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Encyclopedia > Slave trade
Slave trade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slave trade

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit.


The slave trade refers to the organized enslavement and trafficking of human beings.

Contents


Inter-European Slave Trade between the 6th and 10th Centuries

Between the 6th and 10th centuries, the primary sources of slaves for Western Europe and the Middle East were the Slavic peoples of the Balkans and Eastern Europe. The word "slave" is derived from Slav, in English and many other European languages. (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The word slaves has several meanings and usages: People who are owned by others, and live to serve them without pay. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The word slaves has several meanings and usages: People who are owned by others, and live to serve them without pay. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ...


European slave trade to the Moorish Empire in the Middle Ages

After the conquest of North Africa and the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain) by the Moors, the Moorish Empire became an important importer of slaves from Central Europe. Slaves from pagan Central Europe were transferred through Christian Western Europe to Muslim territory in Spain and Africa. Slave trade routes were established between trading centres in Slavic areas and metropolitan centres in Moorish Iberia. As in the infamous West African slave trade, the majority of slaves were prisoners captured in wars between Slavic tribes and tribal states. North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Azores and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa, though they do not share a common culture with North Africa. ... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... For the terrain type, see: Heath (habitat). ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism. ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... In its simplist form, a Christian is a follower of and a believer in Jesus of Nazareth. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ...


Eastern European slave trade and servitude

The trade in enslaved Slavs ended after the mass conversions of most Slavic peoples, in many cases as a result of the ministry of the companion Saints Cyril and Methodius (the former who got the Cyrillic alphabet named after him), to Christianity. Due to their mass conversion, and the Great Schism between Roman and Eastern Orthodox Christianity having not yet occurred, they could no longer be transported across Christian territories. Saints Cyril and Methodius painted by Jan Matejko. ... Cyrillic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East-West Schism, known also as the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the later Western Schism), was the event that divided Chalcedonian Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church (encompassing national Orthodox jurisdictions such as Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, etc. ...


This did not liberate the Serfs. Notwithstanding 'serf' is from a Latin word meaning both 'servant' and 'slave,' serfs were not slaves on the technicality that they constituted a social order or class of persons who were not themselves property, but were bound to the land on which they lived. Thus, serfs were obligated to give service in prescribed occupations under command of the person who owned the land to which they were bound. The difference between a serf and a slave is that the latter was directly owned while the former was indirectly owned. Treatment of serfs varied throughout Europe, with Russia treating serfs as little better than slaves, until the last European serfs were emancipated by the Russian Tsar Alexander II, and finally during the October Revolution in 1917. Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... Emancipation means becoming free and equal; the term can be used in various contexts: historically, a slave becoming free by being set free by the owner (manumission), voluntarily or in accordance with laws requiring it after a certain time or in certain cases, thereby becoming freedman (e. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


African slave trade in Africa and to the New world 1500s-1800s

The termination of the European slave trade moved the trafficking to other sources, primarily Africa. Using the pretext of converting heathen peoples to Christianity, non Europeans generally became fair game for use as slaves, though the practice of slave ownership within Europe came to be frowned upon. The slave trade in Africa flourished well before European arrival to the African coast. Inter African slave trade came primariy from African war captives from rival tribes and Arab traders to the Middle East. This trade which spanned through central Africa to the Islamic world. Initially, European traders tapped into this prisoner trade, expanding it Africa to the Americas particularly to Brazil and the Carribean Islands. This intercontinental trade emerged as the largest slave economy in history. World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and 3rd most populous. ... Map of the Americas by Jonghe, c. ... This is a list of inhabited islands in the Anguilla (U.K.) Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Barbuda Aruba (Netherlands) Barbados Barbados Culpper Island Silver Islands British Virgin Islands (U.K.) Anegada Beef Island Bellamy Cay Cooper Island Frenchmans Cay Great Camanoe Guana Island Jost Van Dyke Little Thatch Marina...


Slave trade in the Islamic world 800s-1800s

In the Muslim-controlled Middle East, Africa and South Asia slavery and slave trade continued to flourish. Main sources for slaves were non-Muslim South Asians, Christians from the Caucasus and non-Muslim Africans. A limited supply of western European slaves came from Barbary raiders. The Ottoman Empire was famous for using slaves in warfare. Mamluks comprised of slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. The first Mamluks worked for Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. The Abbasids recruited them from enslaved non-Muslim families captured in areas including modern Turkey, Eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. Using non-Muslims as soldiers helped partially overcome Islamic prohibitions on Muslims fighting each other. The Caucasus , a region boardering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The word slaves has several meanings and usages: People who are owned by others, and live to serve them without pay. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El-Muzaffer Daima (Ottoman Turkish for the Ever Victorious) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The Caucasus , a region boardering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Another class of slaves were the Janissaries, who were usually from the Balkans. The first janissary units comprised war captives and slaves. After the 1380s Sultan Selim I filled their ranks with the results of taxation in human form called devshirmeh. The sultans men would conscript a number of non-Muslim, usually Christian, boys at first at random, later by strict selection. They were raised as Muslims and trained to be loyal soldiers. In later centuries they seem to have preferred primarily Albanians, Bosniaks and Bulgarians. Usually they would select about 1 in 5 boys of ages 7-14 but the numbers could be changed to correspond with the need for soldiers. Later they would extend the devshirmeh to Greece and Hungary. The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings muslim monarch ruling under the terms of shariah The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. ... Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim, nicknamed Yavuz, the Brave in Turkish) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings muslim monarch ruling under the terms of shariah The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. ... Bosniaks (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci) are a Southeast European ethnic group, descended from Slavic converts to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century), living primarily in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Slave trade in Canada and the British Empire

Slavery was effectively abolished in colonial Canada in the 1790's and throughout the British Empire in 1833. Canada is a nation of 33 million inhabitants, occupying almost all of the northern half of the North American continent, and being the second largest country in the world. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Slave Trade to the United States prior to the civil war

The United States abolished slavery in two phases during the American Civil War. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 freed only those slaves in the break-away Confederate States of America, the independence of which the Government of the United States did not recognise. Emancipation was later extended to the slave-holding states of Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia (which seceded from Virginia and joined the United States, when Virginia seceded from the United States), Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation - Lincoln meets with his Cabinet. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... Missouri, named after the Missouri Siouan Indian tribe meaning canoe, is a Midwestern state in the United States with Jefferson City as its capital. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... State nickname: Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Governor Joe Manchin (D) Official languages English Area 62,809 km² (41st)  - Land 62,436 km²  - Water 376 km² (0. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admission into... State nickname: The First State Other U.S. States Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Governor Ruth Ann Minner Official languages None Area 6,452 km² (49th)  - Land 5,068 km²  - Water 1,387 km² (21. ... ...


Slave Trade to Brazil and South America

Brazil ended slavery in 1888 (see Lei Áurea for details). After its independence from the Portuguese on September 7, 1822, Brazil became a monarchy, the Brazilian Empire, which lasted until the establishment of the Republican government on November 15, 1889. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil. ...


Slave Trade in the Middle East in the Modern Era

On the Arabian Peninsula, slavery was abolished in Qatar in 1952, in Saudi Arabia and the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962, in the United Arab Emirates in 1963, in South Yemen in 1967, and in Oman in 1970. Slavery has never been legal in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Jordan, or Israel. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia. ... The Yemen Arab Republic,(in Arabic: Al Jamhūrīya al Arabiya al Yaman ) also known as North Yemen, was a country in the northern part of what is now Yemen. ... National motto: ??? Official language Arabic Capital Aden Area 287,680 km² Population  - Total (1973)  - Density 1,590,275 5. ...


Slave Trade in the Sudan

The slave trade continues today, most infamously in the Sudan but people in other countries are certainly involved, legally or illegally, to one degree or another. Most modern slave trading appears to have two lines of focus: the almost always illegal trade of women for actual or de facto enslavement as sex workers, and the usually (but not always) illegal trade of women and men for sweatshop labour - especially the trade in illegal immigrants for purposes of employment in illegal sweatshops as de facto slaves. A sex worker is anyone who earns money by providing sexual services. ... A sweatshop is a factory, where people work for a very small wage, producing a variety of products such as clothes, toys, shoes, and other consumer goods. ... Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ...


For specific articles on the slave trade, see:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transatlantic Slave Trade (5008 words)
Slave vessels sailed from Europe with large crews, including surgeons, carpenters, coopers (barrel-workers), cooks (some of whom were of African descent), sailors (who apprenticed to sea at a young age), and others hired to guard slaves on the African coast and on the Middle Passage, where threats of rebellion and insurrection were constant.
Slave vessels remained on the coast of Africa usually from four to six months, depending on the trading location, availability of slaves and provisions, and the health of slaves and crew.
This expansion of the transatlantic slave trade in the 18th century, therefore, is a function of the income of European consumers and their demand for plantation goods.
MSN Encarta - Atlantic Slave Trade (1050 words)
Atlantic Slave Trade, the forced transportation of at least 10 million enslaved Africans from their homelands in Africa to destinations in Europe and the Americas during the 15th through 19th centuries.
The Atlantic slave trade involved the largest intercontinental migration of people in world history prior to the 20th century.
Although the trans-Saharan trade transported nearly as many slaves, the Atlantic slave trade took place over a much shorter period and on average moved much larger numbers of slaves per year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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