FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sistine Chapel
God creates Adam by Michelangelo.
God creates Adam by Michelangelo.

Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is the best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City. Its fame rests on its architecture, evocative of Solomon's Temple of the Old Testament and on its decoration which has been frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Raphael, and Sandro Botticelli. Under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted 12,000 feet of the chapel ceiling between 1508 and 1512. Although he resented the commission, and believed his work only served the Pope's need for grandeur, today the ceiling is widely believed to be his crowning achievement. God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... View across St. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Botticelli redirects here. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ...


The Sistine Chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored the old Cappella Magna between 1477 and 1480. During this period a team of painters that included Pietro Perugino, Sandro Botticelli, and Domenico Ghirlandaio created a series of frescoed panels depicting the life of Moses and the life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and tromp l’oeil drapery below. These paintings were completed in 1482, and on August 15, 1483,[1] Sixtus IV consecrated the first mass in honor to Our Lady of the Assumption. Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... Botticelli redirects here. ... An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


Since the time of Sixtus IV, the chapel has served as a place of both religious and functionary papal activity. Today it is the site of the Papal conclave; the ceremony by which a new Pope is selected. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ...

Contents

History

The Sistine Chapel is best known for being the location of Papal conclaves, for the election of a new pope. More commonly, it is the physical chapel of the Papal Chapel. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, this corporate body comprised about 200 people, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity. There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet.[2] Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, generally St. Peters, and were attended by large congregations. These included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Cappella Maggiore was used before it was rebuilt on the same site as the Sistine Chapel. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Cappella Maggiore is a commune with 4. ...

The Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel also in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, which had been decorated by Fra Angelico. The Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning.[3] Image File history File links Sixtus_IV.PNG Pope Sixtus IV Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Sixtus_IV.PNG Pope Sixtus IV Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... The Virgin of the Annunciation Fra Angelico (c. ...


The present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, and built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1481.[4] The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original closely. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the High Renaissance, including Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino. [3] Baccio Pontelli (born ca. ... Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos work in the Sistine Chapel. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... An Old Man and with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Christ presenting the Keys to St Peter Fresco, 335 x 550 cm Sistine Chapel, Rome Pietro Perugino (1446-1524), whose family name was properly Vannucci, Italian painter, was born at Città della Pieve in Umbria, and belongs to the Umbrian school of painting. ...


The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.[5] For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Allegri's Miserere.[6] Allegri can refer to: Gregorio Allegri, an early Italian composer Antonio Allegri da Correggio, an Italian Renaissance painter This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Miserere by Gregorio Allegri is a piece of a cappella religious music (a setting of Psalm 50/51) composed during the reign of Pope Urban VIII, probably during the 1630s, for use in the Sistine Chapel during matins on Wednesday and Friday of Holy Week. ...


Papal Conclave

Main article: Papal conclave

One of the primary functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, from which smoke arises as a signal. If white smoke appears, created by burning the ballots of the election and some chemical additives, a new Pope has been elected. If a candidate receives less than a two-thirds majority, the cardinals send up black smoke—created by burning the ballots along with wet straw or chemical additives—it means that no successful election has yet occurred.[7] The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ...


The conclave also provides for the cardinals a space in which they can hear mass, and in which they can eat, sleep, and pass time abetted by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican; until the Great Schism, they were held in the Dominican convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.[8] The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... Facade of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. ...


Canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity. After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name; at this time, the other Cardinals would tug on a rope attached to their seats to lower their canopies. Until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Paul VI abolished the canopies altogether, since under his papacy, the population of the College of Cardinals had increased so much to the point that they would need to be seated in rows of two against the walls, making the canopies obstruct the view of the cardinals in the back row. Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Architecture

Exterior of the Sistine Chapel
Exterior of the Sistine Chapel

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sistine Chapel ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sistine Chapel ...

Exterior

The Sistine Chapel is a high rectangular brick building, its exterior unadorned by architectural or decorative details, as common in many Medieval and Renaissance churches in Italy. It has no exterior facade or exterior processional doorways as the ingress has always been from internal rooms within the Papal Palace, and the exterior can only be seen from nearby windows and light-wells in the palace. The internal spaces are divided into three stories of which the lowest is huge with a robustly vaulted basement with several utilitarian windows and a doorway giving onto the exterior court. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... The Palace of the Vatican, also called the Papal Palace or the Apostolic Palace, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ...


Above is the main space, the Chapel, the internal measurements of which are 40.9 meters (134 feet) long by 13.4 meters (44 feet) wide—the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon, as given in the Old Testament.[9] The vaulted ceiling rises to 20.7 meters (68 feet). The building had six tall arched windows down each side and two at either end. Several of these have been blocked, but the chapel is still accessible. Above the vault rises a third story with wardrooms for guards. At this level an open projecting gangway was constructed, which encircled the building supported on an arcade springing from the walls. The gangway has been roofed as it was a continual source of water leaking in to the vault of the Chapel. 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Gangway was a Danish band (now-defunct), sometimes classified as indiepop. ...


Subsidence and cracking of masonry such as must also have affected the Cappella Maggiore has necessitated the building of very large buttresses to brace the exterior walls. The accretion of other buildings has further altered the exterior appearance of the Chapel. A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Three different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture...


Interior

Interior of the Sistine Chapel

As with most buildings measured internally, absolute measurement is hard to ascertain. However, the general proportions of the chapel are clear to within a few centimetres. The length is the measurement and has been divided by three to get the width and by two to get the height. There is a ratio of 6:2:3 between the length, width and height. Maintaining the ratio, there were six windows down each side and two at either end. The screen which divides the chapel was originally placed half way from the altar wall, but this has changed. Clearly defined proportions were a feature of Renaissance architecture and reflected the growing interest in the Classical heritage of Rome. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ...


The ceiling of the chapel is a flattened barrel vault springing from a course that encircles the walls at the level of the springing of the window arches. This barrel vault is cut transversely by smaller vaults over each window, which divide the barrel vault at its lowest level into a series of large pendentives rising from shallow pilasters between each window. The barrel vault was originally painted brilliant blue and dotted with gold stars, to the design of Piermatteo Lauro de' Manfredi da Amelia.[3] The pavement is in opus alexandrinum, a decorative style using marble and coloured stone in a pattern that reflects the earlier proportion in the division of the interior and also marks the processional way form the main door, used by the Pope on important occasions such as Palm Sunday. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ...


The screen or transenna in marble by Mino da Fiesole, Andrea Bregno and Giovanni Dalmata divides the chapel into two parts.[10] Originally these made equal space for the members of the Papal Chapel within the sanctuary near the altar and the pilgrims and townsfolk without. However, with growth in the number of those attending the Pope, the screen was moved giving a reduced area for the faithful laity. The transenna is surmounted by a row of ornate candlesticks, once gilt, and has a wooden door, where once there was an ornate door of gilded wrought iron. The sculptors of the transenna also provided the cantoria or projecting choir gallery. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mino di Giovanni. ... Wall tomb of Nicolas of Cusa, by Andrea Bregno Andrea di Cristoforo Bregno (Osteno, near Como, 1418- Rome 1506)[1] was a Lombard sculptor and architect of the Early Renaissance who worked in Rome from the 1460s and died just as the High Renaissance was getting under way. ... Ivan Duknović, called Giovanni Dalmata (also known as Giovanni di Trau and Ioannes Stephani Duknovich de Tragurio) was a Croatian sculptor who was mainly active in Rome, in Hungary and Dalmatia. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cantoria is a municipality of Almería province, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. ...


Raphael's tapestries

During occasional ceremonies of particular importance, the side walls are covered with a series of tapestries originally designed for the chapel from Raphael, but looted a few years later in the 1527 Sack of Rome and either burnt for their precious metal content or scattered around Europe. The tapestries depict events from the Life of St. Peter and the Life of St. Paul as described in the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. In the late 20th century a set was reassembled (several further sets had been made) and displayed again in the Sistine Chapel in 1983. The full-size preparatory cartoons for seven of the ten tapestries are known as the Raphael Cartoons and are in London.[11] This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... The Miraculous Draught of Fishes St Paul Preaching in Athens Christs Charge to Peter The Death of Ananias The Raphael Cartoons are seven large cartoons for tapestries, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, painted by the High Renaissance painter Raphael in 1515-16 and showing scenes from...


Decoration

Diagram of the fresco decoration of the walls and ceiling.
Diagram of the fresco decoration of the walls and ceiling.

The pictorial decoration of the Sistine Chapel comprises frescoes and a set of tapestries. They are the work of different artists and are part of a number of different commissions, some of which were in conflict with each other. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The walls are divided into three main tiers. The lower is decorated with frescoed wall hangings in silver and gold. The central tier of the walls has two cycles of paintings, which complement each other, The Life of Moses and The Life of Christ. They were commissioned in 1480 by Pope Sixtus IV and executed by Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, Perugino and Cosimo Roselli and their workshops. The upper tier is divided into two zones. At the lower level of the windows is a Gallery of Popes painted at the same time as the Lives. Around the arched tops of the windows are areas known as the lunettes which contain the Ancestors of Christ, painted by Michelangelo as part of the scheme for the ceiling. Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... An Old Man and with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Cosimo Rosselli (1439 – c. ...

The ceiling, commissioned by Pope Julius II and painted by Michelangelo between 1508 to 1511, has a series of nine paintings showing God's Creation of the World, God's Relationship with Mankind and Mankind's Fall from God's Grace. On the large pendentives that support the vault are painted twelve Biblical and Classical men and women who prophesied that God would send Jesus Christ for the salvation of mankind. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1147, 140 KB) Description: Title: de: Papst Julius II en: Pope Julius II es: Papa Julio II fr: Pape Jules II it: Papa Giulio II Technique: de: Holz en: Oil on wood Dimensions: 63 × 40 cm Country of origin: de: Italien... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1147, 140 KB) Description: Title: de: Papst Julius II en: Pope Julius II es: Papa Julio II fr: Pape Jules II it: Papa Giulio II Technique: de: Holz en: Oil on wood Dimensions: 63 × 40 cm Country of origin: de: Italien... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... National Gallery is a common name for a countrys major public art gallery. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... The pendentive (painted yellow) Pendentive in the Hagia Sophia A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. ...


In 1515, Raphael was commissioned by Pope Leo X to design a series of ten tapestries to hang around the lower tier of the walls. Leo intended the works to hang beneath a series of 15th century frescos that had been commissioned by Sixtus IV.[12] Raphael was at the time twenty-five and an established artist in Florence, with a number of wealthy patrons, yet he was ambitious, and keen to to make an entry into the patronage of the papacy.[13] Raphael was attracted by the ambition and energy of Rome. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ...


Raphael saw the commission as an opportunity to be compared with Michelangelo, while Leo saw hangings as his answer to the ceiling of Julius.[14] The subjects he chose were based on the text of the Acts of the Apostles. Work began in mid-1515. Due to their large size, manufacture of the hangings was carried out in Brussels, and took four years under the hands of the weavers in the shop of Pieter van Aelst.[15] For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Pieter Coecke van Aelst Pieter van Aelst or Pieter Coecke van Aelst (August 14, 1502 - December 6, 1550) was a Flemish painter. ...


Although Michelangelo's complex design for the ceiling was not quite what his patron, Pope Julius II, had in mind when he commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Twelve Apostles, the scheme displayed a consistent iconographical pattern. However, this was disrupted by a further commission to Michelangelo to decorate the wall above the altar with The Last Judgement, 1537-1541. The painting of this scene necessitated the obliteration of two episodes from the Lives, several of the Popes and two sets of Ancestors. Two of the windows were blocked and two of Raphael's tapestries became redundant. Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ...


Frescos

The wall paintings were executed by the most respected painters of the 15th century: Pietro Perugino, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Cosimo Rosselli, Luca Signorelli and their respective workshops, which included Pinturicchio, Piero di Cosimo and Bartolomeo della Gatta.[16] The subjects were historical religious themes, selected and divided according to the medieval concept of the partition of world history into three epochs: before the Ten Commandments were given to Moses, between Moses and Christ's birth, and the Christian era thereafter. They underline the continuity between the Old Covenant and the New Covenant, or the transition from the Mosaic law to the Christian religion. Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Cosimo Rosselli (1439-c. ... fresco of the Last Judgment (1499) in Orvieto Cathedral Luca Signorelli (c. ... The Crucifixion with Sts Jerome and Christopher (1471) Oil on wood, 59 x 40 cm Galleria Borghese, Rome Pinturicchio (1454-1513), Italian painter, whose full name was Bernardino di Betti. ... Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (c. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written...

Scenes of the Life of Moses, Detail of the 1481-1482 fresco by Sandro Botticelli
Scenes of the Life of Moses, Detail of the 1481-1482 fresco by Sandro Botticelli

The walls were painted over a relatively short period of time, barely eleven months between July 1481 and May 1482.[17] The painters were each required first to execute a sample fresco; these were to be officially examined and evaluated in January, 1482. However, it was so evident at such an early stage that the frescoes would be satisfactory that by October 1481, the artists were given the commission to execute the remaining ten stories. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2451, 457 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Jugend des Moses, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2451, 457 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Jugend des Moses, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other... Botticelli redirects here. ...


The pictorial programme for the chapel was composed of a cycle each from the Old and New Testament of scenes from the lives of Moses and Christ. The narratives began at the altar wall - the frescoes painted there yielding to Michelangelo's Last Judgment a mere thirty years later - continued along the long walls of the chapel, and ended at the entrance wall. A gallery of papal portraits was painted above these depictions, and the latter were completed underneath by representations of painted curtains. The individual scenes from the two cycles contain typological references to one another. The Old and New Testament are understood as constituting a whole, with Moses appearing as the prefiguration of Christ.


The typological positioning of the Moses and Christ cycles has a political dimension going beyond a mere illustrating of the correspondences between Old and New Testament. Sixtus IV was employing a precisely conceived program to illustrate through the entire cycle the legitimacy of papal authority, running from Moses, via Christ, to Peter, whose ultimate authority, conferred by Christ, ultimately to the Pope of present. The portraits of the latter above the narrative depictions served emphatically to illustrate the ancestral lineage of their God-given authority.


The two most important scenes from the fresco cycle, Perugino's Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter and Botticelli's The Punishment of Korah; both contain in the background the triumphal arch of Constantine, the first Christian emperor, who gave the Pope temporal power over the Roman western world. The triumphal arch alludes to the imperial grant of papal power of the Pope. Sixtus IV was thereby not only illustrating his position in a line of succession starting in the Old Testament and continuing through the New Testament up to contemporary times, but was simultaneously restating the view of the papacy as the legitimate successor to the Roman Empire. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter

Among Perugino's frescoes in the Chapel, the Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter is stylistically the most instructive. This scene is a reference to Matthew 16[18] in which the "keys of the kingdom of heaven" are given to St.Peter.[19] These keys represent the power to forgive and to share the word of God thereby giving them the power to allow others into heaven. The main figures are organized in a frieze in two tightly compressed rows close to the surface of the picture and well below the horizon.[20] The principal group, showing Christ handing the silver and gold keys to the kneeling St. Peter, is surrounded by the other Apostles, including Judas (fifth figure to the left of Christ), all with halos, together with portraits of contemporaries, including one said to be a self-portrait (fifth from the right edge). The flat, open square is divided by coloured stones into large foreshortened rectangles, although they are not used in defining the spatial organization. Nor is the relationship between the figures and the felicitous invention of the porticoed Temple of Solomon that dominates the picture effectively resolved. The triumphal arches at the extremities appear as superfluous antiquarian references, suitable for a Roman audience. Scattered in the middle distance are two secondary scenes from the life of Christ, including the Tribute Money on the left and the Stoning of Christ on the right. Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ...

This fresco is located in the fifth compartment in the northern wall.
This fresco is located in the fifth compartment in the northern wall.

The style of the figures is inspired by Andrea del Verrocchio.[21] The active drapery, with its massive complexity, and the figures, particularly several apostles, including St. John the Evangelist, with beautiful features, long flowing hair, elegant demeanour, and refinement recall St Thomas from Verrocchio's bronze group in Orsanmichele. The poses of the actors fall into a small number of basic attitudes that are consistently repeated, usually in reverse from one side to the other, signifying the use of the same cartoon. They are graceful and elegant figures who tend to stand firmly on the earth. Their heads are smallish in proportion to the rest of their bodies, and their features are delicately distilled with considerable attention to minor detail. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x1947, 674 KB) Description: Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Szene: Christus übergibt Petrus den Schlüssel zum Himmelreich Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: ca 335 × 550 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x1947, 674 KB) Description: Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Szene: Christus übergibt Petrus den Schlüssel zum Himmelreich Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: ca 335 × 550 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location... Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus (1475-83), Cathedral of Pistoia. ... Entrance of Orsanmichele Facade - Christ and St. ...


The octagonal temple of Jerusalem[22] and its porches that dominates the central axis must have had behind it a project created by an architect, but Perugino's treatment is like the rendering of a wooden model, painted with exactitude. The building with its arches serves as a backdrop in front of which the action unfolds. Perugino has made a significant contribution in rendering the landscape. The sense of an infinite world that stretches across the horizon is stronger than in almost any other work of his contemporaries, and the feathery trees against the cloud-filled sky with the bluish-gray hills in the distance represent a solution that later painters would find instructive, especially Raphael.


Scenes of the Life of Moses

Scenes from the Life of Moses by Sandro Botticelli.
Scenes from the Life of Moses by Sandro Botticelli.

Botticelli painted three scenes within the short period of eleven months: Scenes from the Life of Moses, The Temptation of Christ and The Punishment of Korah.[17] He also painted, with much help from his workshop, in the niches above the biblical scenes, some portraits of popes which have been considerably painted over. In all these works his painting appears relatively weak. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1275, 255 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Jugend des Moses Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 348,5 × 558 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1275, 255 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Jugend des Moses Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 348,5 × 558 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de...


The Scenes of the Life of Moses fresco is opposite The Temptation of Christ also painted by Botticelli. The two pictures are typologically related in that both deal with the theme of temptation. Botticelli integrated seven episodes from the life of the young Moses into the landscape with considerable skill, by opening up the surface of the picture with four diagonal rows of figures.


The Punishment of Korah

The message of this painting provides the key to an understanding of the Sistine Chapel as a whole before Michelangelo's work. The fresco reproduces three episodes, each of which depicts a rebellion by the Hebrews against God's appointed leaders, Moses and Aaron, along with the ensuing divine punishment of the agitators. On the right-hand side, the revolt of the Jews against Moses is related, the latter portrayed as an old man with a long white beard, clothed in a yellow robe and an olive-green cloak. Irritated by the various trials through which their emigration from Egypt was putting them, the Jews demanded that Moses be dismissed. They wanted a new leader, one who would take them back to Egypt, and they threatened to stone Moses; however, Joshua placed himself protectively between them and their would-be victim, as depicted in Botticelli's painting. This article is about the Hebrew people. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ...

The Punishment of Korah by Sandro Botticelli.
The Punishment of Korah by Sandro Botticelli.


The centre of the fresco shows the rebellion, under the leadership of Korah, of the sons of Aaron and some Levites, who, setting themselves up in defiance of Aaron's authority as high priest, also offered up incense.[23] In the background we see Aaron in a blue robe, swinging his incense censer with an upright posture and filled with solemn dignity, while his rivals stagger and fall to the ground with their censers at God's behest. Their punishment ensues on the left-hand side of the picture, as the rebels are swallowed up by the earth, which is breaking open under them. The two innocent sons of Korah, the ringleader of the rebels, appear floating on a cloud, exempted from the divine punishment. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1269, 252 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Bestrafung der Leviter, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 348,5 × 570 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1269, 252 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Bestrafung der Leviter, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 348,5 × 570 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery... Botticelli redirects here. ... Korah or Kórach (Hebrew: קֹרַח, Standard Tiberian ; Baldness; ice; hail; frost) is the name associated with at least two Biblical villains. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ...

Detail of The Punishment of Korah.
Detail of The Punishment of Korah.

The principal message of these scenes is made manifest by the inscription in the central field of the triumphal arch: "Let no man take the honour to himself except he that is called by God, as Aaron was." The fresco thus holds a warning that God's punishment will fall upon those who oppose God's appointed leaders. This warning also contained a contemporary political reference through the portrayal of Aaron in the fresco, depicted wearing the triple-ringed tiara of the Pope and thus characterized as the papal predecessor. It was a warning to those questioning the ultimate authority of the Pope over the Church. The papal claims to leadership were God-given, their origin lay in Christ giving Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven and thereby granting him primacy over the young Church. Perugino painted this crucial element of the doctrine of papal supremacy immediately opposite Botticelli's fresco. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x870, 185 KB) The Punishment of Korah by Sandro Botticelli Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sistine Chapel ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x870, 185 KB) The Punishment of Korah by Sandro Botticelli Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sistine Chapel ... St Peter redirects here. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Referring to the doctrine of Papal Supremacy the Catechism of the Catholic Church notes in paragraph 882, “the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he...


The Temptation of Christ

The Temptation of Christ by Sandro Botticelli.
The Temptation of Christ by Sandro Botticelli.

The fresco which Botticelli began in July 1481, is the third scene within the Christ cycle and depicts the Temptation of Christ. Christ's threefold temptation by the Devil, as described in the Gospel according to Matthew, can be seen in the background of the picture, with the devil disguised as a hermit. At top left, up on the mountain, he is challenging Christ to turn stones into bread; in the centre, we see the two standing on a temple, with the Devil attempting to persuade Christ to cast himself down; on the right-hand side, finally, he is showing the Son of God the splendour of the world's riches, over which he is offering to make Him master. However, Christ drives away the Devil, who ultimately reveals his true devilish form.[24] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1264, 243 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Versuchung Christi Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 345,5 × 555 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1264, 243 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Versuchung Christi Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: de: 345,5 × 555 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan... The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ...

Detail of The Temptation of Christ.
Detail of The Temptation of Christ.

On the right in the background, three angels have prepared a table for the celebration of the Eucharist, a scene which only becomes comprehensible when seen in conjunction with the event in the foreground of the fresco.[25] The unity of these two events from the point of view of content is clarified by the reappearance of Christ with three angels in the middle ground on the left of the picture, where he is apparently explaining the incident occurring in the foreground to the heavenly messengers. We are concerned here with the celebration of a Jewish sacrifice, conducted daily before the Temple in accordance with ancient custom. The high priest is receiving the blood-filled sacrificial bowl, while several people are bringing animals and wood as offerings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1149, 165 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Versuchung Christi, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1149, 165 KB) Description:  Title: de: Fresken in der Sixtinischen Kapelle in Rom, Szene: Die Versuchung Christi, Detail Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other notes... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


At first sight, the inclusion of this Jewish sacrificial scene in the Christ cycle would appear extremely puzzling; however, its explanation may be found in the typological interpretation. The Jewish sacrifice portrayed here refers to the crucifixion of Christ, who through His death offered of His flesh and blood for the redemption of mankind. Christ's sacrifice is reconstructed in the celebration of the Eucharist, alluded to here by the gift table prepared by the angels.


Michelangelo

Left half of the ceiling, after restoration
Left half of the ceiling, after restoration

Michelangelo Buonarroti was commissioned by Pope Julius II in 1508 to repaint the ceiling, originally representing golden stars on a blue sky; the work was completed between 1508 and 1 November 1512. He painted the Last Judgment over the altar, between 1535 and 1541, on commission from Pope Paul III Farnese.[26] For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ...


Michelangelo was intimidated by the scale of the commission, and made it known from the outset of Julius II's approach that he would prefer to decline. He felt he was more of a sculptor than a painter, and was suspicious that such a large scale project was being offered to him by enemies as a set-up for an inevitable fall. For Michelangelo, the project was a distraction from the major marble sculpture that had preoccupied him for the previous few years.[27]


The sources of Michelangelo's inspiration are not easily determined; both Joachite and Augustinian theologians were within the sphere of Julius influence. Nor is known the extent to which is own hand physically contributed to the actual physical painting of any of particular images attributed to him.[28] The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ...


Ceiling

The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam.
The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam.

In 1508, Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint the vault, or ceiling of the chapel. It took him until 1512 to complete.[29] To be able to reach the ceiling, Michelangelo needed a support; the first idea was by Julius' favoured architect Donato Bramante, who wanted to build for him a scaffold to be suspended in the air with ropes. However, Bramante did not successfully complete the task, and the structure he built was flawed. He had perforated the vault in order to lower strings to secure the scaffold. Michelangelo laughed when he saw the structure, and believed it would leave holes in the ceiling once the work was ended. He asked Bramante what was to happen when the painter reached the perforations, but the architect had no answer. The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ...


The matter was taken before the Pope, who ordered Michelangelo to built a scaffold of his own. Michelangelo created a flat wooden platform on brackets built out from holes in the wall, high up near the top of the windows. He stood on this scaffolding while he painted.[30]


Michelangelo used bright colours, easily visible from the floor. On the lowest part of the ceiling he painted the ancestors of Christ. Above this he alternated male and female prophets, with Jonah over the altar. On the highest section Michelangelo painted nine stories from the Book of Genesis. He was originally commissioned to paint only 12 figures, the Apostles. He turned down the commission because he saw himself as a sculptor, not a painter. The Pope offered to allow Michelangelo to paint biblical scenes of his own choice as a compromise. When the work was finished there were more than 300. His figures showed the creation, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and the Great Flood. For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... This article is on mythology involving great floods. ...


Last Judgment

St Bartholomew displaying his flayed skin (a self-portrait by Michelangelo) in the Last Judgement.
St Bartholomew displaying his flayed skin (a self-portrait by Michelangelo) in the Last Judgement.

The Last Judgment was painted by Michelangelo between 1535-1541, after the Sack of Rome of 1527 by mercenary forces from the Holy Roman Empire, which effectively ended the Roman Renaissance, just before the Council of Trent. The work was constructed on a grand scale, and spans the entire wall behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel. The Last Judgment is a depiction of the second coming of Christ and the Apocalypse. The souls of humanity rise and descend to their fates as judged by Christ and his saintly entourage. The wall on which The Last Judgment is painted looms out slightly over the viewer as it rises, and is meant to be somewhat fearful and to instill piety and respect for God's power. In contrast to the other frescoes in the Chapel, the figures are heavily muscled and appear somewhat tortured—even the Virgin Mary at the center seems to be cowering before God. The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1375, 205 KB)Detail of Michelangelos The Last Judgement (Sistine Chapel), executed 1535-1541. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1375, 205 KB)Detail of Michelangelos The Last Judgement (Sistine Chapel), executed 1535-1541. ... Michelangelos The Last Judgement shows Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin. ... The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... St. ...

Detail from Michelangelo's The Last Judgment.
Detail from Michelangelo's The Last Judgment.

The Last Judgment was an object of a bitter dispute between Cardinal Carafa and Michelangelo. Because he depicted naked figures, the artist was accused of immorality and obscenity. A censorship campaign (known as the "Fig-Leaf Campaign") was organized by Carafa and Monsignor Sernini (Mantua's ambassador) to remove the frescoes. When the Pope's own Master of Ceremonies, Biagio da Cesena, said "it was mostly disgraceful that in so sacred a place there should have been depicted all those nude figures, exposing themselves so shamefully, and that it was no work for a papal chapel but rather for the public baths and taverns,"[31] Michelangelo worked da Cesena's semblance into the scene as Minos, judge of the underworld. It is said that when he complained to the Pope, the pontiff responded that his jurisdiction did not extend to hell, so the portrait would have to remain. The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... Oliviero Carafa (1430 - 20 January 1511) was an Italian Cardinal and diplomat of the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Minos (disambiguation). ...


The genitalia in the fresco were later covered by the artist Daniele da Volterra,[32] whom history remembers by the derogatory nickname "Il Braghettone" ("the breeches-painter"). A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Daniele da Volterra (Volterra, 1509 - Rome, 1566), also known as Daniele Ricciarelli, was an Italian mannerist painter and sculptor. ...


Restoration and controversy

Main article: Restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes

The Sistine Chapel's ceiling restoration began on November 7th, 1984. The restoration complete, the chapel was re-opened to the public on April 8th, 1994. The part of the restoration in the Sistine Chapel that has caused the most concern is the ceiling, painted by Michelangelo. The emergence of the brightly-coloured Ancestors of Christ from the gloom sparked a reaction of fear that the processes being employed in the cleaning were too severe. God creating the Earth and placing the Sun and Moon in the Heavens, ceiling fresco by Michelangelo, unrestored. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ...

Daniel, before and after restoration.
Daniel, before and after restoration.

The problem lies in the analysis and understanding of the techniques utilised by Michelangelo, and the technical response of the restorers to that understanding. A close examination of the frescoes of the lunettes convinced the restorers that Michelangelo worked exclusively in "buon fresco"; that is, the artist worked only on freshly laid plaster and each section of work was completed while the plaster was still in its fresh state. In other words, Michelangelo did not work "a secco"; he did not come back later and add details onto the dry plaster. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 445 pixelsFull resolution (1787 × 994 pixel, file size: 385 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 445 pixelsFull resolution (1787 × 994 pixel, file size: 385 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... the technique of painting in watercolors on dry plaster. ...


The restorers, by assuming that the artist took a universal approach to the painting, took a universal approach to the restoration. A decision was made that all of the shadowy layer of animal glue and "lamp black", all of the wax, and all of the overpainted areas were contamination of one sort or another:- smoke deposits, earlier restoration attempts and painted definition by later restorers in an attempt to enliven the appearance of the work. Based on this decision, according to Arguimbau's critical reading of the restoration data that has been provided, the chemists of the restoration team decided upon a solvent that would effectively strip the ceiling down to its paint-impregnated plaster. After treatment, only that which was painted "buon fresco" would remain.[citation needed]


Notes

  1. ^ Monfasani, John. "A Description of the Sistine Chapel under Pope Sixtus IV". Artibus et Historiae, Volume 4, no. 7, 1983. 9-18.
  2. ^ Pietrangeli, 24.
  3. ^ a b c John Shearman, "The Chapel of Sixtus IV". In The Sistine Chapel, editor Giacometti. Harmony Books, 1986. ISBN 0-517-56274-X
  4. ^ Ekelund, Robert Burton & Hébert, Robert F. & Tollison, Robert D. The Marketplace of Christianity. MIT Press November 10, 2006. 313. ISBN 0-2620-5082-X
  5. ^ Pietrangeli, 28.
  6. ^ Stevens, Abel & Floy, James. "Allegri's Miserere". The National Magazine, Carlton & Phillip, 1854. 531.
  7. ^ Saunders, Fr. William P. "The Path to the Papacy". Arlington Catholic Herald, March 17, 2005. Retrieved on June 02, 2008.
  8. ^ Chambers,D.S. "Papal Conclaves and Prophetic Mystery in the Sistine Chapel". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Volume 41, 1978. 322-326.
  9. ^ Campbell, Ian. "The New St Peter's: Basilica or Temple?". Oxford Art Journal, Volume 4, No. 1, July 1981. 3-8.
  10. ^ Hersey, George L. High Renaissance Art in St. Peter's and the Vatican. Chicago University Press, May 01, 1993. 180. ISBN 0-2263-2782-5
  11. ^ Cheney, Iris. Review of "Raphael's Cartoons in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen and the Tapestries for the Sistine Chapel" by John Shearman". The Art Bulletin, Volume 56, No. 4, December 1974. 607-609.
  12. ^ Talvacchia, 150.
  13. ^ Talvacchia, 80.
  14. ^ Hall, Marcia B. Rome: Artistic Centers of the Italian Renaissance. London: Cambridge University Press April 18, 2005. 138.
  15. ^ Talvacchia, 152.
  16. ^ Seymour, 70.
  17. ^ a b Deimling, 33-34.
  18. ^ wikisource Matthew:16
  19. ^ Earls, Irene. Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Greenwood Press, November 13, 1987. 127. ISBN 0-3132-4658-0
  20. ^ "Perugino". UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2003. Retrieved on June 02, 2008.
  21. ^ Coonin, Arnold Victor. "The Interaction of Painting and Sculpture in the Art of Perugino". Artibus et Historiae, Volume 24, No. 47, 2003. 103-104.
  22. ^ Wright, Lawrence. Perspective in Perspective. Routledge, April 1983. 104. ISBN 0-7100-0791-4
  23. ^ Stinger, Charles L. The Renaissance in Rome. Indiana University Press, 1998. 205. ISBN 0-2532-1208-1
  24. ^ Deimling, 33-34.
  25. ^ Deimling, 33.
  26. ^ Stollhans, Cynthia. "Michelangelo's Nude Saint Catherine of Alexandria". Woman's Art Journal, Volume 19, No. 1, Spring-Summer, 1998. 26-30.
  27. ^ Dixon, 1.
  28. ^ Dixon, xii
  29. ^ Dixon, 2.
  30. ^ Condivi, Ascanio.Life, Letters, and Poetry. London: Oxford Paperbacks, January 07, 1999. 64-66. ISBN 0-1928-3770-2
  31. ^ Vasari, Giorgio & Bull, George & Anthony, George. Lives of the artists. Penguin Classics, August 27, 1987. 379. ISBN 0-1404-4500-5
  32. ^ Simon, Marlise. "Vatican Restorers Are Ready for 'Last Judgment'". New York Times, June 19, 1991. Retrieved on June 02, 2008.

is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Deimling, Barbara & Botticelli, Sandro & Taschen, Rolf. Sandro Botticelli, 1444/45-1510: 1444/45-1510. Berlin: Taschen, 2000. ISBN 3-8228-5992-3
  • Graham-Dixon, Andrew. Michelangelo And The Sistine Chapel. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, April 03, 2008. ISBN 0-2978-5365-1
  • Giacometti (ed.). The Sistine Chapel. Harmony Books, 1986, ISBN 0-517-56274-X
  • Pietrangeli, Carlo. The Sistine Chapel: The Art, the History, and the Restoration. Harmony, September 04, 1986. ISBN 0-5175-6274-X
  • Seymour, Charles (ed.). Illustrations, Introductory Essays, Backgrounds and Sources, Critical Essays Illustrations, Introductory Essays, Backgrounds and Sources, Critical Essays. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.
  • Talvacchia, Bette. Raphael. London: Phaidon Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7148-4786-3

April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

Further reading

  • Ettlinger, Leopold. The Sistine Chapel before Michelangelo: Religious Imagery and Papal Primacy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.
  • King, Ross . Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling. ISBN 0-14-200369-7.
  • Lewine, Carol F. The Sistine Chapel walls and the Roman liturgy, University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, c1993.
  • Okamura, Takashi (photographer) and Carlo Pietrangeli with Michael Hirst, Gianluigi Colalucci, Fabrizio Mancinelli, John Shearman, Matthias Winner, Edward Maeder, Pierluigi De Vecchi, Nazzareno Gabriellil, Piernicola Pagliara. The Sistine Chapel: A Glorious Restoration. Harry N. Abrams, 1994.
  • Pfeiffer, Heinrich. S.J. Die Sixtinische Kapelle neu entdeckt. Belser, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN-13: 978-3-7630-2488-9.
  • Stone, Irving. The Agony and the Ecstasy. Signet, 1961.

Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Irving Stone (July 14, 1903 – August 26, 1989) was an American writer known for his biographical novels of famous historical personalities. ... The Agony and the Ecstasy (1961) is a biographical novel of Michelangelo Buonarroti written by American author Irving Stone. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 41°54′11″N, 12°27′16″E For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... View across St. ... A camauro (from the Latin camelaucum, from Greek kamelauchion, meaning camel skin hat) is a cap traditionally worn by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Every Pope of the Roman Catholic Church has his own personal coat of arms that serves as a symbol of his papacy. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... Pope John XXIII blesses the crowds moments after his coronation in 1958. ... Pope John Paul II wearing the fanon on his shoulders. ... Ancient Egyptian flabella (top center) and lotus motifs. ... Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ... Look up mozzetta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The top of the Popes Cross, standing in the Phoenix Park. ... now. ... Pope Benedict XVI in a popemobile as he passes the White House in Washington DC. i love pope ... The most famous symbol of the Papacy is almost certainly the triregnum (a crown with three levels), also called the tiara or triple crown; recent Popes (since Pope John Paul I) have not, however, worn the triregnum. ... Pope Benedict XVIs Ring The Ring of the Fisherman, also known as the Piscatory Ring and the Pescatorio (in Italian), is an official part of the regalia worn by the Pope, who is described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Taj Mahal Big Ben Saint Basils Cathedral Azadi Square in Tehran For other senses of this word, see landmark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ... Facade of San Carlo alle quattro fontane. ... The Basilica of San Clemente is a complex of buildings in Rome centered around a 12th century Roman Catholic church dedicated to Pope Clement I. The site is notable as being an archeological record of Roman architectural, political and religious history from the early Christian era to the Middle Ages. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — known in English as the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls or St Paul-without-the-Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... The Church of the Gesù. The Church of the Gesù is home to the famous painting of Madonna Della Strada, venerated by millions of Roman Catholics. ... The Roman Ghetto was located in the area surrounded by todays Via del Portico dOttavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto close to the Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus, in Rome, Italy. ... Facade of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. ... Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri (English: ) is a basilica built inside the tepidarium of the baths of Diocletian, in Rome. ... Facade of Santa Maria in Aracoeli with the monumental ladder The basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is on the Campidoglio, in Rome. ... Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a church in Rome founded in the 6th century. ... Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches in Rome. ... Inside of Santa Prassede. ... Santa Sabina interior. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... SantIvo, embraced by the wings of the Palazzo alla Sapienza. ... A view from the south on the Tiber Island. ... Villa Ada is one of the very largest public parks in Rome, Italy. ... Villa Borghese: the 19th century Temple of Aesculapius built purely as a landscape feature, influenced by the lake at Stourhead, Wiltshire, England. ... Villa Doria Pamphili, on the Gianicolo, the Roman Janiculum, is the largest (180 hectares) public landscaped park of Rome, bought in 1965–1971 by the City of Rome from the Doria-Pamphilj family—the family favor the orthography of the long i. ... The Villa Medici is a villa in Rome, founded by Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, housing the French Academy in Rome. ... Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... , For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Column of Marcus Aurelius in Piazza Colonna Detail from the column. ... Largo di Torre Argentina, Temple A (to Juturna), with part of Temple B on the left. ... The monument of Victor Emmanuel II The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) or Il Vittoriano is a monument to honour Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy. ... There are eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. ... In Palazzo Barberini, which still dominates Piazza Barberini, Rione Trevi, Rome, three great architects worked to create a harmonious whole: Carlo Maderno, who began it in 1627, his nephew and assistant Francesco Borromini, working on his first important commission, and a young sculptor, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Facade of the Pantheon For other uses, see Pantheon (disambiguation). ... Pyramid of Cestius engraved by Giovanni Battista Piranesi The pyramid was included in the Aurelian Walls, and is close to Porta San Paolo (on the right). ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, in the Forum Boarium The Temple of Hercules Victor or Hercules Olivarius, located in the Forum Boarium in Rome, is a round temple of Greek peripteros (enclosed chamber) design. ... The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter, greatest and best; also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus), was the great temple on the Capitoline Hill in Ancient Rome. ... Theater of Marcellus in the Via del Teatro di Marcello, Rome Theater of Marcellus by night. ... In Roman mythology, Portunes (alternatively spelled Portumnes or Portunus) was a god of keys and doors and livestock. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Trajans Market, 2006 Trajans Market (Mercatus Traiani) is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum. ... Stadio Olimpico is the major stadium of Rome, Italy. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... The Trevi Fountain Trevi Fountain at night. ... The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between 212 and 216 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. ... South section of the walls The Aurelian Walls were city walls built between 270 and 273 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperor Aurelian. ... Large section of the Servian Wall visible next to the railway station of Termini. ... A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... Fountain of the four Rivers with Egyptian obelisk, in the middle of Piazza Navona Piazza Navona is a square in Rome. ... The Spanish Steps, seen from Piazza di Spagna. ... The Torre delle Milizie before the demolition of the convent of St. ... The Apollo Belvedere, also called the Pythian Apollo, is a celebrated marble sculpture from Classical Antiquity. ... Augustus of Prima Porta is a 2. ... The Mouth of Truth La Bocca della Verità (Italian, the Mouth of Truth) is a river god that used to be a drain cover, but since the Middle ages, has served as a lie detector. ... The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental marble sculpture, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. ... The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. ... The Caelian Hill (Latin Collis Caelius, Italian Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... The Esquiline Hill is one of the famous seven hills of Rome. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia... The Viminal Hill (Latin Collis Viminalis, Italian Viminale) is the smallest and least important of the famous seven hills of Rome, and as such always referred to as collis rather than External link Samuel Ball Platner, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome: Viminal Hill Categories: Italy geography stubs | Ancient Rome... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of works of painting, sculpture and architecture by the Italian Renaissance artists Michelangelo. ... Madonna of the Steps is a relief done by Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, created during the time he was in the school of Lorenzo de Medici. ... Battle of the Centaurs is a relief done by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti, around 1492. ... The Crucifix is a polychrome wood sculpture by High Renaissance master Michelangelo, finished in 1492. ... General view of the Arca di San Domenico. ... The statue of St. ... The statue of St. ... Michelangelos Cupid was a famous forgery by Michelangelo that has been lost. ... Michelangelos Cupid was a famous forgery by Michelangelo that has been lost. ... Bacchus (1497) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet Michelangelo. ... The Crucifix is a polychrome wood sculpture by High Renaissance master Michelangelo, finished in 1492. ... The Pietà (1498–1499) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... The Statue of David, sculpted from 1501 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. It is the statue of the young Israelite king David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable... The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, of Mary with the infant Jesus. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dying Slave The Dying Slave is a famous sculpture by the Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo. ... The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Deposition (also called the Florentine Pietà or The Lamentation over the Dead Christ) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo. ... The Rondanini Pietà The Rondanini Pietà is a marble sculpture that Michelangelo worked on from the 1550s until the last weeks of his life, in 1564. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (767x1048, 166 KB) Summary Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Michelangelo ... The Doni Tondo or Doni Madonna is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... The Entombment is an unfinished painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... We dont have an article called Cappella Paolina Start this article Search for Cappella Paolina in. ... The Conversion of Saul is a painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district. ... It has been suggested that Biblioteca Mediceo Lauenziana be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... San Giovanni dei Fiorentini San Giovanni dei Fiorentini (St John of the Florentines), church in Rome. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri (English: ) is a basilica built inside the tepidarium of the baths of Diocletian, in Rome. ... Cordonata in Rome The Cordonata is a monumental stair to reach the high piazza of the hill Capitoline, the heart oft pagan Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the famous seven hills of Rome, the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad: the gods Jupiter, his wife Juno and their daughter Minerva. ... A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... The internal face of Porta Pia Porta Pia, new gate in the Aurelian Walls. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Romeguide: Sistine Chapel in Rome (879 words)
The chapel was inagureted on August 15, 1483 and it was dedicated to Saint Mary.
The dimension of the chapel are the same of those of Jurusalem Temple.
The Sistine Chapel, the Chapel of the Chapels, was built as a private chapel for the popes and also for the most solemns ceremonies of the Holy See, it is also the site of the Conclaves.
Sistine Chapel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3515 words)
The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City.
The Sistine Chapel is rectangular and measures 40.93 meters (134.28 feet) long by 13.41 meters (44 feet) wide (the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon, as given in the Old Testament).
The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483, as a ceremony by which it was consecrated and dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m