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Encyclopedia > Situs inversus
Situs inversus
Classification & external resources
Situs inversus causes the positions of the heart and lungs to be mirrored.
ICD-10 Q89.3
ICD-9 759.3
OMIM 270100
DiseasesDB 29885
eMedicine radio/639 
MeSH D012857

Situs inversus (also called situs transversus) is a rare congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. The normal arrangement is known as situs solitus. In other rare cases, in a condition known as situs ambiguus or heterotaxy, situs cannot be determined. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // Q00-Q99 - Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q07) Congenital malformations of the nervous system (Q00) Anencephaly and similar malformations (Q01) Encephalocele (Q02) Microcephaly (Q03) Congenital hydrocephalus (Q04) Other congenital malformations of brain (Q05) Spina bifida (Q06) Other congenital malformations of spinal cord (Q07) Other congenital malformations of nervous... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... In anatomy, the viscera are the internal organs of an animal, in particular the internal organs of the head, thorax and abdomen. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... A mirror image is a mirror based duplicate of a single image. ... Situs ambiguous or situs ambiguus (the latter spelling is more correct etymologically, but the former spelling is very common), also known as heterotaxy, is a rare congenital defect in which the major visceral organs are distributed abnormally within the thorax and abdomen. ... Situs ambiguous or situs ambiguus (the latter spelling is more correct etymologically, but the former spelling is very common), also known as heterotaxy, is a rare congenital defect in which the major visceral organs are distributed abnormally within the thorax and abdomen. ...


The term situs inversus is a short form of the Latin phrase "situs inversus viscerum," meaning "inverted position of the internal organs." Dextrocardia (the heart being located on the right side of the thorax) was first recognised by Marco Severino in 1643. However, situs inversus was first described more than a century later by Matthew Baillie. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Dextrocardia is a peculiar condition in which the heart is positioned on the right side of the chest while it is normally on the left (mirror-image). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... Matthew Baillie (born October 27, 1761 in Shotts, North Lanarkshire, Scotland; died September 23, 1823 in Gloucestershire, England) was a Scottish physician and pathologist. ...


The prevalence of situs inversus varies among different populations but is less than 1 in 10,000 people.[1]

Contents

Effect on anatomy

The condition affects all major structures within the thorax and abdomen. Generally, the organs are simply transposed through the sagittal plane. The heart is located on the right side of the thorax, the stomach and spleen on the right side of the abdomen and the liver and gall bladder on the left side. The left lung is trilobed and the right lung bilobed, and blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and the intestines are also transposed. The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... Diagram showing mid-sagittal, coronal and transverse planes. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... In anatomy, lymph vessels are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph away from the tissues, through the lymph nodes and thoracic duct back to the general circulation. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ...


If the heart is swapped to the right side of the thorax, it is known as situs inversus with dextrocardia or situs inversus totalis. If the heart remains in the normal left side of the thorax, a much rarer condition (1 in 22,000 cases of situs inversus), it is known as situs inversus with levocardia or situs inversus incompletus. Situs inversus with levocardia, or dextrocardia without situs inversus, present much higher rates of congenital defects than situs inversus with dextrocardia. Dextrocardia is a peculiar condition in which the heart is positioned on the right side of the chest while it is normally on the left (mirror-image). ... Levocardia is a medical condition where the heart is on the correct side of the body (the left), but the related structures are on the wrong side, either due to corrected transposition of the great vessels or to situs inversus. ...


Significance

Situs inversus is generally inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
Situs inversus is generally inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

Situs inversus is generally an autosomal recessive genetic condition, although it can be X-linked or found in identical "mirror" twins.[2] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Sex-linked genes are those carried on the mammalian X chromosome but not the Y chromosome. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ...


In the absence of congenital heart defects, individuals with situs inversus are phenotypically unimpaired, and can lead normal healthy lives, without any complications related to their medical condition. There is a 5-10% prevalence of congenital heart disease in individuals with situs inversus totalis, most commonly transposition of the great vessels. The incidence of congenital heart disease is 95% in situs inversus with levocardia. Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Cross-section of a healthy heart. ... Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects (CHDs) involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the primary vessels: superior and/or inferior vena cavae (SVC, IVC), pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta. ...


Many people with situs inversus are unaware of their unusual anatomy until they seek medical attention for an unrelated condition. The reversal of the organs may then lead to some confusion, as many signs and symptoms will be on the 'wrong' side. For example, if an individual with situs inversus develops appendicitis, they will present to the physician with left lower abdominal pain, since that is where their appendix lies. Thus, in the event of a medical problem, the knowledge that the individual has situs inversus can expedite diagnosis. People with this rare condition should inform their physicians before an examination, so they may redirect their search for heart sounds and other signs. Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... The heart sounds are the noises (sound) generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor. ...


Situs inversus also complicates organ transplantation operations as donor organs will almost certainly come from situs solitus donors. As hearts and livers are chiral, geometric problems arise placing an organ into a cavity shaped in the mirror image. For example, a person with situs inversus who requires a heart transplant needs all the vessels to the transplant donor heart reattached to their existing ones. However, the orientation of these vessels in a person with situs inversus is reversed, necessitating steps so that the blood vessels join properly. An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... Chirality refers to several phenomena, all having to do with objects that differ from their mirror image. ...


Kartagener syndrome

Further information: primary ciliary dyskinesia

About 25% of individuals with situs inversus have an underlying condition known as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). PCD is a dysfunction of the cilia that manifests itself during the embryologic phase of development. Normally-functioning cilia determine the position of the internal organs during early embryological development, and so individuals with PCD have a 50% chance of developing situs inversus. If they do, they are said to have Kartagener syndrome, characterized by the triad of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis. Cilia are also responsible for clearing mucus from the lung, and the dysfunction causes increased susceptibility to lung infections. Male sufferers of PCD are often infertile: the cilia that make up the tail of individual sperm cells are also defective, thus rendering the sperm ineffective. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also known as immotile ciliary syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a defect in the action of the tiny hairs (cilia) lining the respiratory tract. ... Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also known as immotile ciliary syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a defect in the action of the tiny hairs (cilia) lining the respiratory tract. ... cross-section of two motile cilia, showing the 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) or undulipodium (pl. ... Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ...


See also

Situs solitus (Latin for customary position) refers to a normal pattern of lateral asymmetry in the human. ... Situs ambiguous or situs ambiguus (the latter spelling is more correct etymologically, but the former spelling is very common), also known as heterotaxy, is a rare congenital defect in which the major visceral organs are distributed abnormally within the thorax and abdomen. ... Asplenia refers to the absence (a-) of normal spleen function and is associated with some risks. ... In geometry, a figure is chiral (and said to have chirality) if it is not identical to its mirror image, or more particularly if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image by rotations and translations alone. ...

Notable persons with situs inversus

Notable individuals with documented cases of situs inversus include:

  • Randy Foye, an American basketball player for the NBA's Minnesota Timberwolves. He has suffered no discernable complications, and the condition is not expected to jeopardize his career as a professional athlete.
  • Donny Osmond, whose appendicitis was initially dismissed as a less serious condition because nobody realized he had situs inversus. It was discovered when he was taken to the hospital when on tour with his family in England.

Randy Foye (born September 24, 1983 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American professional basketball player currently with the NBAs Minnesota Timberwolves. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... The National Basketball Association of the United States and Canada, commonly known as the NBA, is the premier professional basketball league in North America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Donald Clark Donny Osmond (born December 9, 1957) is an American Welsh entertainer. ... Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...

Fictional characters with situs inversus

  • In Margaret Mahy's novel The Tricksters, the character Hadfield was said to be an exact mirror image of his otherwise identical twin Felix, including having his vital organs in mirror-image layout.
  • In the Ian Fleming novel Dr. No, Dr. No explains to James Bond that he once survived a murder attempt because his heart is located on his right side, which his would-be-killers did not know when they stabbed the spot on the left where the heart of a normal human being would be.
  • In the webcomic It's Walky!, anyone who goes through the Martian resurrection process ends up being completely reversed, with their organs mirrored within their bodies and their primary hand becoming the opposite of what it had been before. This process happens to several major characters throughout the comic's run.
  • In the WB series Jack & Jill, Simon Rex played a young man with situs inversus.

It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Navy Commander. ... Its Walky! was a daily webcomic by David Willis. ... Jack and Jill was an American television dramedy which ran from September 1999 to April 2001. ... Fortune or fortune can refer to: Luck Wealth Fortune magazine The fortune Unix/Linux command, which prints a random quote Fortune (Metal Gear), a character from Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. ... Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (commonly abbreviated MGS2) is a stealth-based game that was developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2 in 2001. ... Revolver Ocelot ) is an antagonist in the Metal Gear video game series created by game designer Hideo Kojima. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Situs inversus on eMedicine
  2. ^ [Gedda L, Sciacca A, Brenci G, Villatico S, Bonanni G, Gueli N, Talone C. Situs viscerum specularis in monozygotic twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 1984; 33(1): 81-5.]

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ...

References

  • McManus, Chris (2002). Right Hand, Left Hand. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00953-3.  this book was the 2003 Aventis winner and has a description of the history behind the discovery of this medical condition.
  • Yokoyama T, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Montgomery CA, Elder FF, Overbeek PA (1993). "Reversal of left-right asymmetry: a situs inversus mutation". Science 260 (5108): 679-82. DOI:10.1126/science.8480178. PMID 8480178. 
  • Lowe LA, Supp DM, Sampath K, et al (1996). "Conserved left-right asymmetry of nodal expression and alterations in murine situs inversus". Nature 381 (6578): 158-61. DOI:10.1038/381158a0. PMID 8610013. 
  • Levin M (1997). "Left-right asymmetry in vertebrate embryogenesis". Bioessays 19 (4): 287-96. DOI:10.1002/bies.950190406. PMID 9136626. 
  • Levin M, Pagan S, Roberts DJ, Cooke J, Kuehn MR, Tabin CJ (1997). "Left/right patterning signals and the independent regulation of different aspects of situs in the chick embryo". Dev. Biol. 189 (1): 57-67. DOI:10.1006/dbio.1997.8662. PMID 9281337. 
  • Logan M, Pagán-Westphal SM, Smith DM, Paganessi L, Tabin CJ (1998). "The transcription factor Pitx2 mediates situs-specific morphogenesis in response to left-right asymmetric signals". Cell 94 (3): 307-17. DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81474-9. PMID 9708733. 
  • Stern CD, Wolpert L (2002). "Left-right asymmetry: all hands to the pump". Curr. Biol. 12 (23): R802-3. DOI:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01312-X. PMID 12477404. 

The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aventis Prizes for Science Books is an annual award for the previous years best general science writing and best science writing for children, sponsored by the Aventis Foundation. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Situs Inversus site with discussion forum
  • 00698 at CHORUS

  Results from FactBites:
 
Situs Inversus Dextrocardia (1241 words)
Dextrocardia with Situs Inversus is characterised by the reversal of the normal position of the heart chambers and abdominal organs such as the liver and spleen.
Situs inversus totalis is associated with a 5-10% incidence of congenital heart disease.
Situs inversus with levocardia (right-sided stomach and left-sided heart) is associated with congenital heart disease in 95% of cases, but is very rare.
Situs inversus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (926 words)
Situs inversus causes the positions of the heart and lungs to be mirrored.
Situs inversus should not be confused with a mislabelled chest X-ray.
Situs inversus is generally inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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