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Encyclopedia > Slaughterhouse
For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics).
Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse.
Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse.

A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (French, ultimately from the verb abattre which means "to strike down"), is a facility where farm animals are killed and processed into meat products. The animals most commonly slaughtered for food are cattle (beef and veal), sheep (lamb and mutton), pigs (pork), poultry, and horses. Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Abattoir is the alias of Arnold Etchison, a fictional character from DC Comics. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Look up killing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Slaughter is the term used to describe the killing and butchering of domestic livestock. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Veal is a culinary term for meat produced from calves. ... Species See text. ... See also lamb (disambiguation) An unweaned lamb The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are used to describe the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Mutton may refer to either: The meat of a sheep In parts of Asia, the meat of a goat Category: ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Two halves of pork being delivered Pork is the culinary name for meat from pigs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The design, process, and location of slaughterhouses respond to a variety of concerns. Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant logistical problems and public health concerns. Most religions stipulate certain conditions for the slaughter of animals. Public aversion to meat packing, in many cultures, influences the location and practices of slaughterhouses. More recently, animal rights groups have levelled ethical charges at slaughterhouses. The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...

Contents

Slaughterhouse process

A steer restrained for stunning just prior to slaughter.
A steer restrained for stunning just prior to slaughter.

The slaughterhouse process differs by species and region and may be controlled by civil law as well as religious laws such as Kosher and Halal laws. A typical procedure follows: Cattle restrained for slaughter just prior to stunning. ... Cattle restrained for slaughter just prior to stunning. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ...

  1. Animals are received by truck or rail from a ranch, farm, or feedlot.
  2. Animals are herded into holding pens.
  3. Animals receive a preslaughter inspection.
  4. Animals are usually made unconscious by stunning or "knocking" using various methods including the use of a captive bolt pistol or applying an electric shock to the animal's head. Livestock are also rendered unconscious by CO2 captive bolt stunning and CO2/inert gas stunning (This step is prohibited under strict application of Halal and Kashrut codes, Halal will allow for head only electrical stunning or concussive captive bolt stunning)[citation needed]
  5. Animals are hung upside down by their hind legs on the processing line.
  6. The main arteries and veins are severed and the animal's blood drains, causing death through exsanguination.
  7. The hide/skin/plumage is removed by down pullers, side pullers and fisting off the pelt (sheep and goats)
  8. The internal organs are removed and inspected for internal parasites and signs of disease. The guts, referred to as viscera, are separated for inspection from the heart and lungs, referred to as the "pluck." Livers are separated for inspection, tongues are dropped or removed from the head and the head

The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer truck prepares to offload Škoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other articles with similar names, see Lorry (disambiguation) and truck (disambiguation). ... French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways Railway tracks running through a railway station in North East England, UK A railway yard in Portland, Oregon. ... View of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch A ranch is an area of landscape, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. ... Farms, East of Gorgan, Iran. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) which is used for fattening livestock, notably beefcattle, prior to slaughter. ... Inspection in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious prior to their being slaughtered for food. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ... Look up hide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ...

Slaughterhouse design

Curved cattle corrals designed by Temple Grandin are intended to reduce stress in animals being led to slaughter.
Curved cattle corrals designed by Temple Grandin are intended to reduce stress in animals being led to slaughter.

In the latter half of the 20th century, the layout and design of most US slaughterhouses has been significantly influenced by the work of Dr. Temple Grandin. Grandin is also well known for being autistic and it was a fascination with patterns and flow that first led her to redesign the layout of cattle holding pens. Curved cattle race coral used to guide cattle into a slaughterhouse. ... Curved cattle race coral used to guide cattle into a slaughterhouse. ... Dr. Temple Grandin, one of the more successful adults with autism. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Dr. Temple Grandin, one of the more successful adults with autism. ... A boy with autism and his mother Autism refers to a spectrum of disorders, and lies somewhere under the umbrella of a greater encompassing spectrum, that of pervasive developmental disorders that involve the functioning of the brain. ...


Grandin's primary objective was to reduce the stress and suffering of animals being led to slaughter. In particular she applied an intuitive understanding of animal psychology to design pens and corrals which funnel a herd of animals arriving at a slaughterhouse into a single file ready for slaughter. Her corrals employ long sweeping curves so that each animal is prevented from seeing what lies ahead and just concentrates on the hind quarters of the animal in front of it. This article has been sent for reconstruction. ...


Grandin now claims to have designed over 54% of the slaughterhouses in the United States as well as many other slaughterhouses around the world.


International variations

The standards and regulations governing slaughterhouses vary considerably around the world. In many countries the slaughter of animals is virtually unregulated by law; often, however, it is strongly regulated by custom and tradition. In the non-Western world, including the Arab world, the Indian sub-continent, etc., both forms of meat are available: one which is produced hygienically in modern mechanized slaughterhouses, and the other of the animals slaughtered in local butcher-shops. Mechanized military units are otherwise slow-moving or immobile military units that have had trucks or other ground transport systems added to their formation to add to or improve their mobility. ...


In some communities animal slaughter may be controlled by religious laws, most notably halal for Muslims and kashrut for Jewish communities. These both require that the animals being slaughtered should be conscious at the point of death, and as such animals cannot be stunned prior to killing. This can cause conflicts with individual national regulations when a slaughterhouse adhering to the rules of kosher preparation is located in some western countries. Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


In many societies, traditional cultural and religious aversion to slaughter led to prejudice against the people involved. In Japan, where the ban on slaughter of livestock for food was lifted only in the late 19th century, the newly found slaughter industry drew workers primarily from villages of former eta (outcasts), who traditionally worked in occupations relating to death (such as executioners and undertakers). In some parts of western Japan, prejudice faced by current and former residents of such areas (burakumin "hamlet people") is still a sensitive issue. Because of this, even the Japanese word for "slaughter" (屠殺 tosatsu) is deemed politically incorrect by some pressure groups as its inclusion of the kanji (Chinese symbol) for "kill" (殺) supposedly portrays those who practice it in a negative manner. or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is a paramilitary Basque nationalist organization. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


Some countries have laws that exclude specific animal species or grades of animal from being slaughtered for human consumption. The former Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, suggested in 2004 introducing legislation banning the slaughter of cows throughout India, where the cow is a sacred animal to Hindus, for whom the slaughter of one is unthinkable and offensive (note that already in all the federal states of India except two, cow-slaughter is not banned by law). The slaughter of cows and the importation of beef into the nation of Nepal are strictly forbidden under Nepalese law. Several U.S. states have banned the slaughter and consumption of dogs, which are frequently eaten in parts of Asia. Horse meat is a taboo food in the USA and Canada, where sale and consumption of horsemeat is illegal in Illinois and California,[1] although horses are slaughtered for meat export to Europe and Japan for human consumption and for the USA domestic pet food market. Vajpayee is a surname equivalent to Awasthi and Shukla especially prominent among North Indian Brahmins. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Horse slaughter is the practice of slaughtering horses for meat (to be consumed by humans). ... Articles in category Pet foods There are 16 articles in this section of this category. ...


History

In the slaughterhouse, Lovis Corinth, 1893.
In the slaughterhouse, Lovis Corinth, 1893.

Slaughterhouses are needed primarily to serve the large-scale demand for meat in urban areas where there is no livestock. Thus the slaughterhouse has developed as an adjunct of the city. Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouse is a "shambles." There are streets named "The Shambles" in some English towns (e.g. Worcester, York) which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption. Download high resolution version (2024x1779, 409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2024x1779, 409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Self-portrait with skeleton, 1896. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced Wuh-ster) is the county town of Worcestershire in England; the river Severn runs through the middle, with the citys large Worcester Cathedral overlooking the river. ... York is a city in North Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss. ...


Open-air slaughter inside cities produced very substantial concerns about public health, morals, and aesthetics. This antipathy towards slaughterhouses is mentioned at least as early as the 16th century, in Thomas More's Utopia. In the 19th and 20th century, slaughterhouses were increasingly sited away from the public view, and took pains to portray themselves as clean, innocuous businesses. In this they have been responding not only to increasing regulation, but also to public sentiment. Most Westerners find the subject of animal slaughter to be very unpleasant and prefer not to know the details of what goes on inside a slaughterhouse. As such, in the West, the connection between packaged meat products in the supermarket and the live animals from which they are derived is obscured. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... -1... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... De Optimo Reipublicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply Utopia is a 1516 book by Sir (Saint) Thomas More. ... Slaughter is the term used to describe the killing and butchering of domestic livestock. ... Exterior of a typical British supermarket (a Tesco Extra) Exterior of typical North American supermarket (a Safeway) This Flagship Randalls store in Houston, Texas is an example of an upscale supermarket. ...


In recent years, animal rights groups and some vegetarians and vegans have accused slaughterhouses of secrecy, and have tried to highlight the practices inside a slaughterhouse. Examples include the PETA produced film, Meet Your Meat. This tactic has been in part to expose and correct allegedly inhumane treatment of animals, or unhygienic standards. It has also been used to encourage people to inform themselves about meat production, which the activists hope will lead to more people choosing a meat-free or reduced-meat diet. A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death... This article is about the dietary lifestyle, Vegan can also mean relating to vega, especially the star Vega, as in astronomical references to the Vegan system, or Science Fiction references to aliens from that system. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ...


Law

USDA inspection of pig.
USDA inspection of pig.

Most countries have laws in regard to the treatment of animals at slaughterhouses. In the United States, there is the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, a law requiring that all swine, sheep, cattle, and horses be stunned unconcious with just one application of a stunning device by a trained person before being shackled and hoisted up on the line (chickens are exempt from this Act as the industry still follows the myth that a dead animal will not bleed properly). The USDA is opposed to the Humane Slaughter Act, and violations of the Act carry no penalties. Since stopping the line to re-knock concious animals causes "down time" and results in fewer profits, the Humane Slaughter Act is usually bypassed and ignored by USDA supervisors (Eiznitz 1997). There is some debate over the enforcement of this act. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as kosher shechita and dhabiĥa halal. Most strict interpretations of kashrut require that the animal be fully sensible when its carotid artery is cut. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (434x640, 231 KB) Summary USDA inspection of swine carcasses from [:http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (434x640, 231 KB) Summary USDA inspection of swine carcasses from [:http://www. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Zippity do dah, zippity ay. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew:שחיטה) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


The novel The Jungle detailed unsanitary conditions in slaughterhouses and the meatpacking industry during the 1800s, leading to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, which established the Food and Drug Administration. A much larger body of regulation deals with the public health and worker safety regulation and inspection. The Jungle (1906) is the title of the book of socialist American author Upton Sinclair. ... The United States Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. ... The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 is a United States federal law that provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbide the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ...


Major slaughterhouses

The largest slaughterhouse in the world is operated by the Smithfield Packing Company in Tar Heel, North Carolina. It is capable of butchering over 32,000 pigs a day. The Dutch Stork Food Systems is the world largest manufacturer of chicken slaughtering installations with an annual turnover of € 149m. Smithfield Packing Company was founded in 1936 by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W. Luter, Jr. ... Tar Heel is a town located in Bladen County, North Carolina. ... Stork is a Dutch manufacturing and service providing company with its headquarters in Naarden. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ...


The largest slaughterhouse in India and also in Asia is located at Deonar, a suburb of Mumbai. Deonar is a north-eastern suburb of Mumbai, India. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ...

See List of major slaughterhouses for a list of places around the world.

The major slaughterhouses in the world are: AIA, Italy Campfrio, Spain Campina, Belgium Cebeco/Plukon/Friki Netherlands Charoen Pokphand, Thailand Compaxo, Netherlands Emsland Frischgeflügel, Germany Danish Crown, Denmark Doux, France Dumeco, Netherlands Fakieh Poultry Farms, Saudi-Arabia Goldkist, USA Hero, Netherlands Itoham, Japan Johanna Foods, USA Kerry Foods, UK...

See also

Cows in a CAFO in the U.S. While many people have no ethical objections to eating certain types of animal meat, some object to the act of killing and eating an animal and/or the agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. ... The Jungle (1906) is the title of the book of socialist American author Upton Sinclair. ... Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Childrens Crusade: A Duty Dance With Death is a 1969 novel by best-selling author Kurt Vonnegut. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ...

References

  • Eisnitz, Gail A. Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books, 1997.

External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Abattoir
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Slaughterhouses

  Results from FactBites:
 
GoVeg.com // Features // Slaughterhouse (446 words)
In the last 15 years, thousands of America's small to mid-sized slaughterhouses have been displaced by a few large, high-speed operations, each with the capacity to kill more than a million animals a year.
With fewer slaughterhouses killing an ever-growing number of animals, slaughter "line speeds" have accelerated and a production mentality has emerged in which the rapid slaughter line never seems to stop for anything—not for injured workers, not for contaminated meat, and, least of all, not for slow or disabled animals.
Following a long paper trail, she learns that contaminated meat and poultry are pouring out of federally inspected slaughterhouses and, not surprisingly, deaths from foodborne illness have quadrupled in the United States in the last 15 years.
Slaughterhouse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1195 words)
Grandin is also well known for being autistic and it was a fascination with patterns and flow that first led her to redesign the layout of cattle holding pens.
The largest slaughterhouse in the world is operated by the Smithfield Packing Company located near Smithfield, Virginia; it is capable of butchering over 30,000 pigs a day.
Slaughterhouses are needed primarily to serve the large-scale demand for meat in urban areas where there is no livestock.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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