... Steven Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... This article is about the film dramatization. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Description: Colored Waiting Room sign from segregationist era United States Medium: Black_and_white photograph Location: Rome GA, United States Date: September 1943 Author: Esther Bubley Source: Library of Congress Provider: Images of American Political History at the College of New Jersey [1] License: Public domain Misc: Borders cropped with with GIMP... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This box:      The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex... This box:      Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Social

Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism
Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia
Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia
Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry
Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism
Transphobia Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
Religious persecution · Gay bashing
Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) This box:      Affirmative actionrefers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Black codes · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek &#947;&#965;&#957;&#959;, gyno-, woman, &#967;&#949;&#957;&#964;&#961;&#959;&#957;, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek &#945;&#957;&#948;&#961;&#959;, andro-, man, male, &#967;&#949;&#957;&#964;&#961;&#959;&#957;, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
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Racialism · For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

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Footnotes

  1. ^ UN Chronicle | Slavery in the Twenty-First Century
  2. ^ BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'
  3. ^ The Abolition season on BBC World Service
  4. ^ Mauritania: Justice Initiative Hails Mauritania's New Anti-Slavery Law
  5. ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  6. ^ The Shackles of Slavery in Niger
  7. ^ Born to be a slave in Niger
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary - Slave
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary - Slav
  10. ^ International Labour Organization definition
  11. ^ Regine Pernoud, Those Terrible Middle Ages: Debunking the Myths trans. Anne English Nash (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000), pp. 86-87
  12. ^ The Jamestown Foundation, Nikolai Getman, The Gulag Collection: Paintings of Nikolai Getman.
  13. ^ E.g., Machan, Tibor R. (13 April 2000). Tax Slavery. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved on October 9, 2006.
  14. ^ Spiegel, Marjorie. The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery, New York: Mirror Books, 1996.
  15. ^ When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  16. ^ Swahili Coast
  17. ^ These are just a few jobs listed in the article titled "Archaeology and Slavery" in World Archaeology Magazine
  18. ^ (Alexander, 50)
  19. ^ Alexander, 49)
  20. ^ Regine Pernoud, Those Terrible Middle Ages: Debunking the Myths trans. Anne English Nash (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000), pp. 85-96
  21. ^ Does Slavery Still Exist?
  22. ^ "...to look at a passage from Adu Boahen, a noted Afrikan historian, author and former chair of the History Department at the University of Ghana. He approaches this issue with a pure honesty: "How were all these numerous unfortunate Africans enslaved and purchased? African scholars and politicians today must be honest and admit that the enslavement and sale of Africans from the seventeenth century onwards was done by the Africans themselves, especially the coastal kings and their elders, and that very few Europeans actually ever marched inland and captured slaves themselves. Africans became enslaved mainly through four ways: first, criminals sold by the chiefs as punishment; secondly, free Africans obtained from raids by African and a few European gangs, thirdly, domestic slaves resold, and fourthly, prisoners of war," (Adu Boahen, Topics In West African History p. 110)."
    "There is adequate evidence citing case after case of Afrikan control of segments of the trade. Several Afrikan nations such as the Ashanti of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria had economies depended solely on the trade. Afrikan peoples such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi of Tanzania would serve as middlemen or roving bands warring with other Afrikan nations to capture Afrikans for Europeans."[1] (Afrikan Involvement In Atlantic Slave Trade, By Kwaku Person-Lynn, Ph.D)
  23. ^ What the papers say, BBC News, 2006-09-22
  24. ^ Blair 'sorrow' over slave trade, BBC News, 2006-11-27
  25. ^ [2], BBC News, 2007-02-25
  26. ^ Livingstone breaks down in tears at slave trade memorial
  27. ^ http://www.inu.net/skeptic/slavery.html

is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, Auburn, Alabama The Ludwig von Mises Institute (LvMI), based in Auburn, Alabama, is a libertarian academic organisation engaged in research and scholarship in the fields of economics, philosophy and political economy. ... The University of Ghana is the oldest and largest of the five Ghanaian public universities. ... This article discusses the history of the slave trade of Africa, and its effect upon the continent. ... The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th century groups of Angolan warriors and marauders, often confused with the Jaga. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, vol. III: The Perspective of the World (1984, originally published in French, 1979.)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (1999)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988)
  • Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
  • Lal, K. S. Muslim Slave System in Medieval India (1994) [7] ISBN 81-85689-67-9
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Nieboer, H. J. Slavery as an Industrial System (1910)
  • Postma, Johannes. The Atlantic Slave Trade, (2003)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2007)
  • Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz Children Of Bondage: A Social History Of The Slave Society At The Cape Of Good Hope, 1652-1813 (1994)

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Professor Robert Shell Robert Carl-Heinz Shell is a reknowned South African author and professor of African Studies. ...

Primary sources

  • The Slavery Reader, ed. by Rigas Doganis, Gad Heuman, James Walvin, Routledge 2003
  • [8] Mintz, S. Slavery Facts and Myths

USA

Eugene Dominic Genovese (born May 19, 1930) was formerly a Marxist historian of the American South. ... Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (born November 4, 1877 in La Grange, Georgia; died January 21, 1934) was a historian, focusing on the United States South and slavery. ...

Slavery today

  • Tom Brass, Marcel van der Linden, and Jan Lucassen, Free and Unfree Labour. Amsterdam: International Institute for Social History, 1993
  • Tom Brass, Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates, London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 1999. 400 pages.
  • Tom Brass and Marcel van der Linden, eds., Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues, Bern: Peter Lang AG, 1997. 600 pages. A volume containing contributions by all the most important writers on modern forms of unfree labour.
  • Kevin Bales, Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy, Revised Edition, University of California Press 2004, ISBN 0-520-24384-6
  • Kevin Bales (ed.), Understanding Global Slavery Today. A Reader, University of California Press 2005, ISBN 0-520-24507-5freak
  • Mende Nazer and Damien Lewis, Slave: My True Story, ISBN 1-58648-212-2. Mende is a Nuba, captured at 12 years old. She was granted political asylum by the British government in 2003.
  • Gary Craig, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova and Aidan McQuade: Contemporary slavery in the UK: Overview and key issues, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 26 Feb 2007, ISBN 978 1 85935 57

Somaly Mam Foundation Nuba (not to be confused with Nubia, a region extending from southern Egypt to northern Sudan) is a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa. ... The four Rowntree Trusts are funded from the legacies of the Quaker chocolate entrepreneurs and social reformers Joseph Rowntree and Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree. ...


External links

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  • Sculpture marks abolition of slave trade anniversary

  Results from FactBites:
 
What the Bible says about slavery (653 words)
"[Slavery] was established by decree of Almighty God...it is sanctioned in the Bible, in both Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation...it has existed in all ages, has been found among the people of the highest civilization, and in nations of the highest proficiency in the arts.
Nowhere is slavery in the Bible lambasted as an oppressive and evil institution: Vaughn Roste, United Church of Canada staff.
Slavery was eventually recognized as an extreme evil.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Slavery and Christianity (3592 words)
slavery, first in the Roman world, next in that society which was the result of the barbarian invasions, and lastly in the modern world.
slavery in principle, and with having tolerated it in fact, is to blame it for not having let loose a frightful revolution, in which, perhaps, all civilization would have perished with Roman society.
Indians; that Urban VIII forbade it in 1639, and Benedict XIV in 1741; that Pius VII demanded of the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the suppression of the
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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