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Encyclopedia > Skull (symbolism)
St. Jerome, by Lucas van Leyden
St. Jerome, by Lucas van Leyden

Skull symbolism is the attachment of symbolic meaning to the skull, generally human. The most common symbolic use of the skull is as a representation of death and mortality. Saint Jerome and a skull, by Albrecht Durer The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Saint Jerome and a skull, by Albrecht Durer The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


Humans can often recognize the buried fragments of an only partially revealed cranium even when other bones may look like shards of stone. The human brain has a specific region for recognizing faces [1], and is so attuned to finding them that it can see faces in a few dots and lines or punctuation marks; the human brain cannot separate the image of the human skull from the familiar human face. Because of this, both the death of, and the now past life of the skull are symbolized. For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The face is the front part of the head and includes the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ... For other uses of smiley and smiley face, see Smiley (disambiguation). ... Emoticons originated with text representations. ...


Moreover, a human skull with its large eye sockets displays a degree of neoteny, which humans often find visually appealing—yet a skull is also obviously dead. As such, human skulls often have a greater visual appeal than the other bones of the human skeleton, and can fascinate even as they repel. For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Neoteny describes a process by which paedomorphism is achieved, and is a subject studied in the field of developmental biology. ... Cute redirects here. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ...

Contents

Examples

The skull that is often engraved or carved on the head of early New England tombstones might be merely a symbol of mortality, but the skull is also often backed by an angelic pair of wings [2], lofting mortality beyond its own death. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...

"All is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929
"All is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929

One of the best-known examples of skull symbolism occurs in Shakespeare's Hamlet, where the title character recognizes the skull of an old friend: "Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest. . ." Hamlet is inspired to utter a bitter soliloquy of despair and rough ironic humor. All is Vanity, by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... All is Vanity, by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Charles Allan Gilbert (1873 - 1929) was an American artist and illustrator. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Yorick can refer to: Yorick, the deceased court jester whose skull is exhumed by the gravedigger in Act 5, Scene 1, of Shakespeares Hamlet. ...


Compare Hamlet's words "Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft" to Talmudic sources: "…Rabi Ishmael [the High Priest]… put [the decapitated head of a martyr] in his lap… and cried: oh sacred mouth!…who buried you in ashes…!". The skull was an emblem of melancholy for Shakespeare's contemporaries[citation needed]. The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ...


The emblem of the skull cannot be assumed to be a mere symbol of Death. The skull is placed significantly on the writing desk of Saint Jerome in Albrecht Dürer's woodcut. Not truly a Memento mori, the skull's huge empty eye-sockets contrast with Jerome's downcast eyes in one of the best evocations of the interior vision of contemplation, perhaps focused on Eternity, ever realized in Western art[citation needed]. An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... Symbols of death are the symbolic, often allegorical, portrayal of death in various cultures. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... For other uses, see Memento mori (disambiguation). ...

Sugar skull given for the Day of the Dead. They're also made with chocolate and amaranto
Sugar skull given for the Day of the Dead. They're also made with chocolate and amaranto

Skulls and skeletons are the main symbol of the Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x1033, 189 KB) Summary Photo of a candy skull made of sugar, a common gift and decoration for the Day of the Dead in Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x1033, 189 KB) Summary Photo of a candy skull made of sugar, a common gift and decoration for the Day of the Dead in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Species See text The amaranths (also called pigweeds) comprise the genus Amaranthus, a widely distributed genus of short-lived herbs, occurring mostly in temperate and tropical regions. ... Mexican may have several meanings. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Day of the Dead (disambiguation). ...


Venetian painters of the 16th century elaborated moral allegories for their patrons, and memento mori was a common theme. The theme carried by an inscription on a rustic tomb, "Et in Arcadia ego"—"I too [am] in Arcadia," if it is Death that is speaking—is made famous by two paintings by Nicholas Poussin, but the motto made its pictorial debut in Guercino's version, 1618-22 (in the Galleria Barberini, Rome): in it, two awestruck young shepherds come upon an inscribed plinth, in which the inscription ET IN ARCADIA EGO gains force from the prominent presence of a wormy skull in the foreground. Et in Arcadia ego is a Latin phrase that most famously appears as the title of two paintings by Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665). ... Arcadia is a poetical name for fantasy land (having more or less the same notation as Utopia ), named after the Greek land. ... Et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. ... The Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591—1666) known as Guercino, was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna. ...


Next to the Magdalene's dressing-mirror, in a convention of Baroque painting[citation needed], the Skull has quite different connotations and reminds the viewer that the Magdalene has become a symbol for repentance. In C. Allan Gilbert's much-reproduced lithograph of a lovely Gibson Girl seated at her fashionable toilette, an observer can witness its transformation into an alternate image. A ghostly echo of the worldly Magdalene's repentance motif lurks behind this turn-of-the 20th century icon. This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Charles Allan Gilbert (1873 - 1929) was an American artist and illustrator. ... Charles Dana Gibson (September 14, 1867 _ December 23, 1944) was an American graphic artist, noted for his creation of one of the first pin-up girls, the Gibson Girl. Woman Jurors by Charles Dana Gibson, 1902 He was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts. ...


The skull becomes an icon itself when its painted representation becomes a substitute for the real thing. Simon Schama chronicled the ambivalence of the Dutch to their own worldly success during the Dutch Golden Age of the first half of the 17th century in The Embarrassment of Riches. The possibly frivolous and merely decorative nature of the still life genre was avoided by Pieter Claesz in his "Vanitas" (illustration, below right): Skull, opened case-watch, overturned emptied wineglasses, snuffed candle, book: "Lo, the wine of life runs out, the spirit is snuffed, oh Man, for all your learning, time yet runs on: Vanity!" The visual cues of the hurry and violence of life are contrasted with eternity in this somber, still and utterly silent painting. This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... A still life is a work of art which represents a subject composed of inanimate objects. ... Pieter Claesz (ca. ... Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz This article is about the fine art genre. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ...

Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz, 1630 (Mauritzhuis, The Hague)

When the skull is represented in Nazi SS insignia, the death's-head (Totenkopf) deals with the fear of death, but when tattooed on the forearm its apotropaic power helps an outlaw biker cheat death[citation needed]. The skull and crossbones signify "Poison" when they appear on a glass bottle containing a white powder, or any container in general. But it is not the same emblem when it flies high above the poop deck as the Jolly Roger: there the pirate death's-head epitomizes the pirates' ruthlessness and despair: their usage of death imagery might be paralleled with their occupation challenging the natural order of things[citation needed]. Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz (1597 - 1661). ... Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz (1597 - 1661). ... This article is about the military symbol. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... Apotropaic is an adjective that means intended to ward off evil or averting or combating evil and commonly refers to objects such as amulets and talismans or other symbols. ... An Outlaw Biker is an individual who is a member or an affiliate of a so-called motorcycle club. ... EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. The traditional Jolly Roger of Piracy. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ...


When a skull was worn as a trophy on the belt of the Lombard king Alboin, it was a constant grim triumph over his old enemy, and he drank from it. In the same way a skull is a warning when it decorates the palisade of a city, or deteriorates on a pike at a Traitor's Gate. The Skull Tower, with the embedded skulls of Serbian rebels, was built in 1809 on the highway near Niš, Serbia, as a stark political warning from the Ottoman government. In this case the skulls are the statement: that the current owner had the power to kill the former. Alboin or Alboïn (d. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... A remaining wall (photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... Nis redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


A skull adorned the altar of a pagan Gaulish tribe[citation needed], and the rafters of a traditional Jivaro medicine house in Peru [3], or in New Guinea. The temple of Kali is veneered with skulls, but the goddess Kali offers life through the welter of blood. The late medieval Dutch painters[citation needed] place the skull where it lies at the foot of the Cross at Golgotha (Hebrew: the place of the skull). But for them it has become quite specifically the skull of Adam. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...


The Serpent crawling through the eyes of a skull is a familiar image that survives in contemporary Goth subculture. The serpent is a chthonic god of knowledge and of immortality, because he sloughs off his skin. The serpent guards the Tree in the Greek Garden of the Hesperides and, later, a Tree in the Garden of Eden. The serpent in the skull is always making its way through the socket that was the eye: knowledge persists beyond death, the emblem says, and the serpent has the secret. For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the subculture. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...

Pompeii mosaic
Pompeii mosaic

The skull speaks. It says "Et in Arcadia ego" or simply "Vanitas." In a first-century mosaic tabletop from a Pompeiian triclinium (now in Naples), the skull is crowned with a carpenter's square and plumb-bob, which dangles before its empty eyesockets (Death as the great leveller), while below is an image of the ephemeral and changeable nature of life: a butterfly atop a wheel—a table for a philosopher's symposium. Et in Arcadia ego is a Latin phrase that most famously appears as the title of two paintings by Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665). ... Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz This article is about the fine art genre. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... In Roman Era dwellings (particularly those of the wealthy), triclinia were standard issue. ... In carpentry, a square or set square is a guide for establishing right angles (ninety-degree angles), usually made of metal and in the shape of a right triangle. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with plumb line. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ...

"Calavera de la Catrina" by José Guadalupe Posada (1851-1913)
"Calavera de la Catrina" by José Guadalupe Posada (1851-1913)

Similarly, a skull might be seen crowned by a chaplet of dried roses, a "Carpe diem", though rarely as bedecked as Mexican printmaker José Guadalupe Posada's Catrina. In Mesoamerican architecture, stacks of skulls (real or sculpted) represented the result of human sacrifices. The skull speaks in the catacombs of the Capuchin brothers beneath the church of Santa Maria della Concezione in Rome[4], where disassembled bones and teeth and skulls of the departed Capuchins have been rearranged to form a rich Baroque architecture of the human condition, in a series of anterooms and subterranean chapels with the inscription, set in bones: Image File history File links Calavera de la Catrina by José Guadalupe Posada (before 1913) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Calavera de la Catrina by José Guadalupe Posada (before 1913) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Posada in front of his workshop Calavera Oaxaqueña, 1910 José Guadalupe Posada (2 February 1852 – 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. ... For other uses, see Carpe diem (disambiguation). ... Posada in front of his workshop Calavera Oaxaqueña, 1910 José Guadalupe Posada (2 February 1852 – 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. ... For other uses, see Catrina (disambiguation). ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... A stake used to display the heads of victims or defeated Mesoamerican ball game opponents. ... Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ... Front second ossuarys chaptel. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ...

Noi eravamo quello che voi siete, e quello che noi siamo voi sarete.
"We were what you are; and what we are, you will be."

An old Yoruba folktale [5] tells of a man who encountered a skull mounted on a post by the wayside. To his astonishment, the skull spoke. The man asked the skull why it was mounted there. The skull said that it was mounted there for talking. The man then went to the king, and told the king of the marvel he had found, a talking skull. The king and the man returned to the place where the skull was mounted; the skull remained silent. The king then commanded that the man be beheaded, and ordered that his head be mounted in place of the skull. The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Beheading. ...


Popular culture

  • Lee Falk's popular superhero The Phantom uses the mark of the skull as his trademark. He is noted for wearing a Skull Ring, which leaves a permanent skull-mark on whomever he hits with his fist. The Phantom often use the mark of the skull to psychologically outwit his enemies.
  • In the popular video games Halo 2 and Halo 3, there are hiddin skulls, which modify aspects of the game, such as the "Grunt Birthday Party" skull, where if you give a grunt a headshot, confetti will pop out and children will cheer. Others, such as the Thunderstorm skull, increase the difficulty of the enemies by raising them up one level, I.E., Minor Elites become Major Elites.
  • The symbolic image of the skull permeates the Indiana Jones movies to such an extent that skulls become décor—and even comic relief when Marion encounters multiple cobwebby skulls and skeletons during the escape from the subterranean Well of the Souls at Tanis (Raiders of the Lost Ark, 1981). Every appearance of a skull in the Jones series emphasizes the 1930s' cultural view: a gulf between the rational, modern, progressive, scientific, and vigorously physical daylight world embodied by the intrepid American archaeologist, with the sinister, dangerous, mythical, exotic, dead lore of Antiquity or the Orient in torchlit interiors of caves and temples, as well as exemplifying the fate of those who have gone before but failed.
  • The giant gorilla King Kong had his home on "Skull Island," presumably a place of dangerous power. Perhaps a similar power flows to the superhero He-Man from Castle Grayskull, a castle shaped like a huge gray skull. It has been suggested that the relationship of He-Man and the sorceress of Grayskull mirrors Carl Jung's ideas about the animus and the anima: the sorceress, an all-knowing woman, is the source of the hero's power, and she dwells within the head. Still, the skullface of Grayskull is also the face of Skeletor, He-Man's enemy.
  • The evil mystique of a skull is playfully subverted in the LucasArts adventure game The Curse of Monkey Island, in which the face of Skull Island (revealed after a long pan) is actually that of a duck. The game also introduces Murray, the mighty talking skull, who cackles and threatens demonically but, lacking arms, is actually completely helpless.
  • The Marvel Comics anti-hero, The Punisher, wears a costume with a large human skull emblazoned on the front.
  • The helmets of the Stormtroopers, and Darth Vader in particular, in Star Wars were said to be "Death's Head" masks during character development. Darth Vader's mouth piece resembles teeth, his visors the eye sockets, as well as the angular cheeks resembling cheek bones, all features of a skull. Stormtrooper helmets have "eyes" and "teeth" that remind people of skulls.
  • The popular monster truck Grave Digger has a large skull mountain as the backdrop for its graveyard mural paint scheme. Skulls are also used on many t-shirts, posters, and other promotional materials for the truck, as they correlate with the truck's somewhat macabre image.

Leon Harrison Gross, more known by the alias of Lee Falk, (April 28, 1911 - March 13, 1999) was an American writer, best known as the creator of the popular comic strip superheroes The Phantom and Mandrake the Magician, who at the height of their popularity secured him over a hundred... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Phantom. ... Halo 2 is a science fiction first-person shooter video game developed by Bungie Studios. ... For the Nine Inch Nails release, see Head Like a Hole. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... This article is about the film. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see King Kong (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... He Man redirects here. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Jung redirects here. ... The Official Website of Animus - Art Rock Group According to Carl Jung, the animus is the masculine side of a womans personal unconscious. ... Anima, in Jungian psychology: 1. ... LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... The Curse of Monkey Island (CMI) is an adventure game developed and published by LucasArts, and the third game in the Monkey Island computer game series. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... This article is about the Marvel Comics character. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Magic (Harry Potter). ... Lord Voldemort (pronounced )[1][2] is a fictional character and the primary antagonist in the Harry Potter novel series written by British author J. K. Rowling. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Stormtroopers have distinctive white armor and a helmet with a grimacing, skull-like visage. ... For information on this characters appearance in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, see Anakin Skywalker. ... This article is about the series. ... 2005 Bigfoot monster truck racing in Arizona A monster truck is an automobile, typically a pickup truck, which has been modified or purposely built with extremely large wheels and suspension. ... Grave Digger (often referred to as simply Digger) is the name of a team of monster trucks currently racing in the USHRA Monster Jam series. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... For other uses, see Macabre (disambiguation). ... For the unrelated defunct American company, see Game Designers Workshop. ... For the tabletop games, see Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000. ... Marvel or marvel can refer to: Incredilble Hulk Comics Marvel Comics, a comic book publishing, entertainment, and licensing company based in the United States of America. ... Ghost Rider may refer to: Ghost Rider (comics), the supernatural comic book character(s). ...

See also

The Dance of Death (1493) by Michael Wolgemut, from the Liber chronicarum by Hartmann Schedel. ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ... Symbols of death are the symbolic, often allegorical, portrayal of death in various cultures. ... The Ambassadors (1533) is a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger in the National Gallery, London. ... EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. The traditional Jolly Roger of Piracy. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ University of Wales, Bangor - NEW FUNCTION IDENTIFIED FOR AN AREA OF THE BRAIN
  2. ^ THE MYSTERY of graveyard art & symbols by Tony Taylor
  3. ^ F.W. Up De Graff. Head hunters of the Amazon: Seven Years of Exploration and Adventure, New York: Garden City 1925 p. 273-283
  4. ^ The Crypt: Church of the Immaculate. Official site of the Capuchins
  5. ^ William R. Bascom: Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa (Indiana) ISBN 0-253-20638-3

IFA may refer to: Ifá, a system of divination that originated in West Africa Immunofluorescent antibody analysis Independent Financial Adviser, an UK Financial Services professional India Foundation for the Arts, a philanthropic grant-giving organisation Indian Football Association, the organisation that administers association football in the state of West Bengal...

General

  1. Ariès, Philippe, L'Homme devant la mort: (Seuil, 1985), 2 vol. ISBN 2-02-008944-0, ISBN 2-02-008945-9
  2. Veyne, Paul (1987). A History of Private Life : 1. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium ( p. 208 illustrates the skull mosaic from Pompeii)

Philippe Aries was an important French medievalist and historian of the family and childhood, in the style of Georges Duby. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
skull - definition of skull - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (801 words)
A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure which serves as the general framework for a head.
In humans, the skull is the uppermost portion of the human skeleton.
Normally the skull protects the brain from damage through its hard unyieldingness, but in some cases of head injury, there can be raised intracranial pressure through mechanisms such as a subdural haematoma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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