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Encyclopedia > Skylab
Skylab
A view of Skylab from the departing Skylab 4 mission.
A view of Skylab from the departing Skylab 4 mission.
Skylab insignia.
Station statistics
Call sign: Skylab
Crew: 3
Launch: 1973-05-14
17:30:00 UTC
Launch pad: LC-39A, Kennedy Space Centre
Reentry: 1979-07-11
16:37:00 UTC
near Perth, Australia
Mass: 77,088 kg
Perigee: 269.7 miles (434 km)
Apogee: 274.6 miles (442 km)
Orbit inclination: 50 degrees
Orbital period: 93.4 minutes
Orbits per day: 15.4
Days in orbit: 2,249 days
Days occupied: 171 days
Number of orbits: 34,981
Distance travelled: ~890,000,000 miles
(~1,400,000,000 km)
Statistics as of deorbit on 1979-07-11.
Configuration
Skylab configuration with docked Apollo Command/Service Module. Click to enlarge.
Skylab configuration with docked Apollo Command/Service Module. Click to enlarge.
Skylab

Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. The 75 metric ton station was in Earth orbit from 1973 to 1979, and it was visited by crews three times in 1973 and 1974. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity and a solar observatory. Skylab may be a reference to: Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, an Antarctica research station Skylab, the first space station launched into orbit by the United States Skylab Rescue, a backup for the aforementioned Skylab Skylab 2, the first human spaceflight mission to Skylab Skylab 3, the follow-on human... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 692 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (910 × 789 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... The launch pad refers to the facilities where rockets or spacecrafts liftoff. ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Atmospheric reentry is the process by which vehicles that are outside the atmosphere of a planet can enter that atmosphere and reach the planetary surface intact. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Perth skyline viewed from the Swan River This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labeled graphic of Skylab space station Name of Image: Skylab MIX #: 0101535 NIX #: MSFC-0101535 Date of Image: 1974 Category: Skylab Full Description This image is an artist’s concept of the Skylab in orbit with callouts of its major components. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, is the name of a solar observatory that was attached to Skylab, the first US space station. ...

Contents

Background

The genesis of the Skylab project is difficult to pinpoint due to the number of different proposals floated from various NASA centers.


Early studies

A key event took place in 1959, when Wernher von Braun submitted his final Project Horizon plans to the US Army. The overall goal of Horizon was to place man on the moon, a mission that would soon be taken over by the rapidly-forming NASA. Although concentrating on the moon missions, von Braun also detailed an orbiting laboratory built out of a Horizon upper stage. This basic concept of re-using existing boosters would lead directly to a number of follow-on designs, and eventually the Skylab that actually flew. For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Project Horizon was a study to determine the feasibility of the construction of a lunar base on the moon conducted in 1959. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This article is about the American space agency. ...


In 1963, the US Air Force started development of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), a small space station primarily intended for photo reconnaissance using large telescopes directed by a two-man crew. It also had the designation KH-10 - Dorian. The station was the same diameter as a Titan II upper stage. The stations were to be launched with the crew riding atop in a modified Gemini capsule with a hatch cut into the heat shield on the bottom of the capsule. For additional details see Seal of the Air Force. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ...


http://www.astronautix.com/craft/mol.htm


http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/kh-10.htm


A number of NASA centers saw the MOL as something of a threat, and started back-room studies on various space station designs of their own. Most of these were simply "back of a napkin" type designs with no official backing. Studies generally looked at platforms launched by the Saturn V, followed up by crews launched on Saturn IB using an Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM), or alternately Gemini capsule on a Titan II-C, the latter being much less expensive in the case where cargo was not needed. Back of a napkin sketch of the New Zealand Parliament Buildings by the architect Sir Basil Spence while dining with Keith Holyoake Back of a napkin is a phrase used to explain the proposal of something in a very informal and quick way. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ...


But at the same time NASA was also looking for proposals for a major post-Apollo follow-on mission, including studies of a very large 24-man station with an operating lifetime of about five years. Lockheed Martin was involved in this project, and proposed a station that they felt would be a natural follow-on to the moon missions. One requirement for a permanent station would be periodic resupply, and for this role Lockheed suggested both Apollo-derived cargo vehicles or a new lifting body craft. After a lengthy and circuitous history, the new supply vehicle would emerge as the Space Shuttle, and their space station proposal as Space Station Freedom. Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... The lifting body is an aircraft configuration where the body itself produces lift. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ...


The Apollo Applications Program

Although initially unrelated, in June 1964, NASA headquarters in Washington set up the Apollo Logistic Support System Office, originally intended to study various ways to modify the Apollo hardware for scientific missions. The office originally proposed a number of projects for direct scientific study, including an extended-stay lunar mission which required two Saturn V launchers, a "lunar truck" based on the Lunar Module (LM), a large manned solar telescope using an LM as its crew quarters, and small space stations using a variety of LM or CSM-based hardware. Although not looking at the space station specifically, over the next two years the office would become increasingly dedicated to this role. In 1965 the office was renamed, becoming the Apollo Applications Program (AAP). Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ...


As part of their general work, in August 1964 MSC presented studies on an expendable lab known as Apollo "X", short for Apollo Extension System. Apollo X replaced the LM carried on the top of the S-IVB stage with a small space station just larger than the CSM's service area, containing supplies and experiments for missions between 15 and 45 days duration. Using this study as a baseline, a number of different mission profiles were looked at over the next six months.


Wernher von Braun proposed a more ambitious plan to build a much larger station. His design replaced the S-IVB stage of a complete Saturn V with an aeroshell, primarily as an adaptor for the CSM on top. Inside the shell was a cylindrical equipment section slightly smaller in diameter than the CSM. On reaching orbit, the S-II booster would be vented to remove any remaining hydrogen fuel, then the equipment section would be slid into it via a large inspection hatch. The station filled the entire interior of the S-II stage's hydrogen tank, with the equipment section forming a "spine" and living quarters between it and the walls of the booster. This would have resulted in a very large 33 x 45 foot living area. Power was to be provided by solar cells lining the outside of the S-II stage. For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


One problem with this proposal was that it required a dedicated Saturn V launch to fly the station. You could not "piggyback" the station's launch on a lunar mission; those required a working S-IVB stage. At the time the design was being proposed, all of the then-contracted Saturn V's were already earmarked for moon launches. Further work led to the idea of launching a smaller station based on the S-IVB instead, launching it on a surplus Saturn IB. Several planned Earth-orbit test missions for the LM and CSM had been cancelled, leaving a number of Saturn IB's free for use. The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable...

An early "wet workshop" version of Skylab.

Since the Saturn I had a much lower throw weight capability, the S-IV stage could not be left empty, its thrust would be needed for the mission. This limitation led to the development of the wet workshop concept, which led naturally out of von Braun's idea of using an existing stage after its fuel had burned off. However, in this case the station was to be built out of the S-IVB stage itself, as opposed to the S-II below it. A number of S-IVB-based stations were studied at MSC, but even the earliest, from mid-1965, had much in common with the Skylab design that actually flew. An airlock was placed in the equipment area immediately below where the LM sat on a moon mission, and a minimum amount of equipment was installed in the tank itself in order to avoid taking up too much fuel volume. After launch, a follow-up mission launched by a Saturn IB would carry up additional equipment in place of its LM, including solar panels, an equipment section and docking adaptor, and various experiments. Douglas Aircraft, builders of the S-IVB stage, were asked to prepare proposals along these lines. Image File history File links Wet_Workshop. ... Image File history File links Wet_Workshop. ... Wet Workshop was originally any idea of using a spent rocket booster as a makeshift space station. ... Wet Workshop was originally any idea of using a spent rocket booster as a makeshift space station. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas in July 1921. ...


On 1 April 1966, MSC sent out contracts to Douglas, Grumman, and McDonnell for conversion of a S-IVB spent stage under the name Saturn S-IVB spent-stage experiment support module (SSESM). In May the Apollo astronauts voiced concern over purging the stage's hydrogen tank in space. Nevertheless, in late July it was announced that the Orbital Workshop would be launched as a part of Apollo mission AS-209, originally one of the Earth-orbit CSM test launches, followed by two Saturn I/CSM crew launches, AAP-1 and AAP-2. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Design work continued over the next two years, in an era of shrinking budgets. In August 1967 NASA announced that the lunar mapping and base construction missions examined by the AAP were being cancelled. Only the Earth-orbiting missions remained, namely the Orbital Workshop and Apollo Telescope Mount solar observatory. Later several moon missions were cancelled as well, originally to be Apollo missions 18 through 20. The cancellation of these missions freed up three Saturn V boosters for the AAP program. Although this would have allowed them to develop von Braun's original S-II based mission, by this time so much work had been done on the S-IV based design that work continued on this baseline. With the extra power available, the wet workshop was no longer needed; the S-IC and S-II lower stages could launch a "dry workshop" directly into orbit.


Vehicle

On 8 August 1969, McDonnell Douglas received a contract for the conversion of two existing S-IVB stages to the Orbital Workshop configuration. One of the S-IV test stages was shipped to McDonnell for the construction of a mockup in January 1970. They named the manned workshop Skylab after a contest was held by NASA for someone to create a name. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ...


Skylab was actually the refitted S-IVB second stage of a Saturn IB booster (from the AS-212 vehicle), a leftover from the Apollo program originally intended for one of the canceled Apollo Earth orbital missions. A product of the Apollo Applications Program (a program tasked with finding long-term uses for Apollo program hardware), Skylab was originally planned as a minimally-altered S-IVB to be launched on a Saturn IB. The small size of the IB would have required Skylab to double as a rocket stage during launch, only being retrofitted as a space station once on-orbit. With the cancellation of Apollo missions 18-20 a Saturn V was made available and thus the "wet workshop" concept, as it was called, was put aside and Skylab was launched dry and fully outfitted. Skylab's grid flooring system was a highly visible legacy of the wet workshop concept. The S-IVB (sometimes S4b) was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated verson of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Wet Workshop was originally any idea of using a spent rocket booster as a makeshift space station. ...


The mission computer used aboard Skylab was the IBM System/4Pi TC-1, a relative of the AP-101 Space Shuttle computers. IBM redirects here. ... The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the B-52 bomber, the F-15 fighter, NASAs Skylab space station, and the Space Shuttle, as well as other aircraft. ... The IBM AP-101 is an avionics computer, used most notably in the U.S. Space Shuttle, but also in the B-52 and F-15, among others. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


Mission

Launch of the last Saturn V rocket (Actually a Saturn INT-21) carrying the Skylab space station
Launch of the last Saturn V rocket (Actually a Saturn INT-21) carrying the Skylab space station

Skylab was launched 14 May 1973 by a Saturn INT-21 (a two-stage version of the Saturn V launch vehicle) into a 235 nautical mile (435 km) orbit. The launch is sometimes referred to as Skylab 1, or SL-1. Severe damage was sustained during launch, including the loss of the station's micrometeoroid shield/sun shade and one of its main solar panels. Debris from the lost micrometeoroid shield further complicated matters by pinning the remaining solar panel to the side of the station, preventing its deployment and thus leaving the station with a huge power deficit. The station underwent extensive repair during a spacewalk by the first crew, which launched on 25 May 1973 (the SL-2 mission) atop a Saturn IB. Two additional missions followed on 28 July 1973 (SL-3) and 16 November 1973 (SL-4) with stay times of 28, 59, and 84 days, respectively. The last Skylab crew returned to Earth on 8 February 1974. Download high resolution version (2256x2814, 855 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2256x2814, 855 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the rocket. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the rocket. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Skylab 2 or SL-2 was the first human spaceflight mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated verson of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Skylab 3 or SL-3 was the second manned mission to Skylab. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

View of Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit from the departing Skylab 4 command module.

Download high resolution version (1500x1553, 2236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1553, 2236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ...

Operations in orbit

Skylab orbited Earth 2,476 times during the 171 days and 13 hours of its occupation during the three manned Skylab missions. Astronauts performed ten spacewalks totalling 42 hours 16 minutes. Skylab logged about 2,000 hours of scientific and medical experiments, including eight solar experiments. The Sun's coronal holes were discovered thanks to these efforts. Many of the experiments conducted investigated the astronauts' adaptation to extended periods of microgravity. Each Skylab mission set a record for the amount of time astronauts spent in space. Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Relatively dark regions of the corona having low density; they result from open field lines    This article is a stub. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ...


End of Skylab

Following the last mission, Skylab was left in a parking orbit expected to last at least eight years. The Space Shuttle was planned to dock with and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude in 1979; however, the shuttles were not able to launch until 1981. A planned unmanned satellite called the Teleoperator was to be launched to save Skylab, but funding never materialized. Skylab was in need of a major overhaul, including new gyroscopes, and was low on fuel. Some systems were not designed for maintenance in space; however this type of problem had been overcome before such as when the primary coolant loop was repaired. A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...

Vanguard (T-AGM-19) seen here as a NASA Skylab tracking ship. Note the SatCom tracking radar and telemetry antennas.
Vanguard (T-AGM-19) seen here as a NASA Skylab tracking ship. Note the SatCom tracking radar and telemetry antennas.

Increased solar activity, heating the outer layers of the Earth's atmosphere and thereby increasing drag on Skylab, led to an early reentry at approximately 16:37 UTC 11 July 1979. In the weeks leading up to the reentry, ground controllers had re-established contact with the six year old vehicle, and were able to adjust its attitude for optimal reentry dynamics. Earth reentry footprint was a narrow band (approx. 4° wide) beginning at about 48° S 87° E and ending at about 12° S 144° E, an area covering portions of the Indian Ocean and Western Australia. Debris was found between Esperance, Western Australia, and Rawlinna, Western Australia, 31–34°S, 122–126°E. An Australian municipality, the Shire of Esperance, fined the United States $400 for littering.[1] In 2004, the History Channel documentary "History Rocks" stated, in an episode covering major events of 1979, that this fine has never been paid. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1267x898, 211 KB)Vanguard (T-AGM-19) seen here as a NASA SkyLab tracking ship. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1267x898, 211 KB)Vanguard (T-AGM-19) seen here as a NASA SkyLab tracking ship. ... The USNS Mission San Fernando was one of twenty-seven Mission Buenaventura Class fleet oilers built during World War II for service in the United States Navy, named for the Franciscan mission located in Los Angeles, California. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... 20 years of solar irradiance data from satellites Solar variation refers to fluctuation in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person... Esperance is a town in Western Australia, located on the south coast around half-way between Albany and the South Australian border. ... Rawlinna (30°46′S 125°26′E) is a remote locality and railway siding on the Trans-Australian Railway in Western Australia. ... Esperance is a town in Western Australia, located on the south coast around half-way between Albany and the South Australian border. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ...

The largest fragment of Skylab recovered after its reentry though Earth's atmosphere. It is on display at the United States Space & Rocket Center.
The largest fragment of Skylab recovered after its reentry though Earth's atmosphere. It is on display at the United States Space & Rocket Center.

Skylab's demise was an international media event, with merchandising, wagering on time and place of re-entry and nightly news reports. The San Francisco Examiner offered a $10,000 prize for the first piece of Skylab to be delivered to their offices. 17-year-old Stan Thornton scooped a few pieces of Skylab off the roof of his home in Esperance, Western Australia and caught the first flight to San Francisco, where he collected his prize. In a coincidence for the organizers, the annual Miss Universe pageant was scheduled to be held a few days later, on 20 July 1979 in nearby Perth, Western Australia. A large piece of Skylab debris was displayed on the stage.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Some of the rockets in the U.S. Space & Rocket Center. ... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since the late 19th Century. ... Miss Universe is an annual international female beauty contest, and the title for the winner of the contest, founded in 1952 by California clothing company Pacific Mills. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Perth skyline viewed from the Swan River This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ...


Two flight-quality Skylabs were built. The first one was that which de-orbited and crashed in Western Australia in 1979; the second, a backup, is on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. A full scale training mockup once used for astronaut training is located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center visitor's center in Houston, Texas. Another full scale training mockup is now kept at Huntsville, Alabama, made from spare parts. It is currently being restored.[3] National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Front gate of Johnson Space Center. ... “Houston” redirects here. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ...


Skylab missions

The number identification of the manned Skylab missions is the cause of much confusion. Originally, the unmanned launch of Skylab and 3 manned missions were numbered SL-1 through SL-4. During the preparations for the manned missions, some documentation was created with a different scheme--SLM-1 through SLM-3--for those missions only. William Pogue credits Pete Conrad with asking the Skylab program director which scheme should be used for the mission patches and the astronauts were told to use 1-2-3, not 2-3-4. By the time NASA administrators tried to reverse this decision, it was too late, as all the in-flight clothing had already been manufactured and shipped with the 1-2-3 mission patches.[4] William Reid Pogue (born January 23, 1930) was an American astronaut. ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ...

Mission Patch Commander Pilot Science Pilot Launch date Landing date Duration (days)
Skylab 1 SL-1 unmanned launch 1973-05-14
17:30:00 UTC
1979-07-11
16:37:00 UTC
2248.96
Skylab 2 SL-2 (SLM-1) Pete Conrad Paul Weitz Joseph Kerwin 1973-05-25
13:00:00 UTC
1973-06-22
13:49:48 UTC
28.03
Skylab 3 SL-3 (SLM-2) Alan Bean Jack Lousma Owen Garriott 1973-07-28
11:10:50 UTC
1973-09-25
22:19:51 UTC
59.46
Skylab 4 SL-4 (SLM-3) Gerald Carr William Pogue Edward Gibson 1973-11-16
14:01:23 UTC
1974-02-08
15:16:53 UTC
84.04

Alternative meaning: research facility in the South Pole Station Americas first space station, the 75 metric ton Skylab, was in Earth orbit from 1973-1979, and visited by crew three times in 1973 and 1974. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Skylab 2 or SL-2 was the first human spaceflight mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station. ... Image File history File links Skylab1-Patch. ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... Paul Joseph Weitz (pronounced WHITES) (born July 25, 1932) was an American astronaut who flew in space twice. ... NAME: Joseph P. Kerwin, M.D. (Captain, MC, USN, Ret. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Skylab 3 or SL-3 was the second manned mission to Skylab. ... Image File history File links Skylab2-Patch. ... Alan LaVern Bean (born March 15, 1932 in Wheeler, Texas) is a former NASA Astronaut. ... Jack Robert Lousma [Colonel, USMC, Ret. ... Owen Kay Garriott, Ph. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1095x1050, 1123 KB)[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gerald P. Carr is a retired United States Marine Corps Colonel and former NASA astronaut. ... William Reid Pogue (born January 23, 1930) was an American astronaut. ... Edward G. Gibson, Ph. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Pop culture

  • The song Don't Bring Me Down by Electric Light Orchestra which was released in July of 1979 was dedicated to the NASA Skylab space station.
  • The rap-rock band 2 Skinnee J's wrote a song titled "Skylab" inspired by the station's reentry. The song appears on their first album, Sing, Earthboy, Sing!
  • The indie rock band PAIN(t)bynumbers wrote a song titled "Skylab Bluz" discussing the vivid scope of the Skylab project.
  • The Monks recorded a song called "Skylab (Theme from the Monks)" on their 1979 album Bad Habits.
  • Minneapolis indie rock band Manplanet released an EP entitled "Skylab". Known for their costumes and theatrics, when performing the title song they would drop a tin foil and cardboard model of the spacestation on the crowd while igniting pyrotechnics.
  • Brazilian singer Rogério Skylab[1] took his stage name from the space station.
  • The 1987 Australian film Dogs in Space is set in a chaotic house in Melbourne at the time of Skylab's re-entry, with the crash paralleling the death of one housemate from a drug overdose.
  • In the 2001 movie Wet Hot American Summer, the plot revolves around a college professor who has to come up with a plan to save a summer camp from a rogue piece of Skylab, which is re-entering the atmosphere. The film takes place in 1981.
  • Christopher Durang's 2005 play, Miss Witherspoon, features a character who committed suicide as a "disproportionate reaction" to Skylab. She expands on how she feared, despite the great improbability, that it may fall on her. She simply didn't want to take the chance.
  • Australian band You Am I's song called "Top of the Morn' & Slip of the Day" contains the lyric "I'm waiting for your hand like I'm waiting for Skylab". Tim Rogers, the band's lead singer and principal songwriter, was born in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia which is in the general vicinity of where Skylab's debris was found.
  • In the Doctor Who episode "Tooth and Claw", The Doctor mentions in passing that Skylab fell to Earth partially due to his intervention.
  • Skylab had appeared in the year 2001 summer "Bagrut" exams in Israel; Skylab was known to the Ministry of Education as a research station of simple harmonic motion.
  • The 1969 film Marooned, released four years before Skylab was launched, features a space station that resembles early designs for Skylab. It was also built out of an S-IVB stage.
  • A 1990 episode of the TV sitcom The Golden Girls has Rose telling a St. Olaf story about the town's tallest high schooler (actually a thinly veiled story about Dorothy and Stan), and ends by saying "Skylab fell on her."
  • The Skylab reentry is referenced in the video game Manic Miner; the level Skylab Landing Bay features Miner Willy dodging Skylabs that fall from the sky and crash. It is considered one of the harder levels to complete.
  • A quilt named "The Sun Sets on Sunbonnet Sue" on display at the Michigan State University Museum depicts the quilting icon, Sunbonnet Sue, being killed in various ways [2]. One panel depicts her being hit by Skylab.

Dont Bring Me Down is a song by the Electric Light Orchestra The song was the last track from the album Discovery. ... “ELO” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... 2 Skinnee Js is the name of a musical band, sometimes characterized as nerdcore hip hop. ... The Monks were an English rock group formed in the 1970s by former members of The Strawbs Richard Hudson, John Ford and Terry Cassidy, along with Clive Pearce. ... Bad Habits is an album by The Monks, released in 1979, and re-released on December 28, 1999. ... Dogs In Space is a 1987 Australian film set in the post-punk little band scene in Melbourne, in 1978. ... Wet Hot American Summer is a 2001 feature film. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the video game journalist, see Tim Rogers (journalist). ... Kalgoorlie may refer to the following geographically related places: Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, a city and council in Western Australia; Division of Kalgoorlie, a federal division of the Australian House of Representatives located around the geographical area; Electoral district of Kalgoorlie, an electoral district of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. ... For other uses, see Doctor Who (disambiguation). ... Tooth and Claw is an episode in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who that was first broadcast on 22 April 2006. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Teudat Bagrut (Hebrew: The entire process of the examination is governed by the the countrys Ministry of Education. ... Simple harmonic motion is the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a motion that is neither driven nor damped. ... Marooned is a 1969 movie directed by John Sturges and starring Gregory Peck, Richard Crenna and Gene Hackman. ... The Golden Girls is an American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from September 14, 1985 to May 9, 1992. ... St. ... Manic Miner is a classic platform game originally written for the ZX Spectrum by Matthew Smith and released by Bug-Byte in 1983 (later re-released by Software Projects). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Skylab

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ...

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Skylab - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2200 words)
Skylab was actually the refitted S-IVB second stage of a Saturn IB booster (from the AS-212 vehicle), a leftover from the Apollo program originally intended for one of the canceled Apollo earth orbital missions.
Skylab was launched May 14, 1973 by a Saturn INT-21 (a two-stage version of the Saturn V launch vehicle).
Increased solar activity, heating the outer layers of the earth's atmosphere and thereby increasing drag on Skylab, led to an early reentry at approximately 16:37 UTC July 11, 1979.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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