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Encyclopedia > Skinhead

Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. The first skinheads were greatly influenced by West Indian (specifically Jamaican) rude boys and British mods, in terms of fashion, music and lifestyle.[1][2] Originally, the skinhead subculture was primarily based on those elements, not politics or race.[3] Since then, however, attitudes toward race and politics have become factors in which skinheads align themselves. The political spectrum within the skinhead scene ranges from the far right to the far left, although many skinheads are apolitical. Fashion-wise, skinheads range from a clean-cut 1960s mod-influenced style to less-strict punk- and hardcore-influenced styles. Head shaving is the practice by some men and women to shave the hair on their head. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Such styles may change quickly, and fashion in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... Punks at a music festival The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock music. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ...

Contents

History

In the late 1950s, the United Kingdom's entrenched class system limited most working class people's educational, housing, and economic opportunities. However, Britain's post-war economic boom led to an increase in disposable income among many young people. Some of those youths spent that income on new fashions popularised by American soul groups, British R&B bands, certain movie actors, and Carnaby Street clothing merchants.[4][5] Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles. ... For the album by punk rock band, Snuff, see Disposable Income (album) Disposable income is the total amount of income an individual makes after direct taxes. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... R&B redirects here. ... Londons Carnaby Street is in the district of Soho and just to the east of Regent Street. ...


These youths became known as the mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism—and devotion to fashion, music, and scooters.[6] Mods of lesser means made do with practical styles that suited their lifestyle and employment circumstances: steel-toe boots, straight-leg jeans or Sta-Prest trousers, button-down shirts, and braces (called suspenders in the USA). When possible, these working-class mods spent their money on suits and other sharp outfits to wear at dancehalls, where they enjoyed soul, ska, bluebeat and rocksteady music.[7][8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... A modern scooter The Piaggio MP3. ... A pair of well-worn steel-toe boots. ... This article is about the type of clothing. ... In 1964, Levi Strauss and co. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A man wearing classic suspenders, which hook directly into the trousers instead of using clips. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genre. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Around 1965, a schism developed between the peacock mods (also known as smooth mods), who were less violent and always wore the latest expensive clothes, and the hard mods (also known as gang mods), who were identified by their shorter hair and more working-class image.[9] Also known as lemonheads and peanuts, these hard mods became commonly known as skinheads by about 1968.[10] Their shorter hair may have come about for practical reasons, since long hair can be a liability in industrial jobs and a disadvantage in streetfights. Skinheads may also have cut their hair short in defiance of the more bourgeois hippie culture popular at the time.[11] The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ...


In addition to retaining many mod influences, early skinheads were very interested in Jamaican rude boy styles and culture, especially the music: ska, rocksteady, and early reggae (before the tempo slowed down and lyrics became focused on topics like black nationalism and the Rastafari movement).[12][13][14] Skinhead culture became so popular by 1969 that even the rock band Slade temporarily adopted the look, as a marketing strategy.[15][16][17] The subculture gained wider notice because of a series of violent and sexually explicit novels by Richard Allen, notably Skinhead and Skinhead Escapes.[18] [19] Due to largescale British migration to Perth, Western Australia, many British youths in that city joined skinhead/sharpies gangs in the 1960s and formed their own Australian style.[20][21] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... James Moffat (born 1922 in Australia, died 1993 in England), was an author who wrote under several pen names. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Sharpies (also known as Sharps) were members of suburban youth gangs in Australia in the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in Melbourne, but also in Sydney to a lesser extent. ...


By the 1970s, the skinhead subculture started to fade from popular culture, and some of the original skins dropped into new categories, such as the suedeheads (defined by the ability to manipulate one's hair with a comb), smoothies (often with shoulder-length hairstyles), and bootboys (with mod-length hair; associated with gangs and football hooliganism).[22] [23] [24][25] Some fashion trends returned to mod roots, reintroducing brogues, loafers, suits, and the slacks-and-sweater look. Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Football hooliganism (sometimes described as the English Disease) is hooliganism by football club supporters. ... Brogues are shoes that are made of heavy and untanned leather, heretofore worn in Scotland and Ireland. ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes usually with moccasin construction, with broad flat heels. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater (also called sweatshirt, pullover, jumper, and jersey) is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though, in some cases, sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically to be worn over a...


In 1977, the skinhead subculture was revived to a notable extent after the introduction of punk rock. Most of these revival skinheads were a reaction to the commercialism of punk and adopted a sharp, smart look in line with the original look of the 1969 skinheads and included Gary Hodges and Hoxton Tom McCourt (both later of the band the 4-Skins) and Suggs, later of the band Madness. From 1979 onwards, skinheads with even shorter hair and less emphasis on traditional styles grew in numbers and grabbed media attention, mostly as a result of their involvement with football hooliganism. These skinheads wore punk-influenced styles, like higher boots than before (14-20 eyelets) and tighter jeans (sometimes splattered with bleach). However, there was still a group of skinheads who preferred the original mod-inspired styles. Eventually different interpretations of the skinhead subculture expanded beyond The UK and Europe. One major example is that in the United States, certain segments of the hardcore punk scene embraced skinhead style and developed its own version of the subculture.[26] Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... The 4-Skins were an Oi! band formed in the late 1970s at Waterloo, and disbanded in 1984. ... Suggs can refer to: Graham McPherson, British ska musician nicknamed Suggs. ... Look up madness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Football hooliganism is hooliganism by football club supporters. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ...


Racism, anti-racism and politics

In the late 1960s, some skinheads (including black skinheads) had engaged in violence against random Pakistanis and other South Asian immigrants (an act known as Paki bashing in common slang).[27][28][29] Although these early skinheads were not part of an organized racist movement, by the early 1970s there were skinheads who aligned themselves with the white nationalist National Front.[citation needed] However, there had also been anti-racist and leftist skinheads from the beginning, especially in areas such as Scotland and northern England.[30] [31] As the 1970s progressed, the racially-motivated skinhead violence in the UK became more partisan, and groups such as the National Front and the British Movement saw a rise in skinheads among their ranks. Although many skinheads rejected political labels being applied to their subculture, some working class skinheads blamed non-white immigrants for economic and social problems, and agreed with far right organizations' positions against blacks and Asians. Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... The British National Front (most commonly called the National Front) is a British far right political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... Left wing redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The British Movement was a British neo-Nazi group. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Whites redirects here. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


By the late 1970s, some openly neo-Nazi groups were largely composed of skinheads, and by this point, the mass media, and subsequently the general public, had largely come to view skinheads exclusively as a subculture promoting white power.[citation needed] However, during the late 1970s and early 1980s, many skinheads, suedeheads, ex-skinheads and football casuals in the UK rejected the dogma of both the left and right. This anti-extremist attitude was musically typified by Oi! bands such as Cockney Rejects, The 4-Skins and The Business. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about the hooligan subculture. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... The Cockney Rejects are an Oi! punk band which formed in the East End of London in 1979. ... The 4-Skins are a working class Oi! punk rock band from East London, England. ... The Business is a UK based Oi! band formed in the late 1970s. ...


Some skinheads countered the neo-Nazi stereotype by forming anti-racist organizations, such as The Minneapolis Baldies, who started in 1986, Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP), which was founded in New York City in 1987 and spread to several other countries; and Anti-Racist Action (ARA), which was founded in the late 1980s by members of the Minneapolis Baldies and other activists.[32][33][34][35][36] Other less-political skinheads also spoke out against neo-Nazis and in support of traditional skinhead culture. Two examples of this were the Glasgow Spy Kids in Scotland (who coined the phrase Spirit of 69), and the publishers of the Hard As Nails zine in England.[37] For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP) are anti-racist skinheads who oppose neo-Nazis and other political racists, especially if those racists call themselves skinheads. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... ARA Logo, featuring a masked anarchist smashing a swastika Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of militant anarcho-communists who espouse anti-fascist and anti-racist views. ... Trojan Skinhead is a subculture of skinheads who identify themselves with the subcultures heyday in 1969 when ska music was at its most popular, and with the cults multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots (called The Spirit of 69). Bands/artists The Ethiopians Judge Dread Laurel Aitken... A zine—an abbreviation of the word fanzine, and originating from the word magazine[1][2]—is most commonly a small circulation, non-commercial publication of original or appropriated texts and images. ...


Political categories

There are several different political categories of skinheads. However, many skinheads don't fit into any of these categories. The usefulness of these terms is to explain the dominant forces of skinhead political groupings. There are no reliable statistics documenting how many skinheads have belonged to each category.


Anti-racist skinheads, sometimes known as SHARPs (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice), are aggressively opposed to neo-Nazism and racism, although not always political in terms of other issues.[38][39] The label SHARP is sometimes used to describe all anti-racist skinheads, even if they aren't members of a SHARP organization. Some anti-racist skinheads have been involved with political groups such as Anti-Fascist Action or Anti-Racist Action. White power and traditional skinheads (especially in the U.S.) sometimes refer to them as baldies. Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP) are anti-racist skinheads who oppose neo-Nazis and other political racists, especially if those racists call themselves skinheads. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Anti-Fascist Action (or AFA) is a British left-wing organisation founded in 1986. ... ARA Logo, featuring a masked anarchist smashing a swastika Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of militant anarcho-communists who espouse anti-fascist and anti-racist views. ...


Apolitical skinheads either oppose all politics in general, are politically moderate, or keep their personal political views out of the skinhead subculture. Skinheads on either extreme of the political spectrum sometimes refer to this type as a fencesitter or fencewalker. Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... “Moderates” redirects here. ...


Left wing skinheads are anti-racist and anti-fascist, taking a militant pro-working class stance. This category includes redskins and anarchist skinheads.[40] The most well-known organization in this category is Red and Anarchist Skinheads.[41] Left wing redirects here. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In the context of the skinhead subculture, a redskin is a left wing (communist or socialist) skinhead. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Red and Anarchist Skinheads (also Anarcho-skinheads; RASH) are the anti-racist, anti-fascist skinheads. ...


Right wing skinheads are conservative and patriotic, but not necessarily extreme or fascist. This type of skinhead seems to be common in the United States.[42] “Right wing” redirects here. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Fascist redirects here. ...


White power skinheads or neo-Nazi skinheads are racist, extremely nationalist and highly political.[43][44] Many Nazi skinheads have no connection to the original 1960s skinhead culture in terms of style or interests. SHARPs and traditional skinheads often refer to them as boneheads. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Style and clothing

In addition to short hair, skinheads are identified by their specific clothing styles. Skinhead fashions have evolved somewhat since the formation of the subculture in the 1960s, and certain clothing styles have been more prevalent in specific geographic locations and time periods. The following list includes many of the clothing articles that have been worn by skinheads.[45][46][47]


Hair:

  • Men: Originally, between a 2 and 3 grade clip-guard (short, but not bald); beginning in the late 1970s, typically shaved closer, with no greater than a number 2 guard. Now some skinheads clip their hair with no guard, and some even shave it with a razor. This started with the introduction of the Oi! scene. Some skinheads sport sideburns of various styles, usually neatly trimmed.
  • Women: In the 1960s, many female skinheads had mod-style haircuts. During the 1980s skinhead revival, many female skinheads had feathercuts (known as a Chelsea in North America). A feathercut is short on the crown, with fringes at the front, back and sides. Some female skinheads have a shorter punk-style version of the hairstyle; almost entirely shaved, leaving only bangs and fringes at the front.

Tops: For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Sideburns (or colloquially sideboards[1] or mutton chops[2]) are patches of facial hair on the sides of a mans face, in front of the ears. ... A blonde fringe. ...

  • Men: fitted Ben Sherman, Fred Perry, Brutus, Jaytex, and other brands of button-up or polo shirts; Lonsdale or Everlast shirts or sweatshirts; grandad shirts (collarless shirts); V-neck sweaters; tank tops (known as sweater vests in North America); cardigan sweaters; T-shirts (plain white or with text and/or images related to bands or the skinhead subculture); fitted blazers. Traditional skinheads sometimes wear suits, usually including a three-button waisted jacket, and often made out of two-tone tonic fabric, by Dormieul, (shiny mohair-like material that changes colour in different light and angles), or in a Prince of Wales or houndstooth check pattern. Some Oi!! and hardcore-oriented skinheads wear plain white wifebeater undershirts, especially in North America.
  • Women: Same as men, with addition of dress suits—composed of a ¾-length jacket and matching short skirt.

Coats: MA-1 type flight jackets (popular brands: Alpha and Warrior), usually black or green; blue-denim jackets (Levi's or Wrangler); Harrington jackets; donkey jackets; monkey jackets; Crombie-style overcoats; short macs; sheepskin 3/4-length coats; donkey jackets; parkas. Ben Sherman is a British clothing company, producing shirts, suits, shoes, accessories and other items. ... For other persons named Fred Perry, see Fred Perry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lonsdale is a clothing company founded in London, England in 1960, producing boxing equipment before branching out into sports and fashion clothing. ... Everlast is the product name of a boxing equipment manufacturer based in New York. ... A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater (also called sweatshirt, pullover, jumper, and jersey) is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though, in some cases, sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically to be worn over a... The Gumbies wearing classic examples of 20th century tank tops A sleeveless sweater (known as a tank top in the United Kingdom and as a sweater vest in North America) is an item of knitwear that is similar to a sweater, but without sleeves. ... A cardigan is a type of sweater/jumper with buttons or zips down the front; by contrast, a pullover does not open in front, but forms a solid tube around the torso. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... It has been suggested that Sportcoat be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with Mohair (band). ... A male wearing a wifebeater A sleeveless shirt, tank top, singlet, or vest is a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one where the sleeves have been cut off. ... An undershirt is an article of underwear worn underneath a shirt. ... If traced to its very beginnings, the flight jacket was created for practical reasons. ... Alpha Industries is a clothing manufacturer founded in 1959 in Knoxville, Tennessee. ... This article is about the material denim. ... A Harrington jacket is a short, lightweight jacket, usually with a tartan or check lining, favoured by mods and skinheads. ... A Donkey jacket is a short, buttoned outer coat, typically made of black woollen material, unlined; sometimes with a plastic panel covering the shoulder-blades area. ... Formed in 1805 in Scotland, Crombie produce woollen and tweed clothing to a very high standard. ... Mackintosh shop, Burlington Arcade, London. ... Sheepskin: slang term for a diploma. ... A Donkey jacket is a short, buttoned outer coat, typically made of black woollen material, unlined; sometimes with a plastic panel covering the shoulder-blades area. ... Inuit parka. ...


Bottoms:

  • Men: Sta-Prest flat-fronted slacks and other dress trousers; Jeans (normally Levi's, Lee or Wrangler), parallel leg, with rolled cuffs (turn-ups) to show off boots, or with hem cut off and re-sewn; usually blue; sometimes splattered with bleach to resemble camouflage trousers, popular among Oi! skinheads; combat trousers (plain or camouflage), popular among Oi! skins and scooterboys. Jeans and slacks are worn deliberately short in order to show off boots (or to show off socks when wearing loafers or brogues).
  • Women: Same jeans and trousers as men, or skirts and stockings. Some skingirls wear fishnet stockings and mini-skirts, a style introduced during the punk-influenced skinhead revival.
Skinhead style: Dr. Martens boots with Levi's jeans
Skinhead style: Dr. Martens boots with Levi's jeans

Footwear: In 1964, Levi Strauss and co. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... This article is about the type of clothing. ... Levis is a brand of riveted denim jeans manufactured by Levi Strauss & Co. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wrangler is one of the oldest and most popular jeans brands in the world. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Originating in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, scooterboy culture emerged from mods and skinheads, although it became a distinct and separate subculture. ... Image File history File links Dr_martens_boots. ... Image File history File links Dr_martens_boots. ... Dr. Martens is a brand of shoe, often known as Doc Martens, Docs, or DMs. They have a characteristic air-cushioned sole, dubbed Bouncing Soles, developed by Dr. Klaus Maertens (note the different spelling). ... Levi Strauss & Co. ...

  • Men: boots, originally army-surplus or generic workboots, then Dr. Martens (AKA Docs, DMs or Doc Martens) boots and shoes, and later brogues, loafers, fringed and buckled stompers, and slats (especially among suedeheads). Other brands of boots have become popular, such as Solovair, partly because Dr. Martens and Grinders are no longer made in England. During the 1960s, steel-toe boots were called bovver boots derived from the Cockney pronunciation of bother (in this context, meaning violence). Suedeheads sometimes wore coloured socks, such as in red, orange or green. Adidas Samba and Dragon trainer sneakers have been becoming more and more popular in skinhead culture, primarily on the east coast of the United States.
  • Women: Dr. Martens boots or shoes, monkey boots, loafers, or brogues.

Hats:
Trilby hats; pork pie hats; flat caps (AKA Scally cap, Benny or driver cap) or winter woolen hats (without bobble). Less common have been bowler hats (mostly among suedeheads and those influenced by the film A Clockwork Orange). Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the... Dr. Martens is a brand of shoe, often known as Doc Martens, Docs, or DMs. They have a characteristic air-cushioned sole, dubbed Bouncing Soles, developed by Dr. Klaus Maertens (note the different spelling). ... Brogues are shoes that are made of heavy and untanned leather, heretofore worn in Scotland and Ireland. ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes usually with moccasin construction, with broad flat heels. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Solovair is a brand of British made boots and footwear established in 1881. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... This article is about the company. ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes whose tops resemble a moccasin, but have broad flat heels. ... This article is about the trilby hat. ... Jazz musician Marcus Miller wearing a pork pie hat PorkPie redirects here, for the sitcom see: Porkpie (TV series). ... Rear view of a flat cap Front view of a flat cap A flat cap (see alternate names below) is a rounded soft mens cap with a small brim in front and a somewhat stiff peak in the back. ... A bright green tuque A tuque (Canadian French: tuque, also spelled toque in English) is a knitted hat, originally usually of wool though now often of synthetic fibers, that is designed to provide warmth in winter. ... The bowler hat is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created for Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, in 1850. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the film. ...


Braces:
Various colours, usually no more than ¾ inch in width, clipped to trouser waistband. In some areas, braces much wider than that may identify a skinhead as either unfashionable or white power. Braces are worn up in an X- or Y-shape at the back. Some Oi!-oriented skinheads wear their braces hanging down, so they can be seen when wearing a jacket. A man wearing classic suspenders, which hook directly into the trousers instead of using clips. ... White Power is a white nationalist political slogan, and a name for the associated ideology. ...


Handkerchiefs:
Silk handkerchiefs in the breast pocket of the Crombie or tonic jacket, in some cases fastened with an ornate stud. Later, pocket flashes became popular. These were pieces of silk in contrasting colours, mounted on a piece of cardboard and designed to look like an elaborately folded handkerchief. It was common to choose the colours based on one's favourite football club.


Badges and Scarves:
Button badges or sewn-on fabric patches with text and/or images related to bands or the skinhead subculture. Politically-minded skinheads sometimes wear badges related to their ideological views. Striped woollen or printed rayon scarves in football club colours, worn knotted at the neck, wrist, or hanging from a belt loop at the waist.


Umbrellas Some suedeheads carried closed umbrellas with sharpened tips, or a handle with a pull-out blade. This led to the nickname brollie boys.


Style categories

There are several different types of skinheads in terms of style. Some skinheads don't fit into any of these categories, and many display characteristics of more than one category. The usefulness of these terms is to explain the dominant skinhead styles. There are no reliable statistics documenting how many skinheads have belonged to each category.


Traditional skinheads, also known as trads or Trojan skinheads, identify with the original 1960s skinhead subculture in terms of music, style, culture, and working class pride. Trojan Skinhead is a subculture of skinheads who identify themselves with the subcultures heyday in 1969 when ska music was at its most popular, and with the cults multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots (called The Spirit of 69). Bands/artists The Ethiopians Judge Dread Laurel Aitken... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


Oi! skinheads appeared after the development of punk rock in the 1970s. They often have shorter hair and more tattoos than 1960s skinheads, and wear items—such as higher boots, tighter jeans, T-shirts, and flight jackets—that differ from those of their traditionalist counterparts. For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of clothing. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... If traced to its very beginnings, the flight jacket was created for practical reasons. ...


Hardcore skinheads originated in the United States hardcore punk scene in the late 1970s (with bands such as Iron Cross, Agnostic Front, Cro-mags, Sheer Terror, Warzone, and Murphy's Law). They differ from traditional skinheads by their musical tastes and a style of dress that is less strict. Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Iron Cross is a hardcore/Oi! band from Baltimore, Maryland and Washington D.C.. They play a rough form of streetpunk, and are one of the first bands in the United States to adopt the skinhead look and the Oi! musical style. ... Agnostic Front are a New York Hardcore Punk band formed in New York City in 1982. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Throughout the late 80s and early 90s, Sheer Terror were one of the linchpin bands of the New York hardcore and crossover scenes, preaching electric sermons of violent camaraderie at those infamous CBGB Sunday hardcore matinees, alongside contemporaries such as Agnostic Front and the Cro-Mags. ... Warzone was a hardcore punk band from New York City. ... Murphys Law is a hardcore band from New York. ...


Colour of laces and braces

Some skinheads, particularly highly political ones, attach significance to the colour of boot laces, braces, and (less commonly) flight jackets. Some use them to indicate beliefs or affiliations. The particular colours used have varied regionally, so only skinheads from the same area are likely to interpret them accurately. The "braces and laces game" has largely fallen into disuse, particularly among traditionalist skinheads, who are more likely to choose their colours for fashion purposes.


Tattoos

Tattoos have been popular among many skinheads since at least the 1970s revival. In 1980s Britain, some skinheads had tattoos on their faces or foreheads, although the practice has since fallen out of favour. Popular skinhead tattoos have included a crucified skinhead (designed by Mick Furbank for the Last Resort skinhead shop in Aldgate); bulldogs; spider webs on outer elbows or elsewhere; Sailor Jerry-style tattoos; sparrows; boots; music-related logos; national or regional flags; images related to A Clockwork Orange; laurel wreaths; roses; crossed riveting hammers (similar to those in the West Ham United logo); weapons (e.g., brass knuckles; bats; switchblades); and slogans such as: Oi!, ACAB (All Cops Are Bastards), SKIN, Skinhead or Bootboy. For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Aldgate was a gateway through London Wall to the City of London, located by the East End. ... For other uses, see Bulldog (disambiguation). ... Spiders web redirects here. ... Norman Sailor Jerry Collins (1911-1973) Considered the foremost American tattoo artist of his time, Sailor Jerry is widely considered to the dominant figure in the art of tattooing as it is practiced in the USA today. ... For other uses, see Sparrow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film. ... A laurel wreath decorating a memorial at the Folketing, the national parliament of Denmark. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... A rivetted buffer beam on a steam locomotive A rivet is a mechanical fastener consisting of a smooth cylindrical shaft with heads on either end, the second one formed in position. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... Current season West Ham United Football Club is an English football club based in Upton Park, London Borough of Newham, East London, and have played their home matches at the 35,303 capacity Boleyn Ground stadium since 1904. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ... Four historically significant baseball bats showcased in the National Baseball Hall of Fames traveling exhibit Baseball As America. ... This article is about a type of knife. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ...


Tattoos popular among anti-racist skinheads include a Trojan helmet; anti-Nazi logo; skinhead smashing a racist symbol; crucified skinhead (two-tone black and white), images of black and white skinheads together (e.g., shaking hands); anti-racist slogans (e.g. Smash Fascism, AFA; SHARP; ANTIFA). (Note: redskins and anarchist skins may have political symbols, such as red stars, red flags, hammer and sickles or anarchy symbols.) Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... In the context of the skinhead subculture, a redskin is a left wing (communist or socialist) skinhead. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Red star on the Soviet flag The five-pointed red star (a pentagram without the inner pentagon) is a symbol of Communism and Socialism and represents the five fingers of the workers hand, as well as five of six inhabited continents. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ... This article discusses various anarchist symbols, including the circle-A and the black flag. ...


Tattoos common among white-power skinheads include Swastika or other World War II Nazi symbols (such as SS symbols or the iron cross); three 7s (Afrikaner Resistance Movement logo); flags (e.g., of the wearer's home country, of Nazi Germany or of the American Confederacy); crossed claw hammers or other Hammerskins symbols,; Ku Klux Klan symbols; white nationalist slogans such as: White Pride, White Power, WP, 88 (Heil Hitler), 1488 (Fourteen Words/Heil Hitler), HFFH (Hammerskin Forever, Forever Hammerskin), Blood & Honour (or B&H); Celtic cross or other Celtic symbols; Runes, Vikings, or other Nordic symbols (which white power skins use to symbolize white culture.) This article is about the symbol. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... National Socialism redirects here. ... SS redirects here. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Clawhammer is a method of playing the five-string banjo. ... Logo of Hammerskins The Hammerskins, or Hammerskin Nation is a white supremacist gang. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... White Power is a white nationalist political slogan, and a name for the associated ideology. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... Fourteen Words is used to describe two different political slogans. ... Blood & Honour are a militant neo-Nazi network founded in 1987 in response to the Anti-Nazi Leagues Rock Against Racism organisation. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... This article is about the European people. ... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Whites redirects here. ...


Music

The skinhead subculture was originally associated with music genres such as soul, ska, rocksteady and early reggae.[48][49] The link between skinheads and Jamaican music led to the development of the skinhead reggae genre; performed by artists such as Desmond Dekker, Derrick Morgan, Laurel Aitken, Symarip and The Pioneers.[50] In the early 1970s, some Suedeheads also listened to British glam rock bands such as The Sweet, Slade and Mott the Hoople.[23][51] For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Desmond Dekker (July 16, 1941 – May 25, 2006) was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer and songwriter. ... Derrick Morgan** was a musical artist in 1960s and 70s. ... Laurel Aitken (April 22, 1927–July 17, 2005) became famous as one of the originators of Jamaican ska music in the late 1950s. ... Symarip, formerly the Pyramids, were a ska and reggae band from the United Kingdom, originating towards the end of the 1960s and into the early 1970s. ... The Pioneers is a Jamaican reggae vocal trio from the 1960s. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a style of rock music, which initially surfaced in the post-hippie early 1970s. ... Sweet (referred to as The Sweet on albums before 1974 and singles before 1975) were a popular 1970s British band. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mott the Hoople were a 1970s English rock and roll and glam rock band with strong R&B roots. ...


The most popular music style for late-1970s skinheads was 2 Tone (also called Two Tone), which was a musical fusion of ska, rocksteady, reggae, pop and punk rock.[52] The 2 Tone genre was named after a Coventry, England record label that featured bands such as The Specials, Madness and The Selecter.[53][54][55] The record label scored many top 20 hits, and eventually a number one. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... For alternative meanings see: Coventry (disambiguation) Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Madness are a British pop/ska band from Camden Town, London, that formed in 1976. ... The Selecters Three Minute Hero single cover The Selecter were a 2 Tone ska revival band from Coventry, England, formed in the late 1970s. ...


Some late 1970s skinheads also liked certain punk rock bands, such as The Clash, Sham 69 and Menace; and by the late 1970s, the Oi! subgenre was embraced by many skinheads and punks.[56] Musically, Oi! combines elements of punk, football chants, pub rock and British glam rock.[57] The Oi! scene was partly a response to a sense that many participants in the early punk scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic...and losing touch".[58] Some forefathers of Oi! were Sham 69, Cock Sparrer, and Menace. The term Oi! as a musical genre is said to come from the band Cockney Rejects and journalist Garry Bushell, who championed the genre in Sounds magazine.[59][60][61] Notable Oi! bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s include Angelic Upstarts, Blitz, The Business, Last Resort, The Burial, Combat 84 and The 4-Skins.[62] Not exclusively a skinhead genre, many Oi! bands included skins, punks and people who fit into neither category (sometimes called herberts).[citation needed] Today there is a fairly healthy music scene in Europe with most countries boasting a skinhead music scene in one form or another. Many bands from the 1980s such as The Cockney Rejects, Cocksparrer, Section 5 and The 4 Skins have reformed and are playing concerts and festivals all over the world. Some bands, such as The Business from South London have been going continuously since their formation during the late 70s. Today “Street Punk” has become the popular tag for what would have been termed Oi! during the 1980s and labels such as G&R are promoting such bands. In Britain bands such as Condemned 84 (England), Retaliator (England), Bakers Dozen and On File (both from Scotland) are at the forefront of the modern Skinhead music scene and play regularly in Europe although it has become increasingly difficult for these bands to play in Britain and their following is reputed (quite wrongly) to attract violence and promoters are very wary about having them play at their venues. In Europe most capital and larger cities boast a sizable skinhead music scene, particularly Berlin, Bruges, Madrid, Valencia, Milan, Rome, Belgrade, Oslo, Stockholm and Helsinki. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Punks at a music festival The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock music. ... Football crowds chant Football chants. ... Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... The Business is a UK based Oi! band formed in the late 1970s. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) is a punk rock band from East London. ... The Cockney Rejects are an Oi! punk band which formed in the East End of London in 1979. ... Garry Bushell (born May 13, 1955 in Woolwich, South East London) is a newspaper columnist, rock music journalist, television presenter and author. ... Sounds was a British music paper, published weekly from October 10, 1970 – April 6, 1991. ... The Angelic Upstarts were a staunchly anti-fascist, anti-police, pro-IRA, Socialist working class oi! punk band of late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Blitz is a British punk/Oi! band who enjoyed success in the indie charts in the early 1980s. ... The Burial were a ska-, northern soul- and folk-influenced Oi! band from Yorkshire, England that formed in 1981. ... The 4-Skins are a working class Oi! punk rock band from East London, England. ...



American Oi! began in the 1980s with bands such as The Press, Iron Cross, The Bruisers, Anti-Heros and Forced Reality.[63][64][65] American skinheads created a link between their subculture and hardcore punk music, with bands such as Warzone, Agnostic Front, and Cro-Mags. The Oi! style has also spread to other parts of the world, and remains popular with many skinheads. Many later Oi! bands have combined influences from early American hardcore and 1970s British streetpunk. Iron Cross is a hardcore/Oi! band from Baltimore, Maryland and Washington D.C.. They play a rough form of streetpunk, and are one of the first bands in the United States to adopt the skinhead look and the Oi! musical style. ... For information about articles that involve variations on the term Bruiser, please see Bruiser. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Warzone was a hardcore punk band from New York City. ... Agnostic Front are a New York Hardcore Punk band formed in New York City in 1982. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although many white power skinheads listened to Oi! music, they also developed a separate genre known as Rock Against Communism (RAC).[66] The most notable RAC band was Skrewdriver, which started out as a non-political punk band but evolved into a neo-Nazi band after the first lineup broke up and a new lineup was formed.[67][68][69] RAC started out musically similar to Oi! and punk rock, and has adopted some elements from heavy metal and other types of rock music. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... RAC logo with a skull superimposed over a hammer and sickle. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... This article is about the genre. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany | Journal of Social History | Find Articles at BNET.com
  2. ^ YouTube - Roots of The Skinhead
  3. ^ YouTube - Roots of The Skinhead
  4. ^ Rawlings, Terry (2000). Mod: A Very British Phenomenon. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-6813-6. 
  5. ^ http://www.modculture.co.uk/culture/archive.php?category=modscenepast Articles from Modculture.com
  6. ^ Barnes, Richard (1979). Mods!. London: Eel Pie Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-85965-173-8. 
  7. ^ Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany | Journal of Social History | Find Articles at BNET.com
  8. ^ Edwards, Dave. Trojan Mod Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD020. 
  9. ^ Old Skool Jim. Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD169. 
  10. ^ Marshall, George (1991). Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible. Dunoon, Scotland: S.T. Publishing. ISBN 1-898927-10-3). 
  11. ^ The Skinheads - TIME
  12. ^ Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness
  13. ^ Special Articles
  14. ^ Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany | Journal of Social History | Find Articles at BNET.com
  15. ^ Straight From His Own Gob - Noddy Holder interview
  16. ^ Ambrose Slade: The Wolverhampton group that became Slade
  17. ^ BBC - h2g2 - Slade - the band
  18. ^ http://www.skinhead.no/content/articles/richardallen.asp
  19. ^ British Hell's Angel and Skinhead novels of the 1970s
  20. ^ The Sharpies - Cult Gangs of the Sixties and Seventies
  21. ^ The Space Visual Arts: Sharpies
  22. ^ The Skinheads - TIME
  23. ^ a b de Konigh, Michael (2004). Suedehead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD003. 
  24. ^ Marshall, George (1991). Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible. Dunoon, Scotland: S.T. Publishing. ISBN 1-898927-10-3). 
  25. ^ Film Noir Buff: Suedeheads
  26. ^ Rage with the Machine Article on Stuffmagazine.com
  27. ^ Violence In Our Minds - The Skinhead Nation
  28. ^ Monty Montgomery of the Pyramids/Symarip interview
  29. ^ The Skinheads - TIME
  30. ^ No Mean City - The Skinhead Nation
  31. ^ REDSKINS - The Interview, 1986
  32. ^ New York skinheads
  33. ^ BBC - Wales - The Oppressed
  34. ^ SHARP skinheads
  35. ^ Neither Red Or Racist - The Skinhead Nation
  36. ^ Skinheads at Forty - City Pages (Minneapolis/St. Paul)
  37. ^ No Mean City - The Skinhead Nation
  38. ^ SHARP skinheads
  39. ^ BBC - Wales - The Oppressed
  40. ^ REVOLUTION TIMES HOMEPAGE - Revolution Times-Interview aus Autonom # 17
  41. ^ US RASH News Website
  42. ^ Rage with the Machine Article on Stuffmagazine.com
  43. ^ Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany | Journal of Social History | Find Articles at BNET.com
  44. ^ Immigration Fueling White Supremacists, Study: Ku Klux Klan And Neo-Nazis Are Gaining Members As Immigrants Become More Visible - CBS News
  45. ^ Knight, Nick (1997). Skinhead. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-0052-3). 
  46. ^ Marshall, George (1991). Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible. Dunoon, Scotland: S.T. Publishing. ISBN 1-898927-10-3). 
  47. ^ RudeBoy/Skinhead Style - Ruder Than the Web!
  48. ^ Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany | Journal of Social History | Find Articles at BNET.com
  49. ^ Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness - Ska/Reggae - 08/16/99
  50. ^ Special Articles
  51. ^ RICHARD H KIRK Interview
  52. ^ The 2-Tone discography
  53. ^ 2 Tone Records - 2 Tone & Related Bibliography
  54. ^ Moskowitz, David V. (2006). Caribbean Popular Music. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 270. ISBN 0-313-33158-8
  55. ^ The Specials.com - Hompepage of British ska legends The Specials. History, lyrics, MP3, 2 Tone, two tone, ska, Jerry Dammers, Terry Hall, Neville Staple, Roddy Byers, Lynval Golding, Horace Panter, John Brad Bradbury
  56. ^ Dalton, Stephen, "Revolution Rock", Vox, June 1993
  57. ^ Oi! – The Truth by Garry Bushell
  58. ^ Robb, John (2006). Punk Rock: An Oral History (London: Elbury Press). ISBN 0-09-190511-7
  59. ^ Turner, Jeff; Garry Bushell (2005). Cockney Reject. London: John Blake Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1 84454 0545
  60. ^ Cockney Rejects
  61. ^ Oi! – The Truth by Garry Bushell
  62. ^ Marshall, George (1991). Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible. Dunoon, Scotland: S.T. Publishing. ISBN 1-898927-10-3). 
  63. ^ The Press a tribute page
  64. ^ Dementlieu Punk Archive: Washington, DC: Iron Cross interview from If This Goes On 2
  65. ^ Oi! American Oi! : Anti-Heros
  66. ^ WNP - Memoirs of a Street Soldier Part 8
  67. ^ Skrewdriver- A Fan's View
  68. ^ Skrewdriver- Press Cuttings
  69. ^ Diamond in the Dust - The Ian Stuart Biography

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

  • Smiling Smash Chas Smash of Madness discusses skinhead culture
  • Reggae, Reggae, Reggae The skinhead movement and reggae music
  • Skinhead Nation Stories from skinhead history in Europe and the US
  • Skinhead Moonstomp Oi! and reggae MP3 site
  • Oi! the Truth History of Oi! according to Garry Bushell
  • Skinhead Style Traditional skinhead fashions
  • Trojan Records Site with information about ska and skinheads
  • 2 Tone Info Information about the 2 Tone scene
This article is about the hooligan subculture. ... A Gay skinhead, also known as a gayskin, queerskin or gayhead, is a gay person who identifies with the skinhead subculture, often (though not necessarily) out of sexual interest. ... Logo of Hammerskins The Hammerskins, or Hammerskin Nation is a white supremacist gang. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Red and Anarchist Skinheads (also Anarcho-skinheads; RASH) are the anti-racist, anti-fascist skinheads. ... In the context of the skinhead subculture, a redskin is a left wing (communist or socialist) skinhead. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Originating in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, scooterboy culture emerged from mods and skinheads, although it became a distinct and separate subculture. ... Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP) are anti-racist skinheads who oppose neo-Nazis and other political racists, especially if those racists call themselves skinheads. ... Sharpies (also known as Sharps) were members of suburban youth gangs in Australia in the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in Melbourne, but also in Sydney to a lesser extent. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... Trojan Skinhead is a subculture of skinheads who identify themselves with the subcultures heyday in 1969 when ska music was at its most popular, and with the cults multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots (called The Spirit of 69). Bands/artists The Ethiopians Judge Dread Laurel Aitken... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... Football hooliganism (sometimes described as the English Disease) is hooliganism by football club supporters. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... The mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in the United Kingdom in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). ... Motown Records, also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label originally based out of Detroit, Michigan (Motor City, hence mo(tor)town), from where it achieved widespread international success. ... The Verve see A Northern Soul This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... RAC logo with a skull superimposed over a hammer and sickle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Books about, or relating to Skinhead culture. ... This is a list of fiction and documentary films about, or relating to, the skinhead subculture. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Stax Records is an American record label, originally based out of Memphis, Tennessee. ... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Alpha Industries is a clothing manufacturer founded in 1959 in Knoxville, Tennessee. ... Ben Sherman is a British clothing company, producing shirts, suits, shoes, accessories and other items. ... Brogues are shoes that are made of heavy and untanned leather, heretofore worn in Scotland and Ireland. ... Brutus Jeans was founded in 1966 by brothers Keith (18 years old) and Alan Freedman (17). ... Formed in 1805 in Scotland, Crombie produce woollen and tweed clothing to a very high standard. ... A term referring to a customised Vespa or Lambretta scooter which has had parts of the bodywork removed or cut away. ... A Donkey jacket is a short, buttoned outer coat, typically made of black woollen material, unlined; sometimes with a plastic panel covering the shoulder-blades area. ... Dr. Martens is a brand of shoe, often known as Doc Martens, Docs, or DMs. They have a characteristic air-cushioned sole, dubbed Bouncing Soles, developed by Dr. Klaus Maertens (note the different spelling). ... Rear view of a flat cap Front view of a flat cap A flat cap (see alternate names below) is a rounded soft mens cap with a small brim in front and a somewhat stiff peak in the back. ... If traced to its very beginnings, the flight jacket was created for practical reasons. ... For other persons named Fred Perry, see Fred Perry (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A Harrington jacket is a short, lightweight jacket, usually with a tartan or check lining, favoured by mods and skinheads. ... Innocenti Lambretta For other uses, see Lambretta. ... Levi Strauss & Co. ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes usually with moccasin construction, with broad flat heels. ... Lonsdale is a clothing company founded in London, England in 1960, producing boxing equipment before branching out into sports and fashion clothing. ... The MA-1 bomber jacket (also known as the MA-1 flight jacket)was first developed in the mid 1950s. ... A modern scooter The Piaggio MP3. ... The Gumbies wearing classic examples of 20th century tank tops A sleeveless sweater (known as a tank top in the United Kingdom and as a sweater vest in North America) is an item of knitwear that is similar to a sweater, but without sleeves. ... In 1964, Levi Strauss and co. ... Solovair is a brand of British made boots and footwear established in 1881. ... At the Treaty of Versailles signing, in 1919, the heads of state wore morning dress and lounge suits for informal meetings, but frock coats for formal daytime meetings. ... This article is about the trilby hat. ... This article is about the Italian motor scooter. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
SKINHEAD NATION - the story of the Skinheads (1398 words)
Skinhead Nation is in many ways both a companion to Spirit Of ‘69 and an opportunity to concentrate more on the individuals that make up the cult, rather than the events and music that have shaped its history.
It is equally the case though that every skinhead has the right to hold whatever political beliefs he or she chooses to - just as everyone else is entitled to in a free society.
Skinhead Nation is dedicated to anyone who has ever had the bottle to shave their head, lace up a pair of highly polished boots and walk down the street with their heart pounding with pride.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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