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Encyclopedia > Skull fracture
Skull fracture
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 S02
ICD-9 800.0-804.9

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the skull caused by a head injury. Isolated skull fractures are not very serious injuries, but usually the presence of a skull fracture indicates that significant enough impact occurred to cause brain trauma, which is quite serious. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Skull fractures can cause significant harm: Broken fragments of skull can lacerate or bruise the brain or damage blood vessels. If the fracture occurs over a major blood vessel, significant bleeding can occur within the skull, so head injury patients with skull fracture have many more intracranial hematomas (especially epidural hematomas) than those without fractures (Graham and Gennareli, 2000; Stock and Singer, 2004). Another complication of skull fractures is dissection of cerebral arteries, which can limit blood flow to the brain. A fracture in which the skin is also broken is called an open fracture or compound fracture. Penetrating head injuries are those that cause a fracture in the skull and breach the dura mater, the outermost membrane of the brain's meninges. Brain contusion, latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nontraumatic epidural hematoma in a young woman. ... In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...


Fractures of the skull can be comminuted, depressed, linear or diastatic (Stock and Singer, 2004).

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Linear fracture

Linear skull fractures, the most common type of skull fracture, occur in 62% of patients with severe head injury (Gilbert, 1990; Graham and Gennareli, 2000). Usually caused by widely distributed forces, linear fractures often occur when the impact causes the area of the skull that was struck to bend inward, making the area around it buckle outward (Gilbert, 1990; Graham and Gennareli, 2000).


In rare cases, a linear fracture can develop and lengthen as the brain swells, in what is called a growing fracture. This can cause growth of cysts in the meninges (Orlando Regional Healthcare, 2004; Graham and Gennareli, 2000). Diastatic fractures are linear fractures that cause the bones of the skull to separate at the skull sutures in young children whose skull bones have not yet fused (BAIUSA; Orlando Regional Healthcare, 2004). They are usually caused by impact with a wide area such as a wall (Gilbert, 1990). Cerebral edema is swelling of the brain which can occur as the result of a head injury, cardiac arrest or from the lack of proper altitude acclimatization. ... This is an article about cysts in the body. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... Side view of the skull. ...

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Comminuted fracture

Comminuted skull fractures, those in which a bone is shattered into many pieces, can result in bits of bone being driven into the brain, lacerating it (Gilbert, 1990). Depressed skull fractures, a very serious type of trauma occurring in 11% of severe head injuries, are comminuted fractures in which broken bones are displaced inward (Graham and Gennareli, 2000). This type of fracture carries a high risk of increasing pressure on the brain, crushing the delicate tissue. Complex depressed fractures are those in which the dura mater is torn. Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ... Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ...


One example of this type of fracture occured on September 14, 2006 to goalie Petr Čech during a British football match. He was immediately escorted off the field and required emergency surgery.[1]. September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petr ÄŒech (born May 20, 1982 in Plzeň, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech international footballer who is currently a goalkeeper for Chelsea F.C. (2006). ...

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Basilar skull fracture

Basilar skull fractures, breaks in bones at the base of the skull, require more force to cause than cranial vault fractures. Thus they are rare, occurring as the only fracture in only 4% of severe head injury patients (Graham and Gennareli, 2000; Orlando Regional Healthcare, 2004). Caused by a blow to the back of the head, or by sudden deceleration of torso but not head (as in traffic accidents), resulting in separation of the suture between the occipital and temporal bones. Basilar fractures have characteristic signs: blood in the sinuses; a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaking from the nose or ears; raccoon eyes (bruising of the orbits of the eyes that result from blood collecting there as it leaks from the fracture site); and battle sign (caused when blood collects behind the ears and causes bruising). Patients with basilar skull fractures are especially likely to get meningitis (Downie, 2001). Bones may be broken around the foramen magnum, the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord enters and becomes the brain stem, creating the risk that blood vessels and nerves exiting the hole may be damaged (BAIUSA). A basilar skull fracture (or Basal skull fracture) is a linear fracture involving the base of the skull. ... A sinus is a pouch or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Raccoon eye or periorbital bruising or is a sign of basal skull fracture. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... In anatomy, the foramen magum is the large hole through the occipital bone in the base of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) exits the skull vault. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Mostly enveloped by the cerebrum and cerebellum (blue), the visible part of brainstem is shown in black. ...

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References

  1. Brain Injury Association of America (BIAUSA). "Types of Brain Injury." Available.
  2. Downie A. 2001. "Tutorial: CT in Head Trauma" Available.
  3. Gilbert S. 1990. "Investigative Significance of Coup and Contrecoup Head Injuries." Available.
  4. Graham DI and Gennareli TA. Chapter 5, "Pathology of Brain Damage After Head Injury" Cooper P and Golfinos G. 2000. Head Injury, 4th Ed. Morgan Hill, New York.
  5. Orlando Regional Healthcare, Education and Development. 2004. "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Available.
  6. Shepherd S. 2004. "Head Trauma." Emedicine.com. Available.
  7. Stock A and Singer L. 2004. "Head Trauma." Emedicine.com. Available.

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