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Encyclopedia > Sky father
Jupiter, Ancient Roman sky god
Jupiter, Ancient Roman sky god

The sky father is a recurring theme in mythology. The sky father is the complement of the earth mother and appears in some creation myths, many of which are European or ancient Near Eastern. Other cultures have quite different myths; Egyptian mythology features a sky mother and an earthly dying and reviving god of vegetation, for example, while Shinto gives precedence to a sun goddess, Amaterasu, who is also recognized as an ancestress of the Japanese imperial family and thus a sort of sky mother. A sky father also relates to a solar deity, a god identified with the sun. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... The Earth Mother is a motif that appears in many mythologies. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan. ... It has been suggested that Sun cults be merged into this article or section. ...

  • In Ancient Rome the sky father, or sky god, was Jupiter (Zeus, Ζεύς, in Ancient Greece). Often depicted by birds, usually the Eagle or Hawk, and clouds or other sky phenomena. Nicknames included, "Sky God" and, "Cloud Gatherer." Most predominantly heard in The Iliad, an epic poem written by the Greek poet Homer. While many attribute a sky god to the sun, Jupiter ruled mainly over the clouds and the heavens, while Apollo is referred to as the god of the sun. Apollo was, however, the child of Jupiter.
  • In Ancient Egypt, Horus was ruler of the sky. He was shown as a typical male humanoid, however, he appeared to have the head of a falcon. It is not uncommon for birds to represent the sky in ancient religions, as birds were one of the few creatures that flew.

Contents

Polynesia is a triangle of islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... In Māori mythology, the primal couple Rangi and Papa (or Ranginui and Papatuanuku) appear in a creation myth explaining the origin of the world. ... The Earth Mother is a motif that appears in many mythologies. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Hawks redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Deception of Zeus be merged into this article or section. ... Homer (Greek: , HómÄ“ros) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... ↔--71. ... This page is about the Egyptian deity. ... Species About 37; see text. ...

History of the concept

In late nineteenth century opinions on comparative religion, in a line of thinking that begins with Friedrich Engels and J. J. Bachofen, and which received major literary promotion in The Golden Bough by Sir James G. Frazer, it was believed that worship of a sky father was characteristic of nomadic peoples, and that worship of an earth mother similarly characterised farming peoples. According to this body of doctrine, nomads militarily overran farming societies, and replaced goddesses with male gods. During the process, it was believed that the invaders devalued the status of women and replaced a matriarchy with a patriarchy. The religious changes were imagined to reflect this change in the status of the sexes. This belief system was linked to the discovery of the Indo-European languages, and it was fancied that the military conquest underlying this model spread those languages. The sky father was held to be an Indo-European cultural ideal. Aryan and Indo-European were synonymous during this period. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Comparative religion is a field of religious study that analyzes the interpretive differences of common themes, myths, rituals and concepts among the worlds religions. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... The Swiss Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–1887), is most often connected with his theory of matriarchy, or Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book This presented a radically new view of the role of women in a broad range of ancient societies. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Farmlands in Hebei province, China. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses. ... Matriarchy is a form of society in which power is with the women and especially with the mothers of a community. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The sky father is frequently invoked in feminist spirituality, which has helped revive the concept even as the notion of earth mothers and sky fathers was rejected as oversimplified and implausible in the world of anthropology, archaeology, and comparative religion. Feminist spirituality is a class of religious beliefs in which certain feminist ideas play an important role. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Comparative religion is a field of religious study that analyzes the interpretive differences of common themes, myths, rituals and concepts among the worlds religions. ...


Reconsideration of theory

The theory of a common sky father is rejected by most archaeologists and anthropologists as an explanation of early European religious life. The archaeological record does not indicate that Indo-European languages spread throughout their area in Europe and Asia by military conquest alone. Many non-Indo-European cultures also have male-dominated pantheons, without being conquered or bent on conquest. There is no direct historical correlation between the worship of goddesses and the social status of women; nor is there a great deal of evidence that the worship of female deities is associated with agriculture, or that male gods accompany nomadism. Nor is there any reason to believe that the Indo-Europeans practiced a religion that was more male-dominated, patriarchal, or wont to promote male gods at the expense of goddesses, than any other polytheistic religion. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


It is in fact true that a male sky god, whose name has been reconstructed as *Dyēus ph2ter, and which survive in Greek mythology as Zeus, in Roman mythology as Jupiter, in Norse mythology as Tyr, and in Vedic mythology as Dyaus Pitar, seems to have been shared and inherited from a common stock of Proto-Indo-European religion. Each of these names is cognate to the others. This is not, in fact, the most widespread inherited Indo-European deity. The dawn goddess whose name is reconstructed as *aus-os- is even more widespread; she appears in Greek mythology as Eos, in Rome as Aurora, in Germanic mythology as Eostre, in Baltic mythology as Aušra, in Slavic mythology as Zorya, and in Vedic and Hindu mythology as Ushas. These names are all cognate as well. From what we can tell of Indo-European culture, there was neither a systematic bias against goddesses or a religious motivation towards male dominance greater than any other comparable culture. *DyÄ“us is the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the telling of stories created by the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Vedic mythology that occupies a pivotal position in the history of religions, is a significant aspect of Hindu mythology and has directly contributed to the evolution and development of Hinduism. ... In vedic religion, Dyaus Pita is the Sky Father, husband of Prthivi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus, the thunderer. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Eostre (Easter) and Ostara are the name of a putative Germanic goddess. ... For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... AuÅ¡ra, in Lithuanian, literally means sunrise. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... In Slavic mythology, the Zorya (alternately: Zarya, Zvezda, Zwezda) are the three (sometimes two) guardian goddesses, known as the Auroras. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ...


Influences

The theory about earth goddesses, sky fathers, and patriarchal invaders was a stirring tale that fired various imaginations. The story was important in literature, and was referred to in various ways by important poets and novelists, including T. S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, James Joyce, and most influentially, Robert Graves. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... D.H. Lawrence, age 21 (1906) David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism and personal letters. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Portrait of Robert Graves (circa 1974) by Rab Shiell Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 5 November 1955) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...


How it worked out in practice depended on which side the believers chose to root for. Belief in the sky father and the military prowess of Aryan supermen was a feature of Nazi racial ideology; the swastika was chosen to embody this belief system because it was a symbol thought to be used by the ancient Vedic religion (as well as modern Hinduism and Buddhism). Sympathy with the lost utopia of the matriarchal goddessdom arose later. Established as a recurring theme in important literature, the tale lived on among the literature faculty long after it had been dropped by the anthropology department. Its truth was assumed by several historical novelists and fantasy authors, including Mary Renault, Mary Stewart, and more recently Mercedes Lackey and Marion Zimmer Bradley, among many others. National Socialism redirects here. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form In the Western world, since World War II, the swastika is usually associated with the flag of Nazi Germany and the Nazi Party. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Mary Renault (1905–1983) was an English novelist whose works are still popular with devotees of the historical novel. ... Mary Stewart (born 12 September 1916 in Sunderland, County Durham) is a popular English novelist, best known for her trilogy about Merlin, which straddles the boundary between the historical novel and the fantasy genre. ... Mercedes Lackey Mercedes Lackey (born June 24, 1950) (also known as Misty Lackey) is a prolific American author of fantasy novels. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was a prolific author of largely feminist fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, and a steadfast encourager of equality (and quality) in writing. ...


External links

  • Comprehensive Father Sky Resource

  Results from FactBites:
 
Talk:Sky father - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (211 words)
It should start with a clear statement of who "Sky Father" is supposed to be and where the concept exists.
History section: Move out everything not in the history of the Sky Father ideology set it aside for later.
Statements like A sky father also relates to a solar deity, a god identified with the sun.
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