FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sky Tower
Sky Tower

Looking up at the Sky Tower / Sky Tower lit up at night.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 534 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 920 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ...

Information
Location Flag of New Zealand Auckland City, New Zealand
Status Complete
Groundbreaking 1994
Constructed 1994-1997
Opening March 3, 1997
Use Communications, observation, mixed use
Height
Antenna/Spire 328 m (1,076.1 ft)
Top floor 222 m (728.3 ft)
Companies
Architect Craig Craig Moller Ltd.
Structural
Engineer
Beca Group
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group

The Sky Tower is an observation- and telecommunications tower located on the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets in the Auckland CBD, Auckland City, New Zealand. It is 328 metres (1,076 ft) tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast,[1] making it the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, and the 12th tallest member of the World Federation of Great Towers.[2] Due to its shape and height, especially when compared to the next tallest buildings, it has become an iconic Auckland structure, often used in logos and promotions. Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... This article is about the City of Auckland. ... Beca Group (generally known as Beca) is a multinational, Australasia-centered professional engineering services company. ... An observation tower (alpine also prospect control room) has the function to make as far a remote view and an instructive round view possible over 360° as possible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Auckland CBD seen from the Waitemata Harbour. ... This article is about the City of Auckland. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... The World Federation of Great Towers (WFGT) is an association of tall towers and skyscrapers from around the world. ...


The landmark is part of the SKYCITY Auckland casino complex, owned and operated by SKYCITY Entertainment Group. SKYCITY Auckland is New Zealands largest casino. ...

Contents

Uses

Sky Tower in the Auckland skyline.
Sky Tower in the Auckland skyline.

The upper portion of the tower contains two restaurant levels (one, 'Orbit' with revolving seating, turning 360 degrees once every hour)[3] and one cafe level, as well as two observation decks (including some with sections of glass floor).[3] The tower attracts, on average, 1,450 visitors per day (over 500,000 per year).[4] Image File history File linksMetadata AucklandCity800. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AucklandCity800. ... Prima Tower (Singapore) dining area showing an example of a revolving restaurant. ...


The tower also features the SkyJump, a 192-metre[5] 'fan descender' jump (an experience between a bungy jump and a base jump) from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h (53 mph). The jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of gusts.[6] Climbs into the antennae portion (300 m/980 ft heights) are also possible for tour groups.[5] Bungee Jump in Normandy, France Bungee jumping is an activity in which a person jumps off from a high place (generally of several hundred feet/meters) with one end of an elastic cord attached to his/her body or ankles and the other end tied to the jumping-off point. ... BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ...


As well as for entertainment, the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) being located on Level 48. Several radio broadcasting companies co-locate transmitters and share antenna systems, while television company Canwest (who runs the TV3 and C4 channels) has secondary transmitters on the tower, their primary one being at Waiatarua.[citation needed] The Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) is an Ethernet-based neutral peering point running over the CityLink metropolitan network in Auckland, New Zealand. ... TV3 is a commercial television station in New Zealand. ... C4 is a music television station operating in New Zealand and owned by Canwest MediaWorks NZ, a company 70% owned by Canadian broadcasting conglomerate Canwest. ... Waiatarua is a small settlement near the top of the Waitakere Ranges, which border New Zealands largest city, Auckland, close to the junction of Scenic Drive, West Coast Road and Piha Road to Piha. ...


Construction

Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours. Various other lighting schemes and colours are also used.
Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours. Various other lighting schemes and colours are also used.
Sky Tower as seen from Mt Eden at dusk.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

Project history

Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, structural, geotechnical, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, lighting and fire engineering services. It was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller, and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.[7][8][1] Fletcher Construction Ltd is a leading New Zealand construction company. ... Beca Group (generally known as Beca) is a multinational, Australasia-centered professional engineering services company. ...


Taking two and a half years of construction time, the tower was opened on March 3, 1997, six months ahead of schedule.[9]


Facts & Figures

The tower is constructed of reinforced, high-performance concrete. Its 12-metre (39 ft) diameter shaft (containing three lifts and an emergency stairwell) is supported on eight 'legs' based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m (39 ft) deep into the local sandstone.[8][1] The main shaft was built using climbing formwork.[1] Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... Climbing formwork on a skyscraper in New Zealand - the whole white upperstructure is actually formwork and associated facilities. ...


The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete,[1] and the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres (20,000 cu yd) of concrete, 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of reinforcing steel and 660 metric tons (730 short tons) of structural steel were used. The mast alone weighs over 170 metric tons (190 short tons).[1][10] It had to be lifted into place using a crane attached to the structure, as it would have been too heavy for a helicopter to lift. To then remove the crane, another crane had to be constructed attached to the upper part of the Sky Tower structure, which dismantled the big crane, and was in turn dismantled into pieces small enough to fit into the elevator.[1] Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineering materials made from two or more components. ... A precast concrete walled house in construction Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or form and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... The cubic yard (symbols yd³, cu. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


Emergencies

The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h (120 mph) and resist earthquakes with a 1,000 year return period. Analysis shows that an earthquake centered 40 kilometres (25 mi) away and reaching 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale is expected to leave the tower practically undamaged. Even an earthquake measured at a magnitude of 8.0 (10 times stronger than a 7.0 quake), and located only 20 km (12 mi) away, is not expected to collapse the tower.[1] As an additional safeguard against emergencies, fireproof rooms on the lower levels of the observation deck would provide refuge in the unlikely event of a conflagration, while the stairwell itself is also fire-safety rated.[10] The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ...


The sky tower has so far been closed once for weather-related reasons, during a storm in November 2006, when the structure started to sway noticeably in winds of up to 150 km/h (93 mph). The closure was noted as not having been strictly necessary except for visitor comfort, as the tower has been designed to sway up to one metre (39 in)[11] in high winds of up to 210 km/h (130 mph), which are expected to occur only once in 1,000 years on average.[1] An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


References

360 degrees panorama view as seen from Sky Deck, Sky Tower, Auckland.
360 degrees panorama view as seen from Sky Deck, Sky Tower, Auckland.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Case Studies: Sky Tower (from the University of Auckland, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering. Retrieved 2007-12-01.)
  2. ^ Fun Facts (from the SKYCITY Auckland website. Retrieved 2007-10-22.)
  3. ^ a b Orbit, Sky Tower - The New Zealand Herald, Saturday 19 May 2007
  4. ^ Sky Tower Education (from the SKYCITY Auckland website. Accessed 2008-03-04.)
  5. ^ a b Auckland: Don't Miss: Action in the outdoors (from the Tourism New Zealand website. Retrieved 2007-12-02.)
  6. ^ SkyJump (from the official skyjump.co.nz website)
  7. ^ Sky Tower (from the website of Craig Craig Moller, Sky Tower's architects)
  8. ^ a b Projects: Commercial: Sky Tower (from the Fletcher Construction website. Retrieved 2007-12-02.)
  9. ^ Sky Tower (from 'Feature Projects', Beca Group website)
  10. ^ a b Construction Facts (from the SKYCITY Auckland website)
  11. ^ Some homes still powerless after storm - The New Zealand Herald, Friday 10 November 10, 2006

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4996x1300, 1884 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auckland Sky Tower Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/View from Sky Tower Akl User:Antilived... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4996x1300, 1884 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auckland Sky Tower Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/View from Sky Tower Akl User:Antilived... The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealands largest research-based university. ... SKYCITY Auckland is New Zealands largest casino. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ... SKYCITY Auckland is New Zealands largest casino. ... Fletcher Construction Ltd is a leading New Zealand construction company. ... Beca Group (generally known as Beca) is a multinational, Australasia-centered professional engineering services company. ... SKYCITY Auckland is New Zealands largest casino. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ...

See also

  • Macau Tower (inspired by the Sky Tower, designed by the same company)
  • SkyCity Auckland (base building of the Sky Tower complex)
  • Sydney Tower (The second tallest observation tower in the Southern Hemisphere)

Macau Tower, Macau The observation deck, viewed from underneath A fountain in the shape of a lotus, the representative flower of Macau, outside the Macau Tower Macau Tower, also known as Macau Sky Tower, is a tower located in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of... SKYCITY Auckland is New Zealands largest casino. ... Sydney Tower (also known as the AMP Tower, AMP Centrepoint Tower, Centrepoint Tower or just Centrepoint) is Sydneys tallest free-standing structure, and the second tallest in Australia (with the Q1 building on the Gold Coast being the tallest). ...

External links

  • Sky Tower (official Sky Tower website)
  • Sky Tower in the Structurae database
  • Explore the Sky Tower (interactive Sky Tower, requires Macromedia Flash)
  • 360° view from tower (from Skycity website, requires Quicktime)
  • Sky Tower is at coordinates 36°50′55″S 174°45′44″E / -36.848461, 174.762183 (Sky Tower)Coordinates: 36°50′55″S 174°45′44″E / -36.848461, 174.762183 (Sky Tower)
Structurae is an on-line database containing works of structural and civil engineering of all kinds such as Bridges, High-rise buildings, towers, dams, etc. ... // == Macromedia Flash == ==]] Using Macromedia Flash 8 (bundled in Studio 8) in Windows XP. Maintainer: Adobe Systems (formerly Macromedia) Latest release: 8 / September 30th, 2005 OS: Windows (no native Windows XP Professional x64 Edition support), Mac OS X, Linux (i386 only, via wine [1]) Use: Multimedia Content Creator License: Proprietary Website... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... The Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is currently the worlds tallest man-made stucture. ... Milad Tower under construction, as of June 22nd, 2005. ... Beijings CCTV Tower The China Central Television TV (CCTV) Tower is the tallest structure in Beijing, China. ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... The Berliner Fernsehturm seen from a distance. ... Gerbrandy tower, IJsselstein, NL The tower at Christmas The Gerbrandy Tower (Dutch: ) is a tower which was built in 1961 in the Netherlands. ... Located in the city of Guangzhou, China, Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower [1] will be the tallest free standing structure after its completion in 2009, provided the Burj Dubai does not open first. ... Höiåsmasten is a TV tower used for FM- and TV-transmission near Halden at Norway. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For the North Korean TV channel, see Korean Central Television KCTV is the CBS-affiliated television station for the Kansas City metropolitan area. ... Up close view of the Kiev TV Tower. ... The Kuala Lumpur Tower (officially known as Menara Kuala Lumpur; referred later as KL Tower) is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was built in 1995. ... The KXJB-TV mast is a television transmitting tower in Traill County, North Dakota, United States. ... KVLY-TV mast seen close-up The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television transmitting mast in Traill County, North Dakota, USA, used by Fargo station KVLY channel 11. ... At 372 m, the Liberation Tower (seen in background) is the worlds 21st tallest free-standing structure, by pinnacle height. ... Macau Tower, Macau The observation deck, viewed from underneath A fountain in the shape of a lotus, the representative flower of Macau, outside the Macau Tower Macau Tower, also known as Macau Sky Tower, is a tower located in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of... The Oriental Pearl Tower (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Official Name: 东方明珠电视塔) is a TV tower in Shanghai, China. ... Vertical panorama of Ostankino Television Tower The Ostankino tower seen from the grounds at All-Russia Exhibition Centre. ... The Radio and TV Tower from below The Riga Radio and TV Tower (Rīgas radio un televīzijas tornis) is the tallest structure in Riga, Latvia and Baltic states. ... Saint Petersburg TV Tower as seen from the Medikov street The Saint Petersburg TV Tower is a 310 metre high lattice steel tower in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... The Stratosphere Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, owned by American Casino & Entertainment Properties which is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Real Estate Partners. ... Sydney Tower (also known as the AMP Tower, AMP Centrepoint Tower, Centrepoint Tower or just Centrepoint) is Sydneys tallest free-standing structure, and the second tallest in Australia (with the Q1 building on the Gold Coast being the tallest). ... Tallinn TV Tower, looking up at the top. ... The TV Tower of Tashkent is a 375 meter high tower, located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. ... Tbilisi TV Tower Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower is a free-standing tower structure used for communications purposes. ... The Tianjin Radio and Television Tower is a 415. ... Tokyo Tower ) is a tower in Shiba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan ( ). It is 332. ... Downtown San Antonio features the historic San Fernando Cathedral, the Tower Life Building and the Tower of The Americas. ... The Torrena is a 336. ... The Vilnius TV Tower (Lithuanian: Vilniaus televizijos bokštas) is a 326. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ... Zendstation Smilde is a tall free-standing structure, similar as Gerbrandy Tower, built for directional radio services and TV and FM-transmissions in 1959 in the Netherlands. ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m