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Encyclopedia > Skype
Skype
Developed by Skype Limited
Initial release August 2003
Stable release 3.6.0.248 (Windows),
2.7.0.257 (Mac OS X),
2.0.0.68 (Linux x86),
2.2.0.37 (Windows Mobile)
 (February 5, 2008 (Windows),
February 13, 2008 (Mac OS X),
April 3, 2008 (Linux),
November 7, 2007 (Windows Mobile))
[+/−]
Preview release 3.8.0.96 Beta (Windows)  (April 2, 2008 (Windows)) [+/−]
OS Cross-platform
Available in multilingual
Genre P2P/VoIP/instant messaging/
video call/videophone
License Freeware (with some paid features)
Website skype.com

Skype (IPA: [skaɪp]) is a software program that allows users to make calls over the Internet to other Skype users free of charge and to landlines and cell phones for a fee. Additional features include instant messaging, file transfer, short message service, video conferencing and the ability to circumvent firewalls. It was created by the Swedish and Danish entrepreneurs Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis and a team of software developers: Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn based in Tallinn, Estonia.[1] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 313 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (343 × 656 pixels, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) Skype 3. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Skype Limited is a Luxembourg based company developing and operating a well-known, popular VoIP computer telephony program. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... See Language (journal) for the linguistics journal. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Visiophone be merged into this article or section. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The term Freeware refers to gratis proprietary software with closed source. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... For the ABC TV series, see Landline (TV series). ... Cellular redirects here. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... FTP or file transfer protocol is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol (such as the Internet or an intranet). ... For other uses, see SMS (disambiguation). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Groupware | Telecommunications stubs ... Firewall may refer to: Firewall (construction), a physical barrier inside a building or vehicle, designed to limit the spread of fire, heat and structural collapse Firewall (networking), a logical barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between sections of a computer network Firewall (film), a 2006 action film written... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... Niklas Zennström Niklas Zennström at WITNESS Gala 2007 Niklas Zennström, born 1966, is a Swedish entrepreneur. ... Janus Friis (born in 1976) is a Danish entrepreneur best known for co-founding the file-sharing application KaZaA and Skype, the peer-to-peer telephony application. ... Jaan Tallinn is an Estonian programmer widely celebrated for writing the peer-to-peer engines of KaZaa and Skype. ... County Area 159. ...


The Skype Group, acquired by eBay in September 2005, has headquarters in Luxembourg, with offices in London, Tallinn, Tartu, Prague[2] and San Jose, California. Skype experienced rapid growth in both popular usage and software development since the launch, of both its free and its paid services. This article is about the online auction center. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... County Area 159. ... County Area 38. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Paid Services are the not-free electronic commerce of digital services and information goods in digital media. ...

Contents

Features

Main article: Features of Skype

The following is a list of Skype features: // SkypeOut allows Skype users to call traditional telephone numbers, including mobile telephones, for a fee. ...

SkypeOut

SkypeOut allows Skype users to call traditional telephone numbers, including mobile telephones, for a fee which varies from US$0.021 per minute for most developed countries to US$2.142 per minute for calls to the dependency of Diego Garcia. From January 2007 Skype charges an equivalent of 0.039 for each SkypeOut call in addition to the ordinary rate.[3] After 180 days of not making a SkypeOut call the Skype balance expires. USD redirects here. ... Diego Garcia ( ) is an atoll located in the heart of the Indian Ocean, some 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south of Indias southern coast. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


SkypeOut calls to Canada and the United States were free until January 30, 2007. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


SkypeOut calls to most toll-free numbers in France (+33 800, +33 805, +33 809), Poland: (+48 800), UK: (+44 500, +44 800, +44 808) and the United States and Canada: (+1 800, +1 866, +1 888 ) are free for all Skype users, even if they do not subscribe to the SkypeOut service.[4][5] SkypeOut cannot call premium-rate numbers, or most toll-free numbers in other countries. Nor does it support short emergency services numbers (fire, police, ambulance) such as 112, 911, 000, and 999 which are available on other networks in different countries.


SkypeIn

SkypeIn allows Skype users to receive calls on their computers dialed by regular phone subscribers to a local Skype phone number; local numbers are available for Australia, Brazil, Chile,[6] Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand,[6] Poland, Romania, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, and the United States. A Skype user anywhere can have local numbers in any of these countries, with calls to the number charged at the same rate as calls to fixed lines in the country. Some jurisdictions, including France and Norway, forbid the registration of their telephone numbers to anyone without a physical presence or citizenship in the country. Motto: Spanish: Dios, Patria, Libertad (English: God, Homeland, Liberty) Anthem: Quisqueyanos valientes Capital (and largest city) Santo Domingo Spanish Government Republic  - President Leonel Fernández Independence from Haiti   - Date 27 February 1844  Area  - Total 48,442 km² (130st) 18,810 sq mi   - Water (%) 1. ...


Videoconferencing

Videoconferencing was introduced in January 2006 for the Windows and Mac OS X platform clients. Skype 2.0 for Linux, which was released on March 13, 2008, also features support for videoconferencing.[7] It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... 1. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Skype for Windows, starting with version 3.6.0.216, supports “High Quality Video" with quality and features (e.g. full-screen and screen-in-screen modes) claimed to be similar to mid-range videoconferencing systems.[8]


Major events

2002
2003
  • April 2003: Skype.com and Skype.net domain names registered.
  • August 2003: First public beta version released.
2005
2006
  • April 2006: Number of registered users reaches 100 million.
  • October 2006: Skype 2.0 for Mac is released, the first full release of Skype with video for Macintosh.
  • December 2006: Skype announces a new pricing structure as of January 18, 2007, with connection fees for all SkypeOut calls.[12] Skype 3.0 for Windows is released.[13]
2007
  • March 2007: Skype 3.1 is released, adding some new features, including Skype Find and Skype Prime. Skype also released a 3.2 beta with a new feature called Send Money which allows users to send money via PayPal from one Skype user to another.
  • August 2007: Skype 3.5 for Windows released with additions such as video in mood, inclusion of video content in chat, call transfer to another person or a group, auto-redial.
  • August 15, 2007: Skype 2.7.0.49 (beta) for Mac OS X released adding availability of contacts in the Mac Address Book to the Skype contact list, auto redial, contact groups, public chat creation, and an in-window volume slider to the call window.
  • August 16 / August 17, 2007: Skype users unable to connect to full Skype network in many countries.[14][15] Skype reports the system-wide crash was the result of exceptional number of logins after a Windows patch reboot ("Patch Tuesday").[16]
  • November 2007: Skype users are set to lose their 020 7 numbers after 20 December 2007.[17]
2008

2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for September, 2002. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → A timeline of events in the news for April 2003. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat... Skype (pronunciation: rhymes with type) is a proprietary peer-to-peer Internet telephony (VoIP) network, founded by the Swedish Niklas Zennström and Danish Janus Friis, the creators of KaZaA. It competes against existing open VoIP protocols such as SIP, IAX, and H.323. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles... This article is about the online auction center. ... December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... A videophone is a telephone which is capable of both audio and video duplex transmission. ... April 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Marcos Pontes, Brazils first astronaut, reaches the International Space Station. ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... December 2006 is the twelfth and final month of the year and will begin in 2 day(s). ... March 2007 is the third month of the year. ... August 2007 is the eighth month of that year. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Patch Tuesday is the second Tuesday of each month. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... (Redirected from 020) The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... PSP most often refers to: PlayStation Portable, a handheld game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment PlayStation Portable Slim & Lite, a new model of the original PlayStation Portable console Corel Paint Shop Pro, a graphics editor distributed by Corel Corporation, formerly a product of Jasc Software PSP may also refer... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Usage and traffic

A typical early version of Skype 1.0, running on a Windows XP desktop
Date Total user accounts
(in millions)
Skype to Skype minutes
(in billions)
Skype Out minutes
(in billions)
Net revenue USD
(in millions)
Q1 2006 95 6.9 0.7 35
Q2 2006 113.1 7.1 0.8 44
Q3 2006 135.9 6.6 1.1 50
Q4 2006 171.2 7.6 1.5 66
Q1 2007 195.5 7.7 1.3 79
Q2 2007 219.6 7.1 1.3 90
Q3 2007 245.7 6.1 1.4 98
Q4 2007 276.3 N/A N/A 115
Q1 2008 309 14.2 1.7 126

As of December 31, 2007 Skype had 276 million user accounts. Users may have more than one account, and it is not possible to identify users with multiple accounts. Image File history File links Skype10. ... Image File history File links Skype10. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


It was reported that 12,051,566 concurrent Skype users were online as of February 18, 2008.[18] is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Date Users [19] Days
2008-02-18 12,000,000 42
2008-01-07 11,000,000 84
2007-10-15 10,000,000 259
2007-01-29 9,000,000 82
2006-11-08 8,000,000 71
2006-08-29 7,000,000 155
2006-03-27 6,000,000 66
2006-01-20 5,000,000 92
2005-10-20 4,000,000 155
2005-05-18 3,000,000 93
2005-02-14 2,000,000 117
2004-10-20 1,000,000 418
2003-08-29 0 -

The volume of international traffic routed via Skype is significant, though small compared to total global switched and VoIP traffic. Computer-to-computer traffic between Skype users in 2005 was 2.9% of international carrier traffic in 2005 and about 4.4% of the total international traffic of 264 billion minutes in 2006.[20] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Skype incorporates some features which tend to hide its traffic, but it is not specifically designed to thwart traffic analysis and therefore does not provide anonymous communication. Some researchers have been able to watermark the traffic so that it is identifiable even after passing through an anonymizing network[21]. Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. ... An anonymous P2P computer network is a particular type of peer-to-peer network in which the users are anonymous or pseudonymous by default. ... An image with visible digital watermarking. ... Tor (The Onion Router) is a free software implementation of second-generation onion routing – a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously on the Internet. ...


System and software

Skype 1.4, running on a Linux desktop, over 7,630,000 people online
Skype 1.4, running on a Linux desktop, over 7,630,000 people online

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 258 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (318 × 737 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png) Skype for Linux version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 258 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (318 × 737 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png) Skype for Linux version 1. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...

Operating systems

Versions now exist for Microsoft Windows (2000, XP, Vista and Windows Mobile), Mac OS X (Intel and PPC) and Linux (32-bit x86 only). Under Windows Skype can be run from a USB stick without being installed on the target computer.[22] The Linux version runs on FreeBSD through its Linux binary compatibility layer. Skype can also run in Solaris branded zones. Windows redirects here. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Solaris Containers (including Solaris Zones) is a virtualization feature first available with Solaris 10. ...


The Windows user interface was developed in the Pascal-based Delphi programming language, the Linux version in C++ with Qt, and the Mac OS X version in Objective-C with Cocoa.[23] Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... C++ (pronounced ) is a general-purpose programming language. ... For other uses, see Qt. ... Objective-C, often referred to as ObjC or more seldomly as Objective C or Obj-C, is an object oriented programming language implemented as an extension to C. It is used primarily on Mac OS X and GNUstep, two environments based on the OpenStep standard, and is the primary language... A Cocoa application being developed using Xcode. ...


Detailed changelogs

  • Detailed Windows changelog
  • Detailed Mac changelog
  • Detailed Linux changelog

Skype on mobile devices

Skype offers its own mobile phone under the brand name Skypephone, which runs a BREW OS. Other companies produce dedicated Skype phones which connect via WiFi. Skype is available on mobile devices running Windows Mobile [24]. The official Symbian version is currently under development[25]. Skype is available on Symbian and Java as part of X-Series. Third party developers, such as Nimbuzz and Fring, have allowed Skype to run in parallel with several other competing VoIP/IM networks in any Symbian or Java environment. Nimbuzz have made Skype available to Blackberry users. Skype was released on the PSP slim firmware 3.90 in late January, 2008. Brew refers to: Brewing, the production of beverages and fuels through fermentation Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless, a development platform for mobile phones Brew (horse), a Melbourne Cup winner in 2000 Category: ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. ... Symbian OS is an operating system with associated libraries, user interface frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, produced by Symbian. ... X-Series from 3 is a sub brand of Hutchison Whampoas brand 3. ... fring is a native mVoIP (mobile VoIP) network and the first to develop and launch a full end-to-end, peer-to-peer mVoIP or MoIP solution for the mobile domain. ... This article is about the fruit. ...


Skype protocol

Main article: Skype Protocol

Skype uses a proprietary Internet telephony (VoIP) network. The protocol has not been made publicly available by Skype and official applications using the protocol are proprietary and closed-source. The main difference between Skype and standard VoIP clients is that Skype operates on a peer-to-peer model rather than the more usual client-server model. The Skype user directory is entirely decentralized and distributed among the nodes of the network—i.e., users' computers—which allows the network to scale very easily to large sizes (currently about 240 million users)[26] without a complex centralized infrastructure costly to the Skype Group. Skype is a proprietary peer-to-peer Internet telephony (VoIP) network. ... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Closed source is an antonym for open source and refers to any program whose license does not meet the definition of Open-source software. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ... Node(Latin nodus ‘knot’) is critical element of any computer network. ...


Resource usage

Skype running on a Windows Mobile 6 Professional device.
Skype running on a Windows Mobile 6 Professional device.

Skype uses the processing and storage capacity of users' computers for network operation. It accesses the hard disk several times per minute, whether or not a conversation is in progress—this can be checked by observing the HDD's activity indicator LED or by using a file access monitor such as FileMon.[27] Skype software selects some users' computers to be used as "supernodes"[28], consuming the user's internet bandwidth. Under certain conditions, Skype is reportedly willing to accept thousands of connections, but is stated to limit itself to 40 kb/s upload and download.[29][30][31] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... In peer-to-peer networking, a supernode works as one of that networks relayers and proxy servers, handling data flow and connections for other users. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ...


Security

Main article: Skype security

Secure communication is a feature of Skype; encryption cannot be disabled, and is invisible to the user. Skype reportedly uses non-proprietary, widely trusted encryption techniques: RSA for key negotiation and the Advanced Encryption Standard to encrypt conversations.[32] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Skype. ... Secure communication describes means by which people can share information with varying degrees of certainty that third parties cannot know what was said. ... In cryptography, RSA is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ...


Skype provides an uncontrolled registration system for users with absolutely no proof of identity. This permits users to use the system without revealing their identity to other users. It is trivially easy, of course, for anybody to set up an account using any name; the displayed caller's name is no guarantee of authenticity.


Supported audio codecs

Adaptive Multi Rate - WideBand or AMR-WB is a speech coding standard developed after the AMR using same technology like ACELP. The codec provides excellent speech quality due to wider speech bandwidth of 50 - 7000 Hz compared to narrowband speech codecs which in general are optimized for POTS wireline quality... G.729 is an audio data compression algorithm for voice that compresses voice audio in chunks of 10 milliseconds. ... G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding. ... internet Speech Audio Codec (iSAC) is a wideband speech codec, developed by Global IP Sound (GIPS). ... internet Low Bit Rate Codec (iLBC) is a royalty free narrowband speech codec, developed by Global IP Sound (GIPS). ...

Criticisms

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Security concerns

Due to the design of the protocol, if given access to an unrestricted network connection Skype clients—running on users' computers—can become supernodes without the knowledge or consent of the user. These supernodes coordinate the peer-to-peer network and provide data routing for other users behind more restrictive firewalls, which can generate a significant amount of traffic unrelated to the user of the machine nominated as supernode. For this reason, some network providers, such as universities, have banned the use of Skype.[34] The French ministry of research strongly discourages the use of Skype in all French public universities and laboratories, especially those with sensitive research, leading to an outright ban in many laboratories.[35] In peer-to-peer networking, a supernode works as one of that networks relayers and proxy servers, handling data flow and connections for other users. ...


A third party paper analyzing the security and methodology of Skype was presented at Black Hat Europe 2006.[36] It analyzed Skype and made these observations:

  • Heavy use of anti-debugging techniques (to deter development of alternative clients and hacking tools)
  • Significant use of obfuscated code (slows reverse engineering, difficult to find out what the program does from examination of the binary code)
  • Keeps chatting on the network, even when idle (even for non-supernodes. May be used for NAT traversal)
  • Blind trust in anything else speaking Skype
  • Ability to build a parallel Skype network
  • Lack of privacy (Skype has the keys to decrypt calls or sessions)
  • Heap overflow in Skype
  • Skype makes it hard to enforce a (corporate) security policy
  • "No way to know if there is/will be a backdoor"

Skype was also found to access BIOS data[37] to identify individual computers and provide DRM protection for plug-ins.[38][39] Obfuscated code is source code that is (usually intentionally) very hard to read and understand. ... NAT traversal refers to a solution to the common problem in TCP/IP networking of establishing connections between hosts in private TCP/IP networks which use NAT devices. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


It cannot be assured that Skype calls are not interceptable. Skype provides end to end encryption for connections between users however in an interview at cnet.com Skype chief security officer Kurt Sauer would not eliminate this possibility.[40]


Skype is owned by eBay, whose privacy policy is perhaps the most liberal of any large corporation - eBay claims it goes above and beyond what it is required to do by law, seeking out and giving police all the information it stores about users excluding some financial data, for which they require a subpoena[41]. This article is about the online auction center. ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ...


Practicalities

In some countries, many calls are charged at a specified fixed amount per call. In this method, SkypeOut is more expensive for longer calls, whereas it is cheaper for relatively short calls.[citation needed]


There have been complaints about Skype's poor customer support.[42] As of June 2007, Skype still does not provide a direct way of contacting its customer support, relying solely on its web portal for all related issues. There have also been criticisms of Skype blocking and disabling customer accounts from using the SkypeOut service.[43]


When Skype 2.0 was released, AMD filed a lawsuit claiming the software offers 10-way conference calls on dual core Intel processors, while other chips, including all AMD chips, will only offer 5-way conference calls.[44]


While available for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux (i386 platform) operating systems, there is no Skype version for the Palm OS, used in mobile devices like the Treo 700p smartphone nor for the Linux versions for different architectures. Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Palm OS is an embedded operating system initially developed by U.S. Robotics owned Palm Computing, Inc. ... The Palm Treo 700p is a smartphone announced on May 15, 2006. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


Skype has been criticized in the Linux community for bugs and delays in the Linux version.[45] This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


Users of Skype on Mac OS X report poor audio quality when connecting to Mac/Mobile clients, with newer audio engines showing more and more problems.[citation needed] Audio quality when connecting from Mac to Windows seem to be acceptable. Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Skype cannot be used with VOIP analogue telephone adapters (ATAs), which use SIP, H323, and other protocols. Consequently, Skype users are limited to either using software phones or expensive Skype only hardware. However, there are applications that enable Skype users to connect to SIP providers [46]. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ...


SkypeOut has been criticized because it does not support caller ID in the United States, where people frequently reject calls from unrecognized numbers.[47] The recipient sees "+0000123456" instead of a real phone number. By contrast, the Gizmo service shows the user's call-in number on caller ID.[48] For the protein involved in the synthesis of major histocompatibility complex II, see CLIP (protein). ... Gizmo Project is the name of a peer-to-peer VoIP network and of a proprietary freeware soft phone for that network. ...


SkypeOut does not support storing or (automatically) calling numbers with extensions.[49] Instead, a user must call the number (without the extension), wait for the call to connect and then manually enter the extension. This means that many business customers in practice need a separate contact list that includes extensions, causing the built-in contact list to be of little use. This is by many customers considered a fairly basic feature, and other phone services typically support it by allowing numbers to contain a symbol to represent a pause, as in "1-800-123-4567 x54321" or "1-800-123-4567,,,54321" where 54321 is the extension.


Skype Limited (corporate)

Main article: Skype Limited

On October 14, 2005, eBay acquired the company for 1.9 billion in cash and stock, plus an additional €1.5 billion in rewards (earn out) if goals are met by 2008.[50][51] Skype Limited is a Luxembourg based company developing and operating a well-known, popular VoIP computer telephony program. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Earn out is a phrase used by venture capitalists to describe a formula by which management of a target company earn a bigger share of the targets share capital by achieving results above pre-determined levels. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Skype Limited faces challenges from two main directions. Firstly it faces legal challenges to its intellectual property and secondly it faces political pressures by governments wishing to control the telecommunications systems of their respective countries. This article is about law in society. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


United States, CALEA 2006

In May 2006, the FCC successfully applied the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act to allow wiretapping on digital phone networks. Skype is not yet compliant to the Act, and has so far stated that it does not plan to comply.[52] The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a controversial United States wiretapping law passed in 1994 (Pub. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ...


IDT lawsuit

On June 1, 2006, Net2Phone (the Internet telephone unit of IDT Corp.) filed a lawsuit against eBay and Skype accusing the unit of infringing U.S. Patent 6,108,704 , which was granted in 2000.[53] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Net2phone is a software/services company whose principal line of business is Session Initiation Protocol/SIP-based and PacketCable-based VoIP. External links [1] - official net2phone web site. ... IDT Corporation (originally standing for International Discount Telecommunications) is a telecommunications company headquartered in Newark, New Jersey. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


China 2005

Skype is one of many companies (others include AOL, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, Cisco) which have cooperated with the Chinese government in implementing a system of Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China. Niklas Zennström, chief executive to Skype, told reporters that its joint venture partner in China is operating in compliance with domestic law. "TOM Online had implemented a text filter, which is what everyone else in that market is doing," said Zennström. "Those are the regulations," he said. "I may like or not like the laws and regulations to operate businesses in the UK or Germany or the US, but if I do business there I choose to comply with those laws and regulations. I can try to lobby to change them, but I need to comply with them. China in that way is not different."[54] For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... This article is about the corporation. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Cisco may refer to: Cisco Systems, a computer networking company Cisco IOS, an internet router operating system CISCO Security Private Limited, a security company in Singapore Commercial and Industrial Security Corporation, a statutory board in Singapore Abbreviation for San Francisco, California Cisco (wine) The Cisco Kid, a fictional character created... Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. ... TOM Online (HKGEM: 8282) NASDAQ: TOMO is a mobile Internet company in China, operating the popular Chinese-language Internet portal (www. ...


Since late September, users in China trying to download the Skype software are redirected to the TOM site from which a modified Chinese version can be downloaded. Activists in China are warning about the possibility that TOM's versions have or will have more trojan capability.[55] In the context of computing and software, a Trojan horse, or simply trojan, is a piece of software which appears to perform a certain action, but in fact, performs another. ...


See also

Skype is a proprietary peer-to-peer Internet telephony (VoIP) network. ... In computer and telecommunications networks, presence information is a status indicator that conveys ability and willingness of a potential communication partner - for example a user to communicate. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the... . ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... Mobile VoIP or Mobile Voice over Internet Protocol is the application of voice over IP technology to mobile handsets. ... What to say? Its a phone, but it encodes voice and transmits it via IP, using one of several CODECs, including G.711, G.728, and G.729. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of instant messaging clients. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of instant messaging protocols. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... Secure communication describes means by which people can share information with varying degrees of certainty that third parties cannot know what was said. ...

Alternatives

AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is a free, advertisement-supported proprietary instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol. ... Gizmo Project is the name of a peer-to-peer VoIP network and of a proprietary freeware soft phone for that network. ... Net2phone is a software/services company whose principal line of business is Session Initiation Protocol/SIP-based and PacketCable-based VoIP. External links [1] - official net2phone web site. ... ooVoo is a startup videoconferencing and instant messaging application, similar to Skype Video. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... SightSpeed is an Internet video conference software that uses a proprietary artificial intelligence algorithm to remove unimportant information from images. ... WengoPhone is a free software VoIP service developed by the OpenWengo community under the GNU GPL license. ... Logo of VoipBuster VoipBuster is one of several Internet telephony services (also called VoIP-service) of Betamax GmbH & co. ... Voipfone is a UK (London) based Internet Telephone Service (VoIP) provided by Inet Telecoms Ltd. ... VZOchat (pronounced as viziochat) is free software for making video calls. ... “Y!M” redirects here. ... Yahoo! Voice is a Voice over IP PC-PC, PC-Phone and Phone-to-PC service [1], [2] provided by Yahoo! via its Yahoo! Messenger instant messaging application. ...

References

  1. ^ Skype - A Baltic Success Story. credit-suisse.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  2. ^ Jaanus Kase. Skype is expanding engineering to Prague. Skype Blogs. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  3. ^ Connection Fee for SkypeOut Calls. skype.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  4. ^ Free calls to toll-free phone numbers global beta
  5. ^ Skype Help: Skype tells me the number I am trying to call is forbidden, why is that?.
  6. ^ a b Villu Arak. Four new SkypeIn countries. Skype Blogs. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  7. ^ Skype 2.0 Beta for Linux, the Great Revolution (November 7, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  8. ^ Skype User Guide Using Skype for Desk-top Video-Conferences.
  9. ^ Jack McCarthy. China bans Skype. InfoWorld. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  10. ^ eBay Completes Acquisition of Skype. eBay. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  11. ^ Skype Launches Next Generation Free Internet and Video Calling for Everyone. Skype. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  12. ^ Skype to Announce Disruptive Pricing Strategy for SkypeOut Retrieved: December 19, 2006
  13. ^ What is Skype?
  14. ^ http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/fn/5059323.html
  15. ^ Error in Skype’s Software Shuts Down Phone Service. NY Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  16. ^ "Skype blames outage on user reboot". 
  17. ^ "Skype Bombshell: 0207 SkypeIn Numbers Must Change", 2007-11-21. Retrieved on 2007-11-29. 
  18. ^ All-Time peak of concurrent real users.
  19. ^ 12 million in record time!. skypenumerology. Retrieved on 2008-03-12.
  20. ^ International carriers' traffic grows despite Skype popularity. TeleGeography Report and Database. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  21. ^ http://ise.gmu.edu/~xwangc/Publications/CCS05-VoIPTracking.pdf
  22. ^ Skype VoIP User Guide, FAQ, Hints and Resources How to run Skype from a USB stick.
  23. ^ Interview with Jaanus Kase from Skype. KDE News. Retrieved on 2006-06-13.
  24. ^ Skype on your mobile device
  25. ^ Skype is also for the PSP(Playstation Portable)when you download the 3.90 firmware update, but you need a microphone that connect to the PSP 2000 headphonesSkype for Symbian Coming
  26. ^ 1 million Joost users prepare for year-end launch
  27. ^ FileMon for Windows. Sysinternals. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  28. ^ Skype FAQ How to disable Skype "SuperNodes".
  29. ^ Bruno Giussani. Swiss magazine digs deeper in social blog. Lunch over IP. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  30. ^ Fear of a Skype Planet. Paul Kedrosky. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  31. ^ Skype supernodes sap bandwidth. Computerworld. IDG. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  32. ^ Skype Privacy FAQ. Skype. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  33. ^ Is Skype's own codec good? - Skype Forums. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  34. ^ Ryan Paul. More universities banning Skype. Ars Technica. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  35. ^ Alert for the defense security officer of CNRS
  36. ^ Philippe BIONDI and Fabrice DESCLAUX. Silver Needle in the Skype. blackhat. Retrieved on 2006-03-02.
  37. ^ pagetable.com » Blog Archive » Skype Reads Your BIOS and Motherboard Serial Number
  38. ^ Skype Security Blog - Skype Extras plug-in manager
  39. ^ The Register » Skype snoop agent reads mobo serial numbers
  40. ^ Interview at CNet
  41. ^ Skype security and privacy concerns, Scott Granneman, 2005-09-22, SecurityFocus.com
  42. ^ Ben Charny. Skype callers: 'Customer service, please?'.
  43. ^ SKYPE Account Blocked - Skype Forums
  44. ^ Tom Krazit. AMD's lawyers call on Skype.
  45. ^ Skype Forums: Linux Users are fed up.
  46. ^ Uplink Skype to SIP Adapter Software - Connect SIP to the Skype Network
  47. ^ (SDS-208) Skype losing SkypeOut Customers due to lack of caller id in the US. Skype Developer Zone.
  48. ^ Does my Caller-ID show when I call a regular phone? Gizmo Project FAQ.
  49. ^ Skype Forums Support for 'pauses' in SkypeOut numbers.
  50. ^ eBay Completes Acquisition of Skype. Skype. Retrieved on 2006-06-12.
  51. ^ "eBay to buy Skype in $2.6bn deal", BBC, September 12, 2005. 
  52. ^ Can Skype Keep Its Secrets?
  53. ^ Pallavi Gogoi. "Skype Under Attack", Business Week, McGraw Hill, June 6, 2006. 
  54. ^ "Skype says texts are censored by China", FT.com, Financial Times, April 18, 2006. 
  55. ^ Dynamic Internet Technology Inc. Alleges Skype Redirects Users in China to Censorware Version - Ten Days After Users Are Able To Download Freegate Software Through Skype, TMCnet, September 24, 2007

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is one of the most prominent scientific research institutions in France. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

An Experimental Study of the Skype Peer-to-Peer VoIP System]

Skype Phones

  • MyToGo for Skype Converts your other phones/devices to a Skype Phone
  • Simplyphone Skype hardware partner developing Skype Certified plug-in and wireless phones
  • RTX Skype partner developing USB and embedded cordless Skype phones
  • Belkin Wi-Fi Phone for Skype
// Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of instant messaging clients. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of instant messaging protocols. ... AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is a free, advertisement-supported proprietary instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol. ... Gadu-Gadu is an instant messaging program that is popular in Poland. ... Lotus Sametime is an enterprise instant messaging and web conferencing application sold by the Lotus Software division of IBM. Lotus Sametime provides enterprise instant messaging functionality, presence information, and web conferencing. ... Microsoft Messenger for Mac, previously MSN Messenger for Mac, is a production of the Macintosh Business Unit, a division of Microsoft. ... MySpaceIM is an instant messaging program released by MySpace. ... QQ2006 Main User Interface QQ.coms old logo QQ.coms logo Tencent QQ, generally referred to as QQ, is the most popular free instant messaging computer program in China, and the world’s third most popular IM service [1]. The program is maintained by Tencent Holdings Limited (HKSE... For the old versions of this software called MSN Messenger, see MSN Messenger. ... MSN Messenger is a freeware instant messaging client that was developed and distributed by Microsoft in 1999 to 2005 and in 2007 for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system (except Windows Vista), and aimed towards home users. ... Windows Messenger is a (now deprecated) proprietary instant messaging client included in Microsofts Windows XP operating system. ... “Y!M” redirects here. ... Nate (hangul:네이트) is an internet portal site company, headquartered in Seoul, South Korea and established in 2002. ... For the Ilkhanate ruler, see Baydu. ... Adium is a popular instant messaging client for Mac OS X that supports multiple protocols through the libpurple library. ... Lotus Sametime is an enterprise instant messaging and web conferencing application sold by the Lotus Software division of IBM. Lotus Sametime provides enterprise instant messaging functionality, presence information, and web conferencing. ... Kopete is a multi-protocol, free software instant messaging client. ... Meebo is an in-browser instant messaging program which supports multiple IM services, including Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, Google Talk, AIM, ICQ [1], and Jabber and is based on the free and open source library libpurple created by the software developers of Pidgin[2]. // Although still in its early... Miranda Instant Messenger is a minimalist, open source multiprotocol instant messaging application, designed for Microsoft Windows. ... Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a multi-platform instant messaging client that supports many commonly used instant messaging protocols. ... Qnext is a Peer-to-Web (P2Web) broadcasting software which allows users to share files and communicate with email and instant messaging contacts. ... The Quiet Internet Pager (QIP) is an alternative instant messaging client based on the OSCAR protocol. ... Simple Instant Messenger (SIM) is a free software multiprotocol instant messaging client available for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. SIM-ICQ was discontinued for a time because its founder Vladimir Shutoff, a Russian programmer, left the project. ... This article is about the instant messaging client. ... Official logo of the Jabber Software Foundation Jabber is a collection of open, real-time communication technologies built on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). ... Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, or XMPP, is an open, XML-based protocol for near real-time extensible messaging and presence events. ... Exodus is a free software instant messaging client developed by Peter Millard and written in Borland Delphi that can connect to Jabber servers and exchange messages with other Jabber users. ... Google Talk is a Windows application for Voice over IP and instant messaging, offered by Google. ... Lotus Sametime is an enterprise instant messaging and web conferencing application sold by the Lotus Software division of IBM. Lotus Sametime provides enterprise instant messaging functionality, presence information, and web conferencing. ... Screenshot of Jajc roster (msStyle) JAJC is Jabber client for MS Windows written in Delphi by Mikel Ivanow. ... Psi is a GPLed instant messaging client for the Jabber (XMPP) protocol which uses the Qt toolkit. ... Tkabber is a free software client for the Jabber/XMPP instant messaging protocol. ... Gajim is a free software, instant messaging client for the Jabber (XMPP) protocol which uses the GTK+ toolkit. ... Spark is an Jabber/XMPP client written in Java. ... Coccinella is a free software client for the Jabber/XMPP instant messaging protocol. ... ICQ is an instant messaging computer program, which was first developed by the Israeli company Mirabilis, now owned by Time Warners AOL subsidiary. ... ICQ is an instant messaging computer program, which was first developed by the Israeli company Mirabilis, now owned by Time Warners AOL subsidiary. ... The Quiet Internet Pager (QIP) is an alternative instant messaging client based on the OSCAR protocol. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Download Skype for free - latest version - official website (484 words)
Skype is a little piece of software that lets you make free calls to anyone else on Skype, anywhere in the world.
Skype automatically encrypts calls, chats and file transfers before sending it through the internet so no-one can intercept your call, text or file transfer.
Skype SMS lets you send SMS messages to your friends’ mobile phones from Skype.
Skype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5083 words)
The Skype communications system is notable for its broad range of features, including free voice and video conferencing, and its ability to use peer to peer (decentralized) technology to overcome common firewall and NAT problems.
Since the Skype code is proprietary and closed source, the security of the software cannot be firmly established by independent experts; thus, its users — experts and non-experts alike — may base their usage of the product on merely trusting the manufacturer and behaviour of the software downloaded from sources authorized by the manufacturer.
Skype claims that the proprietary session establishment protocol is efficient and prevents both man-in-the-middle and replay attacks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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30th June 2010
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