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Encyclopedia > Siraiki language
Siraiki
Spoken in: Pakistan and India
Total speakers: ~14,000,000
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   NW zone
    Lahnda
     Siraiki 
Writing system: Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: inc
ISO/FDIS 639-3: skr

Siraiki (Urdu: سراییکی ) is a language mostly spoken in the provinces of Sindh and the Punjab in central Pakistan by about 1.39 crore people (according to 1998 census) as well as by about 20,000 people in India, and an immigrant population in the United Kingdom. Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... now. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of sounds and the human voice. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ... The Punjab or Panjab   (Punjabi/Urdu: پنجاب) province of Pakistan is the countrys most populous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other groups. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...

Contents

Classification

Siraiki is part of a dialect continuum with Punjabi and Sindhi, and is considered by some to be a dialect of Punjabi. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjabi people and the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی ، सिन्धी sindhī) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ...


Siraiki, Punjabi and Sindhi are members of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


Geographic distribution

Siraiki is widely spoken and understood as a second language in northern and western Sindh down to the suburbs of Karachi and in the Kachhi plain of Balochistan. It is also known as Derawali in Derajat area. Siraiki is also spoken in N.W.F.P although Frontier is famous for Pathans but Saraiki is Second Main Language of N.W.F.P and is widely spoken in Southern N.W.F.P Areas Specially in D.I.Khan, Kulachi and in Tank District and also speaking widely in Lakki Marwat City.It is mostly spoken in the south of punjab in D.G Khan, Multan. Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan, sometimes known as the City of Light and the City of Quaid (شہرِ قائد), after Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) (Urdu: بلوچستان) in Pakistan is the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Derawali is an Indo-European language spoken in western parts of Punjab, Pakistan; it is a dialect of Saraiki (western Punjabi) language. ... Derajat is an area consisting of two districts, one of them is Dera Ghazi Khan founded by Ghazi Khan Nawab and other is Dera Ismail Khan founded by Ismail Khan Mirani. ... Kulachi is a city and Tehsil (administrative region) of Dera Ismail Khan District in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ...


Origin of the name

Proposed etymologies include it being derived from a Sindhi word meaning "north", and from a Sanskrit word meaning "sun". Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی ، सिन्धी sindhī) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ...


Phonology

Vowels

Siraiki has three short vowels, seven long vowels and six nasal vowels.


Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop Voiceless p pʰ t̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
Voiced b bʰ d̪ d̪ʰ d dʰ ɡ ɡʰ
Affricate Voiceless tʃ tʃʰ
Voiced dʒ dʒʰ
Implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
Nasal m mʰ n nʰ ɳ ɲ ŋ
Fricative Voiceless f s ʃ x h
Voiced v z ʒ ɣ
Trill r rʰ
Flap ɽ ɽʰ
Lateral l lʰ
Semivowel j

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ...

Writing system

Siraiki is written in a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Very few Siraiki speakers are literate in their own language, however, although some may be able to write other languages. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ...



There are two writing systems for Multani / Siraiki. One is a variant of the arabic script, which is in vogue today. However, the hindus, especially the traders, wrote a script called LINDE / LINDEY / LINDAY, which was written from left to right. It is no longer used in Pakistan, but there are still people of the generation that learned the script before the partition of India, when they had to flee and settle and get assimilated in different regions and linguistic territories of India and other places of the world.


If there is anyone who reads and writes the script, we solicit your help. Please send us as much input as you can. vikram.malhotra@vidushiacademy.in

Image:Ali xain saraiki.PNG
A sample saraiki DOHRA.

Bibliography

  • Ahsan, Wagha (1990). The Siraiki Language: Its Growth and Development. Islamabad: Dderawar Publications.
  • Gardezi, Hassan N. (1996). Siraiki Language and its poetics: An Introduction. London: Sangat Publishers.
  • Shackle, Christopher (1976). The Siraiki Language of Central Pakistan: A Reference Grammar. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
  • Shackle, Christopher (1977). "Siariki: A Language Movement in Pakistan". Modern Asian Studies 11 (3): 279–403.

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Siraiki language Summary (793 words)
Siraiki is the main and central dialect of the eight distinct dialects of Sindhi that are spoken in various parts of the Indus basin.
Siraiki is part of a dialect continuum with Punjabi and Sindhi, and is considered by some to be a dialect of Punjabi.
Siraiki is widely spoken and understood as a second language in northern and western Sindh down to the suburbs of Karachi and in the Kachhi plain of Balochistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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