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Encyclopedia > Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania.
Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania.

George Kastrioti Skenderbeu (6 May 1405 - 17 January 1468) (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeg widely known as Skanderbeg, Turkish İskender Bey, meaning "Lord or Leader Alexander"), is one of the most prominent historical figures in the history of Albania and of the Albanian people. He is also known as the Dragon of Albania[1] and is the national hero of the Albanians. He is remembered for his struggle against the Ottoman Empire, through the work of his first biographer, Marin Barleti.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (575 × 867 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Stefan Kühn, copied from German wikipedia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (575 × 867 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Stefan Kühn, copied from German wikipedia. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Ä°skender is the Turkish form of the name Alexander Alexander the Great Skanderbeg Ä°skender Efendi, inventor of kebap Category: ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... A page from Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius, Italian: Marino Barlezio; ca 1450, Shkodër - 1512 or 1513, probably Rome) was a humanist of Albanian descent, the first and greatest Albanian historian, and a Catholic priest. ...


Skanderbeg successfully ousted the Ottoman Turks from his native land for over two decades, halting Turkey's efforts to spread Islam through a predominantly Roman Catholic western Europe. Albanians fought one of the bloodiest wars in the Balkans to repulse the invasion of their ancient Illyrian homeland by the Ottoman Turks. For a quarter of a century Skanderbeg and Albania prevented Turks from invading Western Europe.

Contents

Service in the Ottoman Army

What remains of the castle in Krujë.
What remains of the castle in Krujë.

Born in Krujë northern Albania, Skanderbeg was a descendant of the Kastrioti family of Albanian origin. Download high resolution version (2272x1362, 1138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1362, 1138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


According to Gibbon,[3] Skanderbeg's father, was Gjon Kastrioti (John Castriot),lord of Middle Albania, that included Mat, Krujë, Mirditë and Dibër.[4] His mother Vojsava [5] from the Tribalda family,[6] (who came from the Pollog valley, north-western part of Republic of Macedonia), or from the old noble Muzaka family. [7] Gjon Kastrioti was among those who opposed[8] the early incursion of Ottoman Bayezid I, however his resistance was ineffectual. The Sultan, having accepted his submissions, obliged him to pay tribute and to ensure the fidelity of local rulers, George Kastrioti and his three brothers were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages. After his conversion to Islam,[9] he attended military school in Edirne and led many battles for the Ottoman Empire to victory. For his military victories, he received the title Arnavutlu İskender Bey, (Albanian: Skënderbe shqiptari, English: Lord Alexander, the Albanian) comparing Kastrioti's military brilliance to that of Alexander the Great. The District of Mat (Albanian: Rrethi i Matit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... The District of Mirditë (Albanian: Rrethi i Mirditës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Map showing Dibër within Albania The District of Dibër (Albanian: Rrethi i Dibrës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Adrianople redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


He was distinguished as one of the best officers in several Ottoman campaigns both in Asia Minor and in Europe, and the Sultan appointed him General. He even fought against Greeks, Serbs and Hungarians, and some sources says that he used to maintain secret links with Ragusa, Venice, Ladislaus V of Hungary, and Alfonso I of Naples.[10] [4]Sultan Murat II gave him the title Vali which made him General Governor. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Borders of the Republic of Ragusa, 1426-1808 Capital Ragusa Language(s) Latin, Italian since 1492 Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Duke  - 1808 Auguste Marmont Historical era Renaissance  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Invasion by France January 31, 1808  - Annexed October 14, 1808 Area  - 1808? 1,500 km2 579... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Ladislaus Posthumus (22 February 1440 - 23 November 1457), Archduke, king of Hungary as László V (or VI); king of Bohemia as Ladislav I; duke of Austria, the only son of Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, and of Elizabeth, daughter of the emperor Sigismund, was born at Komarom four months... Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Vali or Wali can refer to: Professor Ferenc A. Váli, the Hungarian-born lawyer, author and political analyst. ...


Freedom fighting in Albania

Skanderbeg statue in Tirana, Albania.
Skanderbeg statue in Tirana, Albania.
Statue of Skanderbeg, in Krujë, Albania.
Statue of Skanderbeg, in Krujë, Albania.
Statue of Skanderbeg, in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Statue of Skanderbeg, in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
A horseman statue portraying the Albanian folk hero, George Castriota Skanderbeg, in the square Piazza Albania in Rome, Italy.
A horseman statue portraying the Albanian folk hero, George Castriota Skanderbeg, in the square Piazza Albania in Rome, Italy.

On November 28, 1443, Skanderbeg saw his opportunity to rebel during a battle against the Hungarians led by John Hunyadi in Niš. He switched sides along with 300 other Albanians serving in the Ottoman army. After a long trek to Albania he eventually captured Krujë by forging a letter[8] from the Sultan to the Governor of Krujë, which granted him control of the territory. After capturing the castle, Skanderbeg[3] abjured the Prophet and the Sultan, and proclaimed himself the avenger of his family and country. He raised his standard (that later became the Albanian flag) above the castle and reportedly pronounced: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 398 KB) Summary Albanias national hero, Skanderbeu, in Tirana. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 398 KB) Summary Albanias national hero, Skanderbeu, in Tirana. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 104 KB)This is a picture of a statue portraying the Albanian folk hero, George Castriota Scanderbeg, in the square Piazza Albania in Rome, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 104 KB)This is a picture of a statue portraying the Albanian folk hero, George Castriota Scanderbeg, in the square Piazza Albania in Rome, Italy. ... A horseman statue portraying the Albanian folk hero, George Castriota Scanderbeg, in the square Piazza Albania in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Nis redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The flag of Albania used from 1946 to 1992 The flag of Albania used from 1939 to 1943 during World War II Axis Occupation Albanian Kingdom Flag (1928-1939) Principality of Albania (1914) officially until 1920 The national flag of Albania is a red flag with a black two-headed...


"It wasn't me who brought you freedom, I found it here, among you."


Skanderbeg allied with George Arianite [11](born Gjergj Arianit Komneni) and married his daughter Andronike (born Marina Donika Arianiti).[12] Sorry for doing this, but I dont know how to ask my fellow coleagues from wikipedia for info about the familly of this important Albanian hero (Gjergj Arianit Komneni). ...


Following the capture of Krujë, Skanderbeg managed to bring together all the Albanian princes in the town of Lezhë[13] (see League of Lezhë, 1444). Gibbon[3] reports that the "Albanians, a martial race, were unanimous to live and die with their hereditary prince" and that "in the assembly of the states of Epirus, Skanderbeg was elected general of the Turkish war and each of the allies engaged to furnish his respective proportion of men and money". With this support, Skanderbeg built fortresses and organized a mobile defense force that forced the Ottomans to disperse their troops, leaving them vulnerable to the hit-and-run tactics of the Albanians.[14] Skanderbeg fought a guerrilla war against the opposing armies by using the mountainous terrain to his advantage. Skanderbeg continued his resistance against the Ottoman forces until his death, with a force rarely exceeding 20,000. Lezhë (Albanian: Lezhë or Lezha, Turkish: LeÅŸ) is a city in northwest Albania, in the district and county with the same name. ... The League of Lezhë was the first coordinated Albanian Independence movement led by Gjergj Kastrioti, or Skanderbeg. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


Although it is commonly believed that Skanderbeg took part in the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, he actually never arrived. He and his army were en route to reinforce the mainly Hungarian army of John Hunyadi, but the Albanians were intercepted and were not allowed passage by the forces of Dan II of Wallachia and Đurađ Branković of Serbia, as the latter had agreed that while he would aid Skanderbeg against the Venetians, he would not against the Turks. About the time of the battle, Mehmed II also launched an invasion into Albania in order to keep Skanderbeg busy. Although Hunyadi was defeated in the campaign, Hungary successfully resisted and defeated the Ottoman campaigns during Hunyadi's lifetime.[15] Combatants Ottoman Empire Hungaria Walachia Serbian resistance Commanders Murad II John Hunyadi Strength ~ 40,000 to 60,000 [1][2] 24,000 [2][3] Casualties ~ 5,000 ~ 15,000 The Second Battle of Kosovo (Hungarian: második rigómezei csata, Turkish: Ä°kinci Kosova muharebesi) (October 17–October 20, 1448) was... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Dan II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, ruling an extraordinary 5 times, and succeeded 4 times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne. ... Despot ĐuraÄ‘ Branković, Cyrillic: Ђурађ Бранковић, Hungarian: György Brankovics, ruled 1427 - 1456) was a Serbian monarch who built Smederevo. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


In June 1450, an Ottoman army numbering approximately 150,000 men led by Sultan Murad II himself laid siege to Krujë.[16] Leaving a protective garrison of 1,500 men under one of his most trusted lieutenants, Vrana Konti (also know as Kont Urani), Skanderbeg harassed the Ottoman camps around Krujë and attacked the supply caravans of the sultan's army. By September the Ottoman camp was in disarray as morale sank and disease ran rampant. Murad II acknowledged the castle of Krujë would not fall by strength of arms, and he lifted the siege and made his way to Edirne. Soon thereafter in the winter of 1450-51, Murad died in Edirne and was succeeded by his son Mehmed II. Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Adrianople redirects here. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


For the next five years Albania was allowed some respite as the new sultan set out to conquer the last vestiges of the Byzantine Empire. Christianity in the Balkans was dealt an almost fatal blow when the Byzantine Empire was extinguished after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The first real test between the armies of the new sultan and Skanderbeg came in 1455 during the Siege of Berat, and would end in the most disastrous defeat Skanderbeg would suffer. Skanderbeg had sieged the town's castle for months, causing the demoralized Turkish officer in charge of the castle to promise his surrender. At that point Skanderbeg relaxed the grip, split his forces and left the siege location. He left behind one of his generals and half of his cavalry at the bank of the river Osum to finalize the surrender. It would be a costly error. Byzantine redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Siege of Berat occurred ca. ... Osam (in Bulgarian: Осъм) is a river in north Bulgaria, with a length of 314 km and a catchment area of 2 820 km². The river takes its source from the foot of Levski Peak in Stara Planina, at an altitude of 1821 m. ...


The Ottomans saw this moment as an opportunity for attack. They sent a large cavalry force from Kosovo Polje to Berat as reinforcements. The Albanian forces had become overconfident and had been lulled into a false sense of security. The Ottomans caught the Albanian cavalry by surprise while they were resting in the shores of the Osum. Almost all the 5,000 Albanian cavalry laying siege to Berat were massacred. When Skanderbeg made it to the battlefield, everything was over; the Ottoman cavalry had already left for Anatolia. A reason of this defeat of Skanderbeg's army, was the betrayal of his nephew, Hamza Kastrioti who was an officer of Skanderbeg's cavalry that passed on the Ottoman side with other Albanian forces and gave the Ottomans important information about the location and the organization of the Albanian troops. Later Hamza Kastrioti was captured in the battlefield by Skanderbeg himself, and imprisoned in the castle of Krujë.[17] Kosovo Polje (Косово поље, Albanian: Fushë Kosovë) is a municipal located in Kosovo, at 42. ... Berat (Albanian: Berat or Berati, Greek: ) is a town located in south-central Albania at . ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


In 1457 , an Ottoman army numbering approximately 90,000 men [18]invaded Albania with the hope of destroying Albanian resistance once and for all; this army was led by Isa beg Evrenoz, one of the only commanders to have defeated Skanderbeg in battle, and Hamza Kastrioti, Skanderbeg’s nephew. After wreaking much damage to the countryside[19]the Ottoman army set up camp at the Ujebardha field (literally translated as "Whitewater"), halfway between Lezhë and Krujë. After having evaded the enemy for months, Skanderbeg attacked there and defeated the Ottomans in September. Battle of Ujebardha Prelude The Battle of Ujebardha (also Albulena) was fought on 2 September 1457 and was, arguably Skanderbeg’s most important victory against any Ottoman army in an open field. ...


In 1461 the Sultan proposed[8] terms of accommodation with Skanderbeg and a peace was concluded between them on June 22. In the same year, Skanderbeg launched a successful campaign[13] against the Angevin noblemen and their allies who sought to destabilize King Ferdinand I of Naples. For his services[20] he gained the title of Duke of San Pietro in the kingdom of Naples. After securing the Neapolitan kingdom, a crucial ally in his struggle, he returned home. In 1464 Skanderbeg fought and defeated Ballaban Badera, an Albanian renegade who had captured a large number of Illyrian army commanders,[21] including Moisi Arianit Golemi, a cavalry commander; Vladan Giurica, the chief army quartermaster; Muzaka of Angelina, a nephew of Skanderbeg, and 18 other noblemen and army captains. These men were sent immediately to Istanbul and tortured for fifteen days.[21] Skanderbeg’s pleas to have these men back, by either ransom or prisoner exchange, failed. Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Ferdinand I (1423 - January 25, 1494), also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Ballaban Badera (also known as Ballaban Pasha) was a battle hardened and experienced commander from Mat, Albania. ... Moisi Arianit Golemi, (also, Moisi Arianit Golem Komneni or simply Moisiu i Dibres), the Albanian feudal lord of Dibra, and grandnephew of Gjergj Arianit Komneni. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

Portrait of Skanderbeg in the Uffizi, Florence.
Portrait of Skanderbeg in the Uffizi, Florence.

In 1466 Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army into Illyria and laid siege to Krujë as his father had attempted sixteen years earlier. The town was defended by a garrison of 4,400 men, led by Prince Tanush Topia. After several months, Mehmed, like Murad II, saw that seizing Krujë by force of arms was impossible for him to accomplish. Shamed, he left the siege to return to Istanbul. However, he left a force of 40,000 men under Ballaban Pasha to maintain the siege, even building a castle in central Albania, which he named El-basan (the modern Elbasan), to support the siege. Durrës would be the next target of the sultan, in order to be used as a strong base opposite the Italian coast.[22] The second siege of Kruja was eventually broken by Skanderbeg, resulting in the death of Ballaban Pasha from firearms. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Ballaban Badera (also known as Ballaban Pasha) was a battle-hardened and experienced Ottoman commander from Mat, Albania. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ... Firearms redirects here. ...


A few months later in 1467 , Mehmed, frustrated by his inability to subdue Albania, again led the largest army of its time into Illyria. Krujë was besieged for a third time, but on a much grander scale. While a contingent kept the city and its forces pinned down, Ottoman armies came pouring in from Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, and Epirus with the aim of keeping the whole country surrounded, thereby strangling Skanderbeg’s supply routes and limiting his mobility. During this conflict, Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria in the Venetian-controlled city of Lezhë, and died on January 17, 1468, just as the army under the leadership of Leke Dukagjini defeated the Ottoman force in Shkodër. The Province of Bosnia was a key Ottoman province, the westernmost one, based on the territory of the present day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Lekë Dukagjini (1410-1481) is an Albanian historical figure, contemporary of Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg, who fought against the Turks and is known for the code of law instituted in northern Albania and still applied today in some remote areas known as Kanuni. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ...


Papal relations

Skanderbeg's military successes evoked a good deal of interest and admiration from the Papal States, Venice, and Naples, themselves threatened by the growing Ottoman power across the Adriatic Sea. Skanderbeg managed to arrange for support in the form of money, supplies, and occasionally troops from all three states through his diplomatic skill. One of his most powerful and consistent supporters was Alfonso the Magnanimous, the king of Aragon and Naples, who decided to take Skanderbeg under his protection as a vassal in 1451, shortly after the latter had scored his second victory against Murad II. In addition to financial assistance, the King of Naples supplied the Albanian leader with troops, military equipment, and sanctuary for himself and his family if such a need should arise. As an active defender of the Christian cause in the Balkans, Skanderbeg was also closely involved with the politics of four Popes, including Pope Pius II, who hailed him as the Christian Gideon.[20] Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Sylvius), (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was Pope from 1458 until his death. ... Gideon may refer to: Gideon (album), a 1980 album by Kenny Rogers Gideon, a character in the book of Judges Gideons International GIDEON-Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network Gideon the Elder, a character in Charmed Gideon (comics), a Marvel Comics Supervillain Gideon v. ...


Profoundly shaken by the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Pius II tried to organize a new crusade against the Ottoman Turks, and to that end he did his best to come to Skanderbeg's aid, as his predecessors Pope Nicholas V and Pope Calixtus III had done before him. The latter named him captain general of the Holy See. This policy was continued by his successor, Pope Paul II. They gave him the title Athleta Christi, or Champion of Christ. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... Paul II, cardinal-nephew of Eugene IV, who was cardinal-nephew of Gregory XII. Paul II (February 23, 1417 – July 26, 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 1464 until his death in 1471. ... Athleta Christi (Latin: Champion of Christ) is a title granted by the pope to men who have led military campaigns to defend Christianity. ...


After death

The Albanian resistance went on after the death of Skanderbeg for an additional ten years under the leadership of Dukagjini, though with only moderate success and no great victories. In 1478, the fourth siege of Krujë finally proved successful for the Ottomans; demoralized and severely weakened by hunger and lack of supplies from the year-long siege, the defenders surrendered to Mehmed, who had promised them to leave unharmed in exchange. As the Albanians were walking away with their families, however, the Ottomans reneged on this promise, killing the men and enslaving the women and children.[22]


In 1479 , the Ottoman forces captured the Venetian-controlled Shkodër after a fifteen-month siege.[23] Shkodër was the last Albanian castle to fall to the Ottomans and Venetians evacuated Durrës in 1501. Albanian resistance continued sporadically until around 1500. 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The union[1] which Skanderbeg had maintained in Albania did not survive him. Without Skanderbeg at their lead, their allegiances faltered and splintered until they were forced into submission. The defeats triggered a great Albanian exodus[23] to southern Italy, especially to the kingdom of Naples, as well as to Sicily, Greece, Romania, and Egypt. Following this, most of its population was forced to convert to Islam. Albania remained a part of the Ottoman Empire until 1912, never again posing a serious threat to the Ottomans. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Effects on the Ottoman expansion

The Ottoman Empire's expansion was ground to a halt during the timeframe in which Skanderbeg and his Albanian forces resisted. He has been credited with being the main reason for delaying Ottoman expansion into Western Europe, giving Vienna time to better prepare for the Ottoman arrival [citation needed]. While the Albanian resistance certainly played a vital role in this, it was one piece of numerous events that played out in the mid-15th century. Much credit must also go to the successful resistance mounted by Vlad III Dracula in Wallachia, as well as the defeats inflicted upon the Ottomans by Hunyadi and his Hungarian forces. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Ţepeş IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


Descendants

Scanderbeg’s family, the Castriota Scanderbeg [24], were invested with a Neapolitan dukedom after the Turkish pressure became too strong. They obtained a feudal domain, the Duchy of San Pietro in Galatina and County of Soleto (Lecce, Italy). John, Scanderbeg’s son, married Irene, daughter of Serbian prince Lazar Branković and a descendant of the Byzantine imperial family, the Palaeologi [25]. Two lines of the Castriota Scanderbeg family live onwards in southern Italy, one of which descends from Pardo and the other from Achille, both being natural sons of Duke Ferrante, son of John and Scanderbeg’s nephew. They are part of the Italian nobility and members of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta with the highest rank of nobility [26] The only legitimate daughter of Duke Ferrante, Erina, born from Adriana Acquaviva, inherited the paternal estate, bringing the Duchy of Galatina and County of Soleto into the Sanseverino family after her marriage with prince Pietrantonio Sanseverino. Unfortunately several people in the past as well as in the present abuse the Castriota Scanderbeg surname, pretending falsely to descend from Giorgio Castriota. Lazar II Brankovic (died 20 February 1458) was a Serbian despot from 1456 to 1458. ...


Seal of Skanderbeg

Seal of Skanderbeg.
Seal of Skanderbeg.

A seal that is assumed to be a seal of Skanderbeg has been kept in Denmark since it was discovered in 1634. It was bought by the National Museum in 1839. According to the interpretation of the symbols and inscriptions by Danish scholars, the seal is made of brass, is 6 cm in length and weighs 280 g. The inscription is in Greek and reads Alexander (Skender) is an Emperor and a King. Emperor of the Romaic nation (Greeks) and King of the Turks, the Albanians, the Serbs and the Bulgarians. It naturally follows the inscription is laterally reversed. It is possible that the seal was made after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 , since Skanderbeg is referred to as an Emperor of the Byzantines. The double eagle in the center of the seal is derived from the eagle of the Byzantine emperor, and this fact is also the most agreed upon among Albanians. Some claim it is a famous ancient Illyrian symbol. This seal is the origin of the flag of modern Albania. Furthermore, Skanderbeg never was a King of the Serbs or the Bulgars. It is possible the seal was 'designed' while Skanderbeg was organizing a crusade against the Ottomans or that it was manufactured when Skanderbeg was an ally of the King of Naples. Image File history File links Picture of the seal of Skanderbeg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Picture of the seal of Skanderbeg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Name

His names have been spelled in a number of ways: George, Gjergj, Giorgio, Castriota, Kastrioti, Castrioti,[8]Castriot,[20] Kastriot, Skanderbeg, Scanderbeg, Skënderbeg, Skanderbeu, Scander-Begh, Skënderbej or Iskander Bey.


Legacy

As part of his internal policy programs, Skanderbeg issued many edicts, like census of the population and tax collection, during his reign based on Roman and Byzantine law.[citation needed] Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ...

Skanderbeg Museum.
Skanderbeg Museum.

When the Ottomans found the grave of Skanderbeg in Saint Nicholas, a church in Lezhë, they opened it and made amulets of his bones,[3] believing that these would confer bravery on the wearer. Image File history File linksMetadata Kruja. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kruja. ... For other uses, see Nicholas. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) consists of any object intended to bring good luck and/or protection to its owner. ...


Skanderbeg today is the national hero of Albania, a source of national pride. Many museums and monuments, such as the Skanderbeg Museum next to the castle in Krujë, have been raised in his honor around Albania and in predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo. Skanderbeg's struggle against the Ottoman Empire became highly significant to the Albanian people, as it strengthened their solidarity, made them more conscious of their national identity, and served later as a great source of inspiration in their struggle for national unity, freedom, and independence. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


Skanderbeg in literature

Frontispiece of Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum principis by Marin Barleti
Frontispiece of Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum principis by Marin Barleti

Skanderbeg gathered quite a posthumous reputation in Western Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. With virtually all of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and with the Turks at the gates of Vienna in 1683, nothing could have captivated readers in the West more than an action-packed tale of heroic Christian resistance to the "Moslem hordes". Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 615 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Marin Barletis History of Skanderbeg frontispiece. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 615 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Marin Barletis History of Skanderbeg frontispiece. ... A page from Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius, Italian: Marino Barlezio; ca 1450, Shkodër - 1512 or 1513, probably Rome) was a humanist of Albanian descent, the first and greatest Albanian historian, and a Catholic priest. ...


Books on the Albanian prince began to appear in Western Europe in the early 16th century. One of the earliest of these histories to have circulated in Western Europe about the heroic deeds of Skanderbeg was the Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum Princeps (Rome ca. 1508-1510), published a mere four decades after Skanderbeg's death. This History of the life and deeds of Scanderbeg, Prince of the Epirotes was written by the Albanian historian Marinus Barletius Scodrensis, known in Albanian as Marin Barleti,[2] who after experiencing the Turkish occupation of his native Shkodër at firsthand, settled in Padua where he became rector of the parish church of St. Stephan. Barleti dedicates his work to Donferrante Kastrioti,[13] Skanderbeg's grandchild, and to posterity. The book was first published in Latin and has since been translated in many languages. A page from Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius, Italian: Marino Barlezio; ca 1450, Shkodër - 1512 or 1513, probably Rome) was a humanist of Albanian descent, the first and greatest Albanian historian, and a Catholic priest. ... Padua, Italy, (It. ... St. ...


The work was widely read in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and was translated and/or adapted into a number of foreign language versions: German by Johann Pincianus (1533), Italian by Pietro Rocca (1554, 1560), Portuguese by Francisco D'Andrade (1567), Polish by Ciprian Bazylik (1569), French by Jaques De Lavardin, also known as Jacques de Lavardin, Seigneur du Plessis-Bourrot (Histoire de Georges Castriot Surnomé Scanderbeg, Roy d'Albanie, 1576), and Spanish by Juan Ochoa de la Salde (1582). The English version, translated from the French of Jaques De Lavardin by one Zachary Jones Gentleman, was published at the end of the 16th century under the title, Historie of George Castriot, surnamed Scanderbeg, King of Albinie; containing his Famous Actes, his Noble Deedes of Armes and Memorable Victories against the Turkes for the Faith of Christ. Gibbon was not the first one who noticed that Barleti is sometimes inaccurate in favour of his hero;[27] for example, Barleti claims that the Sultan was killed by disease under the walls of Kruje.[28]


Skanderbeg's posthumous fame was not confined to his own country. Voltaire starts his chapter "The Taking of Constantinople" with the phrase For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...

Had the Greek Emperors acted like Scanderbeg, the empire of the East might still have been preserved.[29]

A number of poets and composers have also drawn inspiration from his military career. The French 16th century poet Ronsard wrote a poem about him, as did the 19th century American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.[30] Antonio Vivaldi composed an opera entitled Scanderbeg[1]. For Gibbon, "John Huniades and Scanderbeg... are both entitled to our notice, since their occupation of the Ottoman arms delayed the ruin of the Greek empire." Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 - December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Greek Empire can refer to the following: The Greek Empire of the ancient Macedonian Kingdom during the reign of Alexander the Great (as it is referred in the Bible). ...


In 1855, Camille Paganel wrote Histoire de Scanderbeg, inspired by the Crimean War.[6] Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


Miscellaneous

  • The palace in Rome in which Skanderbeg resided in 1465-66 still bears his name. A statue in the city is dedicated to him.
  • In 2006, a statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg was unveiled on the grounds of St. Paul's Albanian Catholic Community in Rochester Hills, Michigan, making it the first Skanderbeg statue in the United States.[citation needed]
  • Monuments and Statues of Skanderbeg have been erected in

1. Tirana, Albania 2. Kruja, Albania 3. Skopje, Macedonia 4. Pristina, Kosovo 5. Rome, Italy 6. Various locales throughout southern Italy where the Arberesh Community dominates 7. Michigan, USA Arb resh are Albanian people living in southern Italy. ...


List of Skanderbeg's battles

Skanderbeg fought 25 battles and 24 of them ended with victory. The one loss was a battle in Berat.

  • Battle of Vaikal
  • Battle of Oronik
  • Battle of Mokra (Dibër)
  • Battle of Lower Dibra
  • Battle of Ujebardha
  • Battle of Torvioll
  • Battle of Kumaniv
  • Battle of Pollog I
  • Battle of Pollog II
  • Battle of Ohër
  • Siege of Berat
  • First Siege of Krujë
  • Second Siege of Krujë
  • Third Siege of Krujë

// Combatants Ottoman Empire Albanians Commanders Isak Bey Evrenoz Hamza Kastrioti Scanderbeg Strength About 50,000 About 20,000 Casualties About 10,000 The Battle of Ujebardha (also Albulena) was fought on September 2, 1457 between Albanian forces led by Skanderbeg and an expeditionary force of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Siege of Berat occurred ca. ... The First Siege of Krujë took place in June 1450 when an Ottoman army of approximately 150,000 men laid siege to Krujë in Albania. ... The Second Siege of Krujë by the Ottoman Empire took place in 1466 at Krujë in Albania. ... The Third Siege of Krujë by the Ottoman Empire occurred in 1467 at Krujë in Albania. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article briefly outlines each period in the history of Albania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b Marin Barleti, 1508, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis
  3. ^ a b c d Edward Gibbon, 1788, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 6, Scanderbeg section
  4. ^ a b Edwin E. Jacques, The Albanians: An Ethnic History, 1994, p. 179
  5. ^ M. Barleti, ibid.
  6. ^ a b Camille Paganel, 1855, "Histoire de Scanderbeg, ou Turcs et Chrétiens du XVe siècle"
  7. ^ Hodgkinson, Harry. Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero. I. B. Tauris, 240. ISBN-13: 978-1850439417. 
  8. ^ a b c d James Emerson Tennent, 1845, The History of Modern Greece, from Its Conquest by the Romans B.C.146, to the Present Time
  9. ^ Rendina, Claudio (2000). La grande enciclopedia di Roma. Rome: Newton Compton, 1136. ISBN 88-8289-316-2. 
  10. ^ Noli, Fan S.: George Castrioti Scanderbeg, New York, 1947
  11. ^ Fine, John V. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. 
  12. ^ http://web.tiscalinet.it/delta/page12.html
  13. ^ a b c Minna Skafte Jensen, 2006, A Heroic Tale: Marin Barleti's Scanderbeg between orality and literacy
  14. ^ Stavrianos, L.S. (2000). The Balkans Since 1453. ISBN 1-85065-551-0. 
  15. ^ Noli, Fan S. George Castrioti Scanderbeg, New York, 1947
  16. ^ Logoreci, Anton The Albanians, London, 1977
  17. ^ Logoreci, Anton: The Albanians, London, 1977
  18. ^ Noli, Fan S.: George Castrioti Scanderbeg, New York, 1947
  19. ^ Noli, Fan S.: George Castrioti Scanderbeg, New York, 1947
  20. ^ a b c Catholic World Encyclopedia VOL. XXIII, Number 134, 1876, Scanderbeg entry
  21. ^ a b John Musachi, 1515, Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty
  22. ^ a b Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. ISBN 0-691-01078-1. 
  23. ^ a b This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain.
  24. ^ Edward Gibbon, 1788, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 6, Scanderbeg section
  25. ^ Steven Runciman, 1990, The fall of Costantinople 1453, Cambridge University Press
  26. ^ Archivio del Gran Priorato di Napoli e Sicilia del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta, Napoli
  27. ^ see also Chalcondyles, l vii. p. 185, l. viii. p. 229
  28. ^ Gibbon, ibid, note 42
  29. ^ Voltaire, 1762, Works, Vol 3.
  30. ^ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1863, Scanderbeg

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A page from Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius, Italian: Marino Barlezio; ca 1450, Shkodër - 1512 or 1513, probably Rome) was a humanist of Albanian descent, the first and greatest Albanian historian, and a Catholic priest. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of the Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Sir James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet (7 April 1804–6 March 1869), born James Emerson, was an English politician and traveller. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Literature

  • A. Laporta, La Vita di Scanderbeg di Paolo Angelo (Venezia 1539), un libro anonimo restituito al suo autore, Congedo (2004), ISBN 8880865714.

Additional sources

  • Adapted from Fan S. Noli's biography George Castrioti Scanderbeg

Theophan (Fan) Stylian Noli (January 6, 1882 - March 13, 1965) was an Albanian bishop and politician, who served briefly as prime minister and regent of Albania in 1924. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Skanderbeg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3137 words)
Skanderbeg fought a guerrilla war against the opposing armies by using the mountainous terrain to his advantage.
During this conflict, Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria in the Venetian-controlled city of Lezhë, and died on January 17, 1468, just as the army under the leadership of Leke Dukagjini defeated the Ottoman force in Shkodër.
Skanderbeg's struggle against the Ottoman Empire became highly significant to the Albanian people, as it strengthened their solidarity, made them more conscious of their national identity, and served later as a great source of inspiration in their struggle for national unity, freedom, and independence.
Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg - definition of Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg in Encyclopedia (931 words)
Skanderbeg's military successes evoked a good deal of interest and admiration from the Papal States, Venice and Naples, themselves threatened by the growing Ottoman power across the Adriatic Sea.
As an active defender of the Christian cause in the Balkans, Skanderbeg was also closely involved with the politics of four Popes, one of them being Pope Pius II, the Renaissance humanist, writer and diplomat.
Skanderbeg is founder of Castriota Scanderbeg family which is today part of Italian nobility.
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