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Encyclopedia > Situated cognition
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Situated cognition, also referred to as the situativity theory of cognition (Greeno, 1998), offers a context and situation-bound theory of cognition—a theory that claims thinking is complex, radical, individual, yet inextricably bound to, and motivated by, the conviviality social human interaction affords. The most robust theoretical and practical contributions to our understanding of situated cognition have been made from within the field of educational psychology beginning in the 1990s when research began to demonstrate qualitatively and empirically how 'rule bound' approaches to understanding and explicating thinking (i.e. schema theories) were inadequate at describing the complex ways human learning takes place in the 'real world.' The situativity theory of cognition suggested that learning was "situated" and "on the fly" (e.g., Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Greeno, 1998) that is, it always takes place in a specific context, with learners (agents) possessing specific intentions, and in response to specific affordances of the learning environment (Gibson 1979/1986). Overall, the goal of research on situated cognition is to investigate learning (and learners) in situ, for example Yucatec midwives in training (Lave & Wenger, 1991), or children solving complex math and science problems (e.g., Lave, 1988; The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990; Roth, 1996). Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... It has been suggested that Schemata theory be merged into this article or section. ... Yucatec Maya is a Maya language spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...


Scholars and researchers from many fields e.g. anthropology, psychology, and education have described and defined situated cognition variously, for example: This article is about the social science. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...

  • "An experience is always what it is because of a transaction taking place between an individual and what, at the time, constitutes his environment..." (Dewey, 1938, p. 43).
  • "Situations might be said to co-produce knowledge through activity. Learning and cognition, it is now possible to argue, are fundamentally situated" (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989, p.32).
  • "Activities, tasks, functions, and understandings do not exist in isolation; they are part of broader systems of relations in which they have meaning. These systems of relations arise out of and are reproduced and developed within social communities, which are in part systems of relations among persons. Learning thus implies becoming a different person with respect to the possibilities enabled by these systems of relations" (Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 53).
  • "All action is embodied because perception and action arise together automatically: Learning is inherently 'situated' because every new activation is part of an ongoing perception-action coordination. Situated activity is not a kind of action, but the nature of animal interaction at all times, in contrast with most machines we know. This is not merely a claim that context is important, but what constitutes the context, how you categorize the world arises together with processes that are coordinating physical activity" (Clancey, 1993, p.95).
  • "Rather than a person being 'in' an environment, the activities of person and environment are viewed as parts of a mutual-constructed whole. Put simply, the inside/outside relationship between person and environment is replaced by a part/whole relationship" (Bredo, 1994, p28).
  • "Thinking is situated in physical and social contexts. Cognition, including thinking, knowing, and learning, can be considered as a relation involving an agent in a situation, rather than as an activity in an individual's mind" (Greeno, 1989, p.135).
  • "'Cognition' observed in everyday practice is distributed--stretched over, not divided among--mind, body, activity and culturally organized settings (which include other actors)" (Lave, 1988, p. 1).
  • "Simply put, situated cognition is cognition that takes place in the context of task-relevant inputs and outputs. That is, while a cognitive process is being carried out, perceptual information continues to come in that affects processing, and motor activity is executed that affects the environment in task-relevant ways" (Wilson, 2002, p.626).
  • "Situated cognition theory, by contrast, shifts the focus from the individual to the sociocultural setting and the activities of the people within that setting. Knowledge accrues through the live practice of the people in a society" (Discroll, 2004, p.158)

Situativity and Cognitivist Views on Cognition

Key Phenomena Situated Cognition Cognitivist (i.e. schema, info. processing)
Intelligence Intelligence can be defined as an increasingly sophisticated interaction with the world. This sophisticated behavior, that we call intelligence, is an emergent property of an interaction. The interaction gets smarter, more sophisticated, and more differentiated, as the agent and environment potentially evolve over time (Gibson 1979/1986; Greeno, 1994; Young Kulikowich, & Barab, 1997). Jeanne Ormrod (2004) highlighted the controversy among psychologists on the issue of intelligence when she stated, "some have an entity view: They believe that intelligence is a 'thing' that is fairly permanent and unchangeable. Others have an incremental view: They believe that intelligence can and does improve with effort and practice" (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Weiner, 1994).
Motivation Motivation is described in terms of intentional dynamics. "Intentions denote a mismatch between the presence of a goal-state attractor (a possible final condition) and the actual state of the environment (the initial condition)...As the goal-states are created or annihilated, the intersection set will shift" (Kugler, Shaw, Vicente & Kinsella-Shaw, 1991, p.425). The agent's immediate or future goals influence his intentions, and serve as a guide in his interaction with the world. "Successful goal-directed behavior is possible whenever goal-specific information, made available by the environment, can be matched by the control of action exercised by the organism. This dual information/control field that couples the organism and environment provides the lawful basis for intentional dynamics" (Kugler, Shaw, Vicente & Kinsella-Shaw, 1991, p.427). "Most contemporary [cognitive] theorists describe human motivation as being a function of human cognition. For example, people set specific goals toward which they strive. They form expectations regarding likelihood of success in different activities. They construct interpretations of why certain consequences come their way, and they make predictions about the future consequences of their behavior" (Ormrod, 2004, p.440)
Memory Situated Cognition understands memory as an interaction with the world (perception). The agent can represent things in his head and problem-solve, but he does so in a situation that is meaningfully bounded, and that brings himself towards a specified goal (intention). Perception and action are co-determined by the effectivities and affordances, which act 'in the moment' together (Gibson 1979/1986; Greeno, 1994; Young Kulikowich, & Barab, 1997). Therefore, the agent directly perceives and interacts with the environment, determining what affordances can be picked up, based on his effectivities. "Memory is related to the ability to recall information that has previously been learned. In some instances, the word memory is used to refer to the process of retaining information for a period of time. In other instances, it is used to refer to a particular 'location' where learned information is kept (e.g. working memory and long-term memory)" (Ormrod, 2004, p.186).
Problem Solving & Transfer Problems are ill-defined, context bound, and real-world. The relationship between the solver and the environment affords multiple and various solutions. Transfer is an act of creation; it is an "advantageous effect of learning in one situation upon learning in a later situation" (Greeno, 2006, p. 545). Problems are typically discrete and general. Solutions are figured right or wrong. Success is defined by following an orderly process to produce and then re-produce a solution(s) across various domains.[1]
How People Learn Learning is a process of increasing differentiation, a tuning at attention to finer and finer distinctions (E.J. Gibson, 2000). John Dewey (1938) described education as an essentially "social process" through which a mature individual "surveys the capacities and needs" of learners and creates experiences for them to further develop. Quality of education (learning) is realized in the, "...degree in which individuals form a community group" (Dewey, 1938, p. 58). Contemporary definitions share similar beliefs about the social construction of learning for example, Driscoll (2004), "Fundamental to situated cognition theory is the assumption that learning involves social participation..." (p. 170). And, "...learning is an integral part of generative social practice in the lived-in world" (Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 35). Learning is a process of accumulating facts and an increasingly sophisticated network of connections (semantic net) among those facts. "Processes occurring during the presentation of the learning material are known as 'encoding'. Learning occurs in three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval which, "...involves recovering or extracting stored information from the memory system" (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 189).
Applications for Teaching row 6, cell 2 row 6, cell 3
Research Methodologies Research takes place in situ and in real-world settings reflecting assumptions that knowledge is constructed within specific contexts which have specific situational affordances. Qualitative methodologies (see Association for Qualitative Research) are the most prominently used by researchers including: phenomenological inquiry, grounded theory building, ethnography, case studies, participant-observation, participatory action research, and in-depth interviewing. Populations are typically made up of a single community of practice (e.g., Vai and Gola tailors' apprentices in Liberia, Lave, 1977). row 7, cell 3
Mind-Body Connection (Embodiment) "The mind must be understood in the context of its relationship to a physical body that interacts with the world" (Wilson, 2002, p.625). Situated cognition acknowledges the existence of an agent/environment interaction, where the agent acts on information that is available. Therefore, direct perception keeps the agent in touch with the world, and perception and action interact directly ‘on the fly.’ The cognitivist viewpoint approached "the mind as an abstract information processor, whose connections to the outside world were of little theoretical importance" (Wilson, 2002, p.625). Perception and motor systems are merely peripheral input and output devices (Niedenthal, 2007; Wilson, 2002), which essentially implies that "sensory, motor, and affective systems are not required for thinking or language use" (Niedenthal, 2007, p.1003).

The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ...

Key principles

Legitimate peripheral participation

According to Lave and Wenger (1991) legitimate peripheral participation (LPP) provides a framework to describe how individuals ('newcomers') become part of a community of learners. Legitimate peripheral participation was central to Lave and Wenger's take on situated cognition (referred to as "situated activity") because it introduced socio-cultural and historical realizations of power and access to the way thinking and knowing are legitimated. They stated, "Hegemony over resources for learning and alienation from full participation are inherent in the shaping of the legitimacy and peripherality of participation in its historical realizations" (p. 42). Lave and Wenger's (1991) research on the phenomenon of apprenticeship in communities of practice not only provided a unit of analysis for locating an individual's multiple, changing levels and ways of participation, but also implied that all participants, through increased involvement, have access to, acquire, and use resources available to their particular community. Legitimate peripheral participation (LPP) is a theoretical description of how newcomers become experienced members and eventually old timers of a Community of practice or collaborative project. ...

To illustrate the role of LPP in situated activity, Lave and Wenger (1991) examined five apprenticeship scenarios (Yucatec midwives, Vai and Gola tailors, naval quartermasters, meat cutters, and nondrinking alcoholics involved in AA). Their analysis of apprenticeship across five different communities of learners lead them to several conclusions about the situatedness of LPP and its relationship to successful learning. Key to newcomers' success included: The Vai are an ethnic group living in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... The Gola or Gula are a tribal people living in western Liberia and parts of eastern Sierra Leone. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... AA meeting sign // Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics whose primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. ...

  • access to all that community membership entails,
  • involvement in productive activity,
  • learning the discourse(s) of the community including "talking about and talking within a practice," (p. 109), and
  • willingness of the community to capitalize on the inexperience of newcomers, "Insofar as this continual interaction of new perspectives is sanctioned, everyone's participation is legitimately peripheral in some respect. In other words, everyone can to some degree be considered a 'newcomer' to the future of a changing community" (Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 117).

Reciprocal teaching

A method of teaching that involves one teacher and up to seven students. Both teacher and student take turns playing the role of teacher. Instruction includes "modeling and coaching students in four strategic skills: formulating questions based on the text, summarizing the text, making predictions about what will come next, and clarifying difficulties with the text" (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989, p.460). Reciprocal Teaching is a remedial reading instructional technique which applies a problem-solving heuristic to the process of reading comprehension, thereby promoting thinking while reading (Alfassi, 2004). ...

Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989) emphasized six critical features of a cognitive apprenticeship that included observation, coaching, scaffolding, modeling, fading, and reflection. Using these critical features, expert(s) guided students on their journey to acquire the cognitive and metacognitive processes and skills necessary to handle a variety of tasks, in a range of situations (Collins et al., 1989). One example of a successful cognitive apprenticeship was Reciprocal Teaching of reading.

Results from a pilot study on the effectiveness of Reciprocal Teaching found that reading comprehension test scores of poor readers increased from pre-test to post-test following a Reciprocal Teaching training session. Further investigation revealed that students retained the majority of the information learned over time; with test scores remaining relatively stable (Collins et al., 1989. The success of this reading intervention was attributed to five factors:

  • students had the opportunity to form a new conceptual model of reading,
  • students actively utilized expert reader skills and strategies,
  • the teacher modeled expert reader strategies directly with the students,
  • the teacher utilized successful scaffolding techniques, and
  • the student played the dual role as producer and critic (Collins et al., 1989).

Affordances and effectivities

The situated cognition perspective focused on "perception-action instead of memory and retrieval…A perceiving/acting agent is coupled with a developing/adapting environment and what matters is how the two interact" (Young, Kulikowich, & Barab, 1997, p.139). An Affordance is a possible action that an object or an environment invites, induces or tempts an individual to perform. ...

James Gibson first developed this concept of perceiving and acting (1979/1986) in his theory of information pickup. He defined the term affordances as properties in the environment that presented possibilities for action and were available for an agent to perceive directly and act upon (Gibson 1979/1986). Shaw, Turvey, & Mace (as cited by Greeno, 1994) later introduced the term effectivities, the abilities of the agent that determined what the agent could do, and consequently, the interaction that could take place. An Affordance is a possible action that an object or an environment invites, induces or tempts an individual to perform. ...

Perception and action were co-determined by the effectivities and affordances, which acted 'in the moment' together (Gibson 1979/1986; Greeno, 1994; Young et al., 1997). Therefore, the agent directly perceived and interacted with the environment, determining what affordances could be picked up, based on his effectivities.

Problem solving

"Successful problem solving often occurs in groups and requires the social construction of knowledge" (Young & McNeese, 1995, p. 360). From the perspective of research in situated cognition, problem solving must be real-world (aka authentic) in its complexity, 'ill-defined,' and 'interactive' between the learner and the context (including other learners); making it a process through which "...perceiving and acting create meaning on the fly, rather than reading it back from something (representational or schematic) in the head" (Young & McNeese, 1995, p. 368). Formal schooling typically teaches 'problem solving' as a single skill with problems that are 'straight forward and bounded' (as math story problems, for example) with the belief students will be equip to 'transfer' those skills to 'everyday practice' like planning a family budget (Lave, 1988). To the contrary a situated cognitive approach to teaching problem solving would recognize that, "It is the relationship between the agent and the problem that is problem solving" (Young et al., 1997, p. 140), therefore would attend to the problem-solver's abilities (aka effectivities) and to the resources available in the environment (aka affordances). Problem solving forms part of thinking. ...

Problem solving in the real-world of schooling takes place all of the time, like when the 7th grader figures out how little money he can spend on lunch (to not have his stomach grumbling all day) so he can catch the city bus after school (which takes 30 minutes each way), and spend what's left of his lunch money on video games and candy, and ultimately make it home before his parents at 6:30p.m. Yet curriculum designers and teachers insist on "teaching" kids problem solving by asking them to figure out how long its going to take the A Train to get to the Hometown Station and back. The problem with the latter approach is solvers and their problems need to be embedded in environments that "...afford the problem-solving actions that students would normally engage" (Young & McNeese, 1995, p. 371). For example, The Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series videodiscs [2] created by The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1990, 1993, 1994) to examine potential relationship(s) between situated cognition and situated learning and "anchored instruction" (i.e., "situating instruction in the context of information-rich environments that encouraged students and teachers to pose and solve complex, realistic problems"). Situated learning is education that takes place in a setting functionally identical to that where the learning will be applied: Workshops, kitchens, greenhouses and gardens used as classrooms Stand-up role playing in the real world setting, including most military training Field trips including archaeological digs and participant-observer studies...


The traditional cognition approach assumes that perception and motor systems are merely peripheral input and output devices (Niedenthal, 2007; Wilson, 2002). However, embodied cognition posits that the mind and body interact ‘on the fly’ as a single entity. An example of embodied cognition is seen in the area of robotics, where movements are not based on internal representations, rather, they are based on the robot’s direct and immediate interaction with its environment (Wilson, 2002). Additionally, research has shown that embodied facial expressions influence judgments (Niedenthal, 2007), and arm movements are related to a person’s evaluation of a word or concept (Markman, & Brendl, 2005). In the later example, the individual would pull or push a lever towards his name at a faster rate for positive words, then for negative words. These results appeal to the embodied nature of situated cognition, where knowledge is the achievement of the whole body in its interaction with the world. Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ... Embodied philosophy (also known as the embodied mind thesis, embodied cognition or the embodied cognition thesis) usually refers to a set of beliefs promoted by George Lakoff and his various co-authors (including Mark Johnson, Mark Turner, and Rafael E. Núñez), which suggest that the mind can only be...


A variety of definitions for the term transfer appear in the literature and research on Situated Cognition. Did you mean? decal Population transfer Manhattan Transfer List of Latin words with English derivatives Transfer (movie) Electron transfer Fare transfer A technique in propaganda This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Did you mean? decal Population transfer Manhattan Transfer List of Latin words with English derivatives Transfer (movie) Electron transfer Fare transfer A technique in propaganda This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

  • Jean Lave on transfer stated, "Learning transfer is assumed to be the central mechanism for bringing school-taught knowledge to bear in life after school" (Lave, 1988, p. 23).
  • Greeno (1991 as cited in Greeno, 2006) described knowing using the metaphor of a neighborhood or workshop and stated, "The idea is that knowing a conceptual domain includes knowing what resources are available (p. 543). Thusly described transfer to "...therefore, involve having or taking authority to go beyond what one has been taught" (p. 546). Put simply, Greeno viewed transfer as an elegant, creative act that affords learners agency (via his concept of authoritative agency) and authorship (via his concept of accountable positioning) (2006).
  • "In a certain sense every experience should do something to prepare a person for later experiences of a deeper and more expansive quality. That is the very meaning of growth, continuity, reconstruction of experience" (Dewey, 1938, p. 47).
  • Young and McNeese (1995) stated that "analyzing transfer from an ecological perspective leads us to consider that detection of invariance across a 'generator set' of situations would be required for transfer across content areas" (p.384).
  • "Learning in multiple contexts induces the abstraction of knowledge, so that students acquire knowledge in a dual form, both tied to the contexts of its uses and independent of any particular context. This unbinding of knowledge from a specific context fosters its transfer to new problems and new domains" (Collins et al., 1989, p.487).
  • "We have come to believe that we should expect transfer only when there is a confluence of an individual's goals and objectives, their acquired abilities to act, and a set of affordances for action (specified by information) available within an environment. That is, whatever tuning of attention that leads to the initial occurrence of a behavior, transfer will occur when the agent has a similar goal, their abilities to act are similar, and the environment affords the goal-relevant action" (Young et al., 1997, p.147).
  • "...Transfer is more likely to occur when learning contexts are framed as part of a larger ongoing intellectual conversation in which students are actively involved" (Engle, 2006, p.451).

Jean Lave Jean Lave (PhD., Social Anthropology, Harvard University, 1968) is a social anthropologist and noted social learning theorist. ...

Further reading

  • Brown, A. L. (1992). "Design experiments:Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating in complext interventions in classroom settings". Journal of the Learning Sciences 2 (2): 141-178. 
  • Clancey, William J. (1997). Situated Cognition: On Human Knowledge and Computer Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI:10.2277/0521448719. ISBN 0-521-44871-9. 
  • "Special Issue: Situated Action" (Jan-March 1993). Cognitive Science 17 (1). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 
  • Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & Education. ISBN 0-684-83828-1. 
  • Greeno, J. G. (1997). On claims that answer the wrong question. Educational Research, 26(1), 5-17.
  • Greeno, J. G. (2006). Authoratative, accountable positioning and connected, general knowing: Progressive themes in understanding transfer. Journal of the Learning Sciences 15(4) 539-550.
  • Griffin, M. M. (1995). You can't get there from here: Situated learning, transfer, and map skills. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 65-87.
  • Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. ISBN 0-262-58146-9. 
  • Kirshner, D. & Whitson, J. A. (1997) Situated Cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (ISBN# 0-8058-2038-8)
  • Kirshner, D., & Whitson, J. A. (1998). Obstacles to understanding cognition as situated. Educational Researcher, 27(8), 22-28.
  • Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice. ISBN 0-521-35018-8. 
  • Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. ISBN 978-0-521-42374-8. 
  • Shaw, R. E., Kadar, E., Sim, M. & Repperger, D. W. (1992). The intentional spring: A strategy for modeling systems that learn to perform intentional acts. Journal of Motor Behavior 24(1), 3-28.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

Activity theory (AT) is a Soviet psychological meta-theory, paradigm, or framework, with its roots in behaviourism. ... History Distributed cognition is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Edwin Hutchins. ... Ecological psychology (EP) is term claimed by a number of schools of psychology. ... Embodied Cognitive Science is an interdisciplinary field of research whose aim is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior. ... In psychology, and the cognitive sciences more generally, enactivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind. ... Relational frame theory, or RFT, is a psychological theory of human language and cognition, developed and tested largely through the efforts of Steven C. Hayes and Dermot Barnes-Holmes. ... Situation awareness or situational awareness [1] (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. ... Situated learning is education that takes place in a setting functionally identical to that where the learning will be applied: Workshops, kitchens, greenhouses and gardens used as classrooms Stand-up role playing in the real world setting, including most military training Field trips including archaeological digs and participant-observer studies...


  • Bredo, E. (1994). "Reconstructing educational psychology: Situated cognition and Deweyian pragmatism". Educational Psychologist 29 (1): 23-35. 
  • Brown, J. S.; Collins, A. & Duguid, S. (1989). "Situated cognition and the culture of learning". Educational Researcher 18 (1): 32-42. 
  • Clancey, W. J (1993). "Situated action: A neuropsychological interpretation response to Vera and Simon". Cognitive Science 17: 87-116. 
  • Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1990). "Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition". Educational Research 19 (6): 2-10. 
  • Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1993). Anchored instruction and situated cognition revisited. Educational Technology March Issue, 52-70.
  • Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1994). From visual word problems to learning communities: Changing conceptions of cognitive research. In K. McGilly (Ed.) Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom proactice. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
  • Driscoll, M. P. (2004). Psychology of learning for instruction, 3, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-20-537519-7. 
  • Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). "A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality". Psychological Review 95: 256-273. 
  • Engle, R.A. (2006). "Framing interactions to foster generative learning: A situative explanation of transfer in a community of learners classroom" 15 (4): 451-498. 
  • Eysenck, M. W., & Keane, M. T. (2005). Cognitive psychology, 5, Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-359-6. 
  • Gibson, James J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-898-59959-8. 
  • Greeno, J. G. (1989). "A perspective on thinking". American Psychologist 44: 134-141. 
  • Greeno, J. G. (1994). "Gibson's affordances". Psychological Review 101: 336-342. 
  • Greeno, J. G. (1998). "The situativity of knowing, learning, and research". American Psychologist 53 (1): 5-26. 
  • Greeno, J. G. (2006). Authoratative, accountable positioning and connected, general knowing: Progressive themes in understanding transfer. J. of the Learning Sciences 15(4) 539-550.
  • Kugler, P. N., Shaw, R. E., Vicente, K. J., & Kinsella-Shaw, J. (1991). The role of attractors in the self-organization of intentional systems. In R. R. Hoffman and D. S. Palermo (Eds.) Cognition and the Symbolic Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Lave, J. (1977). "Cognitive consequences of traditional apprenticeship training in West Africa". Anthroppology and Education Quarterly (3): 1776-180. 
  • Markman, A. B., & Brendl, C. M. (2005). "Constraining theories of embodied cognition". Psychological Science (1): 6-10. 
  • Niedenthal, P. M. (2007). "Embodying emotion". Science 316: 1002-1005. 
  • Ormrod, J. E. (2004). Human learning, 4th, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN 0-13-094199-9. 
  • Palinscar, A.S., & Brown, A.L. (1984). "Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and monitoring activities". Cognition and Instruction 1: 117-115. 
  • Roth, W-M (1996). "Knowledge diffusion in a grade 4-5 classroom during a unit on civil engineering: An analysis of a classroom community in terms of its changing resources and practices". Cognition and Instruction 14 (2): 179-220. 
  • Weiner, B. (1994). "Ability versus effort revisted: The moral determinants of achievement evaluation and achievement as a moral system". Educational Psychology Review 12: 1-14. 
  • Wilson, M. (2002). "Six views of embodied cognition". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9 (4): 625-636. 
  • Young, M. F. , Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997). The unit of analysis for situated assessment. Instructional Science, 25(2), 133-150.
  • Young, M., & McNeese, M.(1995). A Situated Cognition Approach to Problem Solving. In P. Hancock, J. Flach, J. Caid, & K. Vicente (Eds.) Local Applications of the Ecological Approach to Human Machine Systems.(pp.359-391). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
This does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Situated cognition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (291 words)
Situated cognition is a movement in cognitive psychology which derives from pragmatism, Gibsonian ecological psychology, ethnomethodology, the theories of Vygotsky (activity theory) and the writings of Heidegger.
This is similar to the view of "situated activity" proposed by Lucy Suchman, "social context" proposed by Giuseppe Mantovani, and "Situated Learning" proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger.
Situated cognition emphasises studies of human behaviour that have 'ecological validity': that is, which take place in real situations (i.e.
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