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Encyclopedia > Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull in 1885
Born Hoka-Psice (Jumping Badger), later Tatanka-Iyotanka (Sitting Bull)
c. 1831
Near the Grand River, South Dakota
Died December 15, 1890
Standing Rock Indian Reservation
Nationality Lakota Sioux
Other names Hunkesni (Slow), Hoka-Psice (Jumping Badger)
Occupation Holy man, war chief
Height 5'10"
Spouse Light Hair, wife
Red Woman, wife
Four Robes, wife
Snow-on-Her, wife
Seen-by-her-Nation, wife
Children One Bull, adopted son
Crow Foot, son
Many Horses, daughter
Walks Looking, daughter
Parents Tatanka-Iyotanka (Sitting Bull) later (Jumping Bull), father
Her-Holy-Door, mother
Relatives Big Foot, half brother
White Bull, nephew
Signature

Sitting Bull (Sioux: Tatanka Iyotake, Tatanka Iyotanka or Ta-Tanka I-Yotank, also nicknamed Slon-he or "Slow"; ca. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man, born near the Grand River in South Dakota and killed by police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (846 × 1536 pixels, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Grand River The Grand River is a tributary of the Missouri River in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Holy Man was a movie produced in 1998 starring Eddie Murphy, Jeff Goldblum and Kelly Preston. ... Crow Foot was the son of Sitting Bull of the Sioux Indian Tribe. ... Big Foot (Si Tanka) The corpse of Big Foot at Wounded Knee (1890) Big Foot (Si Thanka) (1824? - December 29, 1890), also known as Spotted Elk, was the name of a chief of a sub-group of the Lakota Sioux. ... White Bull (Sioux: Pte-san-hunka) (April, 1849 – June 21, 1947) was the nephew to Sitting Bull and a famous warrior in his own right. ... Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ... The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Hunkpapas are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Grand River The Grand River is a tributary of the Missouri River in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


He is notable in American and Native American history for his role in the major victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment on June 25, 1876, where Sitting Bull's premonition of defeating the cavalry became reality. In the months after the battle, Sitting Bull fled the United States to Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan, Canada, where he remained until 1881, at which time he surrendered to American forces. A small remnant of his band under Chief Wambligi decided to stay at Wood Mountain. After his return to the United States, he briefly toured as a performer in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... American history redirects here. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... Custer redirects here. ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... For the 2004 Japanese film, see Premonition (2004 film). ... History The North West Mountain Police were sent to the Wood Mountian area to establish the Queens Law in the frontier west of early Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Buffalo Bill (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buffalo Bill (disambiguation). ...


After working as a performer, Sitting Bull returned to the Standing Rock Agency in South Dakota. Because of fears that he would use his influence to support the Ghost Dance movement, Indian Affairs authorities ordered his arrest. During an ensuing struggle between Sitting Bull's followers and the police, Sitting Bull was shot in the side and head by police after they were fired upon by his supporters. His body was taken to nearby Fort Yates for burial, but in 1953, his remains possibly were exhumed and reburied near Mobridge, South Dakota by Sioux who wanted his body to be nearer to his birthplace. However, some Sioux and historians dispute this claim and believe that any remains that were moved were not those of Sitting Bull. For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... Fort Yates is a town located in Sioux County, North Dakota. ... Mobridge is a city located in Walworth County, South Dakota. ...

Contents

Early life

Childhood

Sitting Bull was born with the name Hoka-Psice (Jumping Badger), which was understood by members of his tribe as only a temporary name.[1] His deliberate pace and way of life gave him the nickname Hunkesni, or Slow.[2] His father was named Tatanka Iyotake (Sitting Bull, who he would later be named after), his mother was named Her-Holy-Door, and he had a sister, six years older than him, named Good Feather. As a youth, Slow excelled at foot races and was an expert horseback rider and was very accurate with a bow and arrow.[3] A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ...


At about the age of 14, Slow participated in a war party that met Crow warriors.[4] He overtook one of the warriors during their retreat, and knocked the Crow off his horse. For this, Slow earned a white eagle feather, symbol of a first coup, and also received the name of his father. His father changed his name to Jumping Bull, and henceforth Slow would be known as Tatanka-Iyotanka, or Sitting Bull.[5] It was also at this ceremony that Sitting Bull received a personalized shield from his father, which was richly decorated with a scene depicting one of his father's dreams and consecrated by the band's medicine man. Crow indians (Karl Bodmer) The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone River valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ...

Sitting Bull, 1882
Sitting Bull, 1882

Image File history File links Tatanka_Lyotake. ... Image File history File links Tatanka_Lyotake. ...

Early adulthood

As Sitting Bull grew, he participated in more war parties, gaining a red feather that signified a battlefield wound.[6] He performed feats of bravery, and became expert in other weapons such as the knife, tomahawk, war club, and was competent with firearms. He favored the use of the lance, which was also presented to him by his father.[7] In 1856, Sitting Bull again was wounded in combat by a Crow warrior who shot Sitting Bull in the foot. This wound caused Sitting Bull to limp for the rest of his life.[8] This article is about the tool. ... Native American Afraid of Hawk, holding a tomahawk A tomahawk is a type of axe native to North America, traditionally resembling a hatchet with a straight shaft. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...


Sitting Bull's bravery gained him access to Sioux warrior societies such as the Kit Fox and the Strong Heart, the latter of which was highly prestigious.[9] Sitting Bull and other warriors in the Strong Heart society (such as Chief Gall and Crow King) founded an elite society within the Strong Heart called the Midnight Strong Heart Society.[10] In 1857, the Midnight Strong Heart Society made Sitting Bull a war chief, and later that year, he was accorded the same status in the Hunkpapa tribe.[11] The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Gall (c. ...


Marriage and family

Sitting Bull's early family history is not clear, but his first marriage likely took place in 1851 to a woman named Pretty Door or Light Hair.[12] By 1857, Sitting Bull's marriage to Light Hair produced a son (who died of disease at a young age), but Light Hair died during childbirth. Sitting Bull adopted his nephew, One Bull, at the time of his biological son's death. Also in 1857, Sitting Bull adopted a young Assiniboine as his brother, and he came to be known as Jumping Bull (a tribute to Sitting Bull's father).[13] Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890-1891. ...


Status as holy man

Sitting Bull became a Sioux holy man, or wichasha wakan, during his early twenties. His responsibilities as a holy man included understanding the complex religious rituals and beliefs of the Sioux, and also learning about natural phenomena that were related to the Sioux beliefs. Sitting Bull had an "intense spirituality that pervaded his entire being in his adult years and that fueled a constant quest for an understanding of the universe and of the ways in which he personally could bring its infinite powers to the benefit of his people."[14] However, Sitting Bull also knew techniques of healing and carried medicinal herbs, though he was not a medicine man. Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ...


Because of his status as a wichasha wakan, Sitting Bull was a member of the Buffalo Society, a dream society for those who dreamt of buffalo. He also was a member of the Heyoka, a society for those who dreamed of thunderbirds.[15] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Depiction of a Thunderbird on a Totem Pole The mythological Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Indigenous spirituality in North America . ...


Warrior life

Sitting Bull adorned with eagle feathers
Sitting Bull adorned with eagle feathers

Image File history File links Chief_sitting_bull. ... Image File history File links Chief_sitting_bull. ...

Dakota War of 1862 and its aftermath

For more details on this topic, see Dakota War of 1862.

As a result of treaty violations by the United States during the late 1850s and early 1860s, eastern bands of the Dakota (one of the three major divisions of the Sioux, along with the Lakota and Nakota) became increasingly agitated with both white settlers and traders alike. On August 17, 1862, a skirmish between Dakota hunters and white settlers resulted in a Dakota war council decision to attack white settlements throughout southern Minnesota. However, by late 1862, the Dakota were forced to surrender and were expelled from Minnesota. Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ...


Although the Lakota largely were unaffected by the war, some Dakota refugees (some of whom had refused to surrender to United States forces) from Minnesota moved into Lakota territory along the Missouri River, and Minnesota regiments pursued them. In 1863, Hunkpapa warriors joined with Dakota refugee warriors to fight against the military. However, Col. Henry Sibley defeated them at the Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake on July 26, 1863 and at the Battle of Stony Lake on July 28, 1863.[16] Sitting Bull likely participated in both of these battles, and also possibly took part among other Hunkpapa warriors in the Battle of Whitestone Hill on September 3, 1863.[17] As in the previous battles, the Army prevailed, killing about 100 Sioux and capturing about 160.[18][19] The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Henry Hastings Sibley, first governor of the U.S. state of Minnesota, was born in Detroit, Michigan on February 20, 1811. ... The Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake was fought between United States forces and Sioux Indians of the Dakota Territory. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Stony Lake was the last engagement during Henry Hastings Sibleys campaign against the Santee and Teton Sioux in the Dakota Territory. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Northwestern Expidition Santee, Yankton, Cut-Head, Hunkapapa, Teton Sioux, and Blackfeet Commanders Brig. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Hunkpapa retreated after this defeat, though the Lakota were aware of the military's intentions to continue the fighting. In June 1864, Gen. Alfred Sully led American forces out from Fort Sully (a few miles south of Fort Pierre, South Dakota). To counter their advance up the Cannonball River, several bands of the Lakota and Dakota Sioux had assembled in camp at the foot of the Killdeer mountains. Among these several thousand warriors were both Sitting Bull and his elder nephew White Bull, who was preparing to fight in his first battle.[20] Alfred Sully (22 May 1821 - 27 April 1879), was a military officer during the American Civil War and during the Indian Wars on the frontier. ... Fort Pierre is a city located in Stanley County, South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Cannonball River The Cannonball River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 135 mi (217 km) long, in southwestern North Dakota in the United States. ... White Bull (Sioux: Pte-san-hunka) (April, 1849 – June 21, 1947) was the nephew to Sitting Bull and a famous warrior in his own right. ...


At the Battle of Killdeer Mountain, which took place July 28, 1864, the Sioux attacked Sully's assembled forces, but were defeated overwhelmingly by the soldiers' combined artillery and rifles. Sitting Bull's uncle, Four Horns, was wounded though survived, and the Sioux retreated. However, they attacked Sully's forces again from August 7 to August 9, 1864, and were defeated again. Sitting Bull made efforts to persuade the Sioux forces to withdraw, and as a result of his pleas and Sully's second victory, the Sioux pulled back from attacking Sully's column as it continued through the Badlands.[21] The several bands broke up after Killdeer Mountain, and Sitting Bull and a group of Hunkpapas moved southeast. Killdeer Mountain was a battleground in Alfred Sully’s Expedition against the Sioux in Dakota Territory (1864). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


On September 2, 1864, Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapas attacked a wagon train of emigrants led by Capt. James L. Fisk that was traveling through Sioux lands.[22] Sitting Bull again was wounded, this time through the hip and back. The emigrants forted up and a standoff ensued until the Sioux eventually gave up and retreated to track buffalo. The fighting from 1863 to 1864 caused Sitting Bull to harden his views about the presence of whites in Sioux lands, and he assumed a sense of uncompromising militancy against whites that would characterize him for the rest of his life.[23] is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Red Cloud's War

Sitting Bull led numerous war parties against Fort Berthold, Fort Stevenson, and Fort Buford and their environs from 1865 through 1868.[24] Although Red Cloud was a leader of the Oglala Sioux, his leadership and attacks against forts in the Powder River Country were accompanied by Sitting Bull's guerrilla attacks on emigrant parties and smaller forts throughout the upper Missouri River region. Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... The Oompa Loompa or Oglala Sioux, meaning to scatter ones own in Siouan, live in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota bordering Nebraska and 50 miles east of Wyoming, the second largest reservation in the United States. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Powder River Country is depicted in red on a map of the western United States The Powder River Country refers to an area of the Great Plains in northeastern Wyoming in the United States. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


By early 1868, the U.S. government desired a peaceful settlement to Red Cloud's War, and agreed to Red Cloud's demands that Forts Phil Kearny and C.F. Smith be abandoned. Chief Gall of the Hunkpapas (among other representatives of the Hunkpapas, Blackfeet, and Yankton Sioux) signed a form of the Treaty of Fort Laramie on July 2, 1868 at Fort Rice (near Bismarck, North Dakota).[25] However, Sitting Bull did not agree to the treaty and continued his hit-and-run attacks on forts in the upper Missouri area throughout the late 1860s and early 1870s.[26] The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail. ... Fort C. F. Smith was a military post established the Powder River country by the United States Army in Montana Territory on August 12, 1866, during Red Clouds War. ... The Sihasapa are a division of the Titonwan, or Teton, a Sioux tribe from the Tetons. ... The Sioux (also Dakota) are a Native American tribe. ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Bismarck in Burleigh County, North Dakota Coordinates: , Country State County Burleigh Founded 1872 Government  - Mayor John Warford Area  - City 27. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...

Sketch of Sitting Bull which appeared in the December 8, 1877 issue of Harper's Weekly
Sketch of Sitting Bull which appeared in the December 8, 1877 issue of Harper's Weekly

is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ...

Black Hills War

For more details on this topic, see Black Hills War.

Sitting Bull's band of the Hunkpapas continued to make attacks on emigrant parties and forts in the late 1860s, but in 1871, the Northern Pacific Railway conducted a survey for a route across the northern plains directly through Hunkpapa lands.[27] The 1871 survey encountered stiff Sioux resistance, and in 1872, the surveyors were accompanied by federal troops. This survey party also was resisted by Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa, and was forced to turn back.[28] In 1873, the military accompaniment for the surveyors was considerably larger, but Sitting Bull's forces resisted this survey "most vigorously."[29] The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... The Northern Pacific Railway (AAR reporting marks NP) was a railway that operated in the north-central region of the United States. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...


However, the Panic of 1873 sitting bull likes big penis Northern Pacific Railway's into bankruptcy. This halted the construction of the railroad through Sioux territory, but also encouraged interest in the possibility of gold mining in the Black Hills. A military expedition led by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer in 1874 left from Fort Abraham Lincoln, near Bismarck, to explore the Black Hills for gold and to determine a suitable location for a military fort in the Hills.[30] Custer's announcement of gold in the Black Hills triggered the Black Hills Gold Rush and increased tensions between the Sioux and whites seeking to move into the Black Hills.[31] Run on the Fourth National Bank, No. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Custer redirects here. ... Fort Abraham Lincoln was an important infantry and cavalry post about seven miles south of todays Mandan, North Dakota. ... The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in the Dakotas and parts of Montana and is general considered to have started 1860-70. ...


Although Sitting Bull did not attack Custer's expedition in 1874, the government was increasingly pressured to open the Black Hills to mining and settlement based on reports of Sioux depredations (encouraged by Sitting Bull). In November 1875, the government accordingly ordered all Sioux bands outside the Great Sioux Reservation to move onto the reservation, with the knowledge that these bands would not comply. These bands living off the reservation were certified by the Interior Department as hostile on February 1, 1876.[32] This certification allowed the military to pursue the Sioux and Sitting Bull. The Great Sioux Reservation was established in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, and includes all of modern Western South Dakota (commonly known as West River South Dakota) and modern Boyd County, Nebraska. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ...

Little Bighorn battlefield
Little Bighorn battlefield

little bighorn memorial overview with clouds by Durwood Brandon. ... little bighorn memorial overview with clouds by Durwood Brandon. ...

Battle of Little Bighorn

For more details on this topic, see Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer, a decorated Union veteran of the Civil War, was an ambitious military officer with presidential hopes in the early 1870s. His Civil War exploits and his presence at Lee's surrender at Appomattox had made Custer a household name by the time he began his career fighting the Sioux. He was well-known among Native Americans and his fame among whites grew ever-larger as the result of a series of controversial battles and early dawn attacks against Native American camps. Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert Edward Lee # Strength Army of the Potomac, Army of the James Army of Northern Virginia Casualties and losses 164[1] ~500 killed and wounded[1] 27,805 surrendered and paroled The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865) was... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Sitting Bull's influence was growing larger as a result of his militant stance against white intrusions on Sioux lands. By the mid-1870s, Sitting Bull had garnered great respect even among other bands of the Sioux, while his guidance also impacted the Northern Cheyenne and the Northern Arrapahoes.[33]


On June 25, 1876, Custer’s 7th Cavalry advance party of General Alfred Howe Terry’s column attacked Indian tribes at their camp on the Little Big Horn River expecting a similar victory. The U.S. army did not realize that before the battle began, more than 3,000 Native Americans had left their reservations to follow Sitting Bull. The attacking Sioux, inspired by a vision of Sitting Bull’s, in which he saw U.S. soldiers being killed as they entered the tribe’s camp, fought back. Custer's badly outnumbered troops lost ground quickly and were forced to retreat, as they began to realize the true numbers of the Native American force. The tribes then led a counter-attack against the soldiers on a nearby ridge, ultimately annihilating the soldiers. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Alfred Howe Terry (November 10, 1827 _ December 16, 1890) was a military commander of the Dakota Territory from 1866 to 1869 and again from 1872 to 1886. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Native Americans' celebrations were short-lived, however, as public outrage at Custer's death and defeat and the heightened awareness of the remaining Sioux brought thousands more soldiers to the area. Over the next year, the new American military forces pursued the Lakota, forcing many of the Indians to surrender. Sitting Bull refused to surrender and in May 1877 led his band across the border into Saskatchewan, Canada where he remained in exile for many years near Wood Mountain, refusing a pardon and the chance to return.[34] This article is about the Canadian province. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Sitting Bull in Pierre, South Dakota on his way to Standing Rock Agency from Fort Randall
Sitting Bull in Pierre, South Dakota on his way to Standing Rock Agency from Fort Randall

Location in South Dakota Coordinates: County Hughes County Founded 1880 Government  - Mayor Dennis Eisnach Area  - City 33. ...

Surrender

Hunger and cold eventually forced Sitting Bull, his family, and nearly 200 other Sioux in his band to return to the United States ahrfbrebvk.jvkejkejkbrbtt4lgd surrender on July 19, 1881. Sitting Bull had his young son Crow Foot surrender his rifle to the commanding officer of Fort Buford, and he told the soldiers he wished to regard them and the white race as friends. Two weeks later, Sitting Bull and his band were transferred to Fort Yates, the military post located adjacent to the Standing Rock Agency. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Crow Foot was the son of Sitting Bull of the Sioux Indian Tribe. ... Fort Buford was a former United States Army base located at the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers in the state of North Dakota. ... Fort Yates is a town located in Sioux County, North Dakota. ... Flag of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ...


Arriving with 185 people, his band was kept separate from the other Hunkpapa gathered at the agency. Army officials remained concerned that the famed Hunkpapa chief would use his influence to stir up trouble among the recently surrendered northern bands. Consequently, the military decided to transfer him and his band to Fort Randall to be held as prisoners of war. Again loaded on a steamboat, Sitting Bull's band, now totaling 172 people, were sent downriver to Fort Randall where they spent the next 20 months. He was finally allowed to return to the Standing Rock Agency with his band in May 1883. The Hunkpapas are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. ... Categories: Stub | South Dakota history ...


Wild West Show participation

Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885

In 1885, Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to join Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West show. He earned about $50 a week for riding once around the arena, where he was a popular attraction. Although it is rumored that he often cursed his audiences in his native tongue during the show, some historians argue that he did not,[35] and there have been reports that Sitting Bull in fact gave speeches relaying his desire for education for the young and the normalization of relations between the Sioux and whites.[36] Sitting Bull also was reported to have cursed his audience during an opening address celebrating the completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1884.[37] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (453 × 640 pixel, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) TITLE: Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885 CALL NUMBER: LOT 12887 [item] [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-21207 (b&w film copy neg. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (453 × 640 pixel, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) TITLE: Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885 CALL NUMBER: LOT 12887 [item] [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-21207 (b&w film copy neg. ... For other uses, see Buffalo Bill (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buffalo Bill (disambiguation). ...


Sitting Bull only stayed with the show for four months before returning home. However, during that time, he had become somewhat of a celebrity and a romanticized freedom fighter. He earned a small fortune by charging for his autograph and picture, although he often gave away his money to the homeless and beggars.[38] During this time, Sitting Bull realized that his enemies were not limited to the small military and settler communities he had encountered in his homelands, but in fact they were numerous and possessed technological advancements.[citation needed] He also realized that the Sioux would be overwhelmed if they continued to fight.[citation needed] Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ...


Arrest and Death

After returning to the Standing Rock Agency, Sitting Bull became associated with the Ghost Dance movement. Although he likely did not join, he allowed others in his band to do so. The movement's followers believed performing the ghost dance would sweep away all evil in the world, including the white man and his society, bring back the deceased reuniting them with the living, and hasten a time of love and prosperity. Indian Affairs authorities feared that Sitting Bull, a still-popular spiritual leader, would give more credibility to the movement and decided to arrest him. Pre-empting the army, 43 Indian police attempted to arrest him at his cabin on December 15, 1890, at the Standing Rock Agency. For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


Initially, Sitting Bull did not resist the arrest; however, some of his followers fought to prevent it, fearing that the army meant to kill him. As Sitting Bull exited his cabin, about 150 of these followers had assembled.[39] One of Sitting Bull's followers, Catch-the-Bear, fired a shot at one of the police officers standing next to Sitting Bull, Lt. Bull Head, who then shot Sitting Bull in the side. Another police officer, Sgt. Red Tomahawk, then shot Sitting Bull in the head, killing him. Shortly after, Catch-the-Bear was killed by another Indian police officer.[40] In the end, six police officers were killed, and one other wounded, while seven of Sitting Bull's followers were killed in the fighting, including his 17-year-old son Crow Foot. [41][42]


Sitting Bull's body was taken by the Indian police to Fort Yates, North Dakota, and buried outside the military cemetery there. His surviving wives, Four Robes and Seen-By-Her-Nation, and their children moved to the community of Red Shirt Table in the Badlands of South Dakota after being detained at Fort Yates. Some Lakota claim that his remains were transported on the night of April 8, 1953 to an open field near Mobridge, South Dakota, and a granite shaft and a bust by sculptor Korczak Ziółkowski mark the location.[43] However, the actual location of Sitting Bull's body was and still is disputed.[44][45] Fort Yates is a town located in Sioux County, North Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Gettysburg National Cemetery, Pennsylvania Golden Gate National Cemetery, California Arlington National Cemetery, Virgnia National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific, Hawaii National Cemetery is a designation for nationally important cemeteries in the United States. ... Badlands National Park, in southwest South Dakota, preserves 242,756 acres (982 km²) of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mobridge is a city located in Walworth County, South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Korczak Ziółkowski (Boston, September 6, 1908 — October 20, 1982, Crazy Horse, South Dakota) was the American designer and sculptor of Crazy Horse Memorial. ...

Sitting Bull marker, Mobridge, South Dakota 2003
Sitting Bull marker, Mobridge, South Dakota 2003

Legacy

Sitting Bull's grave at Fort Yates, ca. 1906
Sitting Bull's grave at Fort Yates, ca. 1906

Following his death, his cabin on the Grand River was taken to Chicago to become part of the 1893 Columbian Exhibition. The cabin was exhibited along with Native American dances and a sign that said "War Dance Given Daily."[46] Later, Sitting Bull became the subject of or a character in several Hollywood motion pictures, such as Sitting Bull: The Hostile Sioux Indian Chief (1914), Sitting Bull at the Spirit Lake Massacre (1927), Sitting Bull (1954), Buffalo Bill and the Indians or Sitting Bull's History Lesson (1976), and Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007). For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is a 2007 television film adapted from the book of the same name by Dee Brown. ...


As time passed, Sitting Bull's legacy became a product of the public's lasting perception of him as an archetype of Native American resistance movements. Legoland Billund, the first Legoland park, contains a Lego sculpture of Sitting Bull, which is the largest sculpture in the park. On September 14, 1989, the United States Postal Service released a postage stamp featuring a likeness of Sitting Bull with a denomination of 28¢.[47] On March 6, 1996, the Standing Rock Sioux tribal council voted to rename Standing Rock College (formerly Standing Rock Community College) as Sitting Bull College in honor of Sitting Bull. Legoland Billund, the original Legoland park, opened in 1968 in Billund, Denmark. ... The entrance of Legoland Deutschland. ... For other uses, see Lego (disambiguation). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Sitting Bull College is a tribal college in Fort Yates, North Dakota. ...


See also

Catherine Weldon was a widow from New York whose commitment to the cause of Native Americans led her to the Indian territories of the Dakotas in the 1890s. ...

Footnotes

is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Greenwood Press, based in Connecticut, is an imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group and owned by Reed Elsevier. ... Edward Lazarus is a law professor and practitioner in the Los Angeles area. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ... Basics The Bureau of Ethnology was founded by the Smithsonian Institution in 1879. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Current Prairie Public logo Prairie Public redirects here. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Utley at the 2007 Texas Book Festival. ... Henry Holt (1840–1926) was a Baltimore, Maryland native book publisher and author. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... University of Nebraska Press at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska, is a major publisher of original and reprint editions of significant works about the West. ...

Further reading

  • Adams, Alexander B. Sitting Bull: An Epic of the Plains. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
  • DeWall, Robb. The Saga of Sitting Bull's Bones: The Unusual Story Behind Sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's Memorial to Chief Sitting Bull. Crazy Horse, S.D.: Korczak's Heritage, 1984.
  • Greene, Jerome A., ed. Lakota and Cheyenne: Indian Views of the Great Sioux War, 1876-1877. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.
  • Manzione, Joseph. "I Am Looking to the North for My Life": Sitting Bull: 1876-1881. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991.
  • Newson, Thomas McLean. Thrilling scenes among the Indians, with a graphic description of Custer's last fight with Sitting Bull. Chicago: Belford, Clarke and Co., 1884.
  • "Confirmation of the Disaster." The New York Times. July 7, 1876.
  • "The Death of Sitting Bull." The New York Times. December 17, 1890.
  • "The Last of Sitting Bull." The New York Times. December 16, 1890.
  • Reno, Marcus Albert. The official record of a court of inquiry convened at Chicago, Illinois, January 13, 1879, by the President of the United States upon the request of Major Marcus A. Reno, 7th U.S. Cavalry, to investigate his conduct at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, June 25-26, 1876. (Reprint online) Pacific Palisades, Calif.: 1951.
  • Sifakis, Stewart. Who's Who In The Civil War. New York: Facts on File Publishing, 1988.
  • Urwin, Gregory. Custer Victorious: The Civil War Battles of General George Armstrong Custer. Lincoln, Neb.: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1990.
  • Utley, Robert M. The Last Days of the Sioux Nation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1963.
  • Vestal, Stanley. Sitting Bull: Champion of the Sioux, a Biography. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1932.

G. P. Putnams Sons was a major United States book publisher based in New York City, New York. ... Dorris Alexander Dee Brown (February 29, 1908 – December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ... Holt, Rinehart and Winston, somethimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ... The University of Oklahoma Press is a university press that is part of the University of Oklahoma. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Stanley Vestal (August 15, 1877 – December 25, 1957) was an American writer, poet and historian best known for his book Dodge City, Queen of the Cowtowns. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Sitting Bull
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tatanka Iyotake or Tatanka Iyotanka or Ta-Tanka I-Yotank
SHORT DESCRIPTION Hunkpapa Lakota medicine man and holy man
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1831
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH December 15, 1890
PLACE OF DEATH United States
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Hunkpapas are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
PBS - THE WEST - Sitting Bull (1204 words)
As a young man, Sitting Bull became a leader of the Strong Heart warrior society and, later, a distinguished member of the Silent Eaters, a group concerned with tribal welfare.
In 1885 Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to join Buffalo Bill's Wild West, earning $50 a week for riding once around the arena, in addition to whatever he could charge for his autograph and picture.
Sitting Bull was buried at Fort Yates in North Dakota, and in 1953 his remains were moved to Mobridge, South Dakota, where a granite shaft marks his grave.
Sitting Bull - MSN Encarta (337 words)
Sitting Bull, Native American name Tatanka Yotanka (1831?-1890), Native American leader of the Sioux, born in the region of the Grand River in present-day South Dakota.
Sitting Bull was put in prison for two years and then settled on a reservation.
In 1885 Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to tour with the Wild West show of Buffalo Bill.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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