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Encyclopedia > Sir Winston Churchill

The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in British and world history. He won the Nobel Prize for literature. The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt Hon. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... The Order of Merit is a British Order (decoration). ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - April January 1 - New York City annexes The Bronx January 23 - Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, to Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Emperor Alexander III of Russia. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... The word author has several meanings: The author of a book, story, article or the like, is the person who has written it (or is writing it). ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ...


Churchill's legal surname was Spencer-Churchill, but starting with his father Lord Randolph Churchill his branch of the family always used just the name Churchill in public life. Because of the existence of another author called Winston Churchill, his books were published under the name "Winston Spencer Churchill" or "Winston S. Churchill", though some later printings ignore this. For other meanings see Churchill (disambiguation). ... For the British Prime Minister see Winston Churchill. ...

The Rt Hon. Sir Winston Churchill
Periods in Office: May 10, 1940 to
July 27, 1945
October 26, 1951 to
April 7, 1955
PM Predecessors: Neville Chamberlain
Clement Attlee
PM Successors: Clement Attlee
Anthony Eden
Birth: November 30, 1874
Place of Birth: Woodstock,
Oxfordshire, England
Death: January 24, 1965
Place of Death: London
Political Party: Conservative
Contents

8.1 Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute
8.2 The Mau Mau Rebellion
8.3 Malaya Emergency
Portrait of Winston Churchill by Karsh National Archives of Canada PA-165806 Free of rights This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi-party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - April January 1 - New York City annexes The Bronx January 23 - Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, to Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Emperor Alexander III of Russia. ... Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Latin Oxonia) is a county in South East England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right in the United Kingdom. ...

Early life

Born at Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, England in Oxfordshire, Winston Churchill was a descendant of the first famous member of the Churchill family: Winston's politician father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough; Winston's mother was Jennie Jerome Lady Randolph Churchill, daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome. For other meanings see Churchill (disambiguation). ... His Grace The Duke of Marlborough John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough (2 June 1822 - 4 July 1883); English statesman. ... Jennie Jerome Jeanette (Jennie) Jerome, known also as Lady Randolph Churchill (January 9, 1854 – June 9, 1921) was an American society beauty, best known to history as the mother of British prime minister Winston Churchill. ...


Churchill spent much of his childhood at boarding schools, including Harrow School. He was rarely visited by his mother, whom he virtually worshipped, despite his letters begging her to either come or let his father permit him to come home. He had a distant relationship with his father, despite keenly following his father's career. Once, in 1886, he is reported to have proclaimed "My daddy is Chancellor of the Exchequer and one day that's what I'm going to be." His desolate, lonely childhood stayed with him throughout his life. He was very close to his nurse, Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Everest (nicknamed "Woom" by Churchill), and was deeply saddened when she died on July 3, 1895. Churchill paid for her gravestone at the City of London cemetery.


Churchill did badly at Harrow School, regularly being punished for poor work and lack of effort. His nature was independent and rebellious and he failed to achieve much academically, failing the some of the same coures numerous times. He did, however, become the school's fencing champion.


In 1893, on his third attempt, he passed the entrance exam and enrolled in the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He entered the college near the bottom of the intake of 102 cadets but when he graduated two years later he was ranked eighth in his class. He was appointed Second Lieutenant in the 4th Hussars cavalry. In 1895, prior to his regiment departing for an extended posting to India, he went to Cuba as a military observer with the Spanish army in its fight against pro-independence rebels. He also reported for the Saturday Review. In 1898 he was attached as a supernumary officer to the 21st Lancers (acting again as a war correspondent) and rode with them at the Battle of Omdurman, taking part in what is commonly thought to be the last full cavalry charge of the British Empire. A database query syntax error has occurred. ...


The young man in a hurry

As the son of a prominent politician, it was unsurprising that Churchill was soon be drawn into politics himself. He started speaking at a number of Conservative meetings in the 1890s. It was noticeable that in the first few years of his political career, and again in the mid-1920s, he frequently used his father's slogan of "Tory Democracy". Many were to regard Churchill in his early years as being obsessed with continuing his father's battles from fifteen years earlier. The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right in the United Kingdom. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no connotation of homosexuality as in current-day usage. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ...

A young Churchill

In 1899 he was considered as a prospective candidate for Oldham. One of the town's two MPs had died and the other, in ill health, was persuaded to resign so that both seats could be elected together. Churchill found himself thrust into a prominent by-election, alongside James Mawdsley, the Lancashire general secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Cotton Spinners and one of the few prominent Conservative trade unionists. The Liberal candidates were Alfred Emmott and Walter Runciman, who later sat in the Cabinet alongside Churchill. The by-election was dominated by a number of issues, including a Clerical Tithes Bill in Parliament, the brunt of criticism for which fell upon Churchill as a candidate for the governing party and the only Anglican of the four (though he was non-practicising). Facing attacks on the Bill, Churchill repudiated it. He later commented, "This was a frightful mistake. It is not the slightest use defending Governments or parties unless you defend the worst thing about which they are attacked." The Conservative leader in the Commons, Arthur Balfour commented, "I thought he was a young man of promise, but it appears he is a young man of promises." Despite this, Churchill and Mawdsley narrowly lost the marginal seat, though with no harm to themselves as the Conservative government was facing a period of unpopularity. Runciman is reported to have commented to Churchill: "Don't worry, I don't think this is the last the country has heard of either of us." PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Mumps Bridge, Oldham Oldham is a town in North West England, on the north-eastern edge of the Greater Manchester conurbation. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford (1870-1949) was a prominent Liberal, later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom from the 1900s until the 1930s. ... A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a religious organization. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Churchill then became a war correspondent in the second Anglo-Boer war between Britain and self-proclaimed Afrikaners in South Africa. He was captured in a Boer ambush of a British Army train convoy, but managed a high-profile escape and eventually crossed the South African border to Lourenço Marques (now Maputo in Mozambique). He quickly returned to British controlled South Africa where he joined a South African cavalry regiment and was involved in a number of brutal and bloody battles. During this period he was recommended for a Victoria Cross although Horatio Kitchener vetoed the award. A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories first-hand from a war zone. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in December 16, 1880- March 23, 1881 and the second from October 11, 1899- May 31, 1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... The Republic of South Africa is a large republic located at the southern tip of the continent. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Maputo is the capital of Mozambique. ... Mozambique is also the name given to a style of music from the 1960s, an advanced rumba by Peyo el AfroCán Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... Victoria Cross, Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Victoria Cross (official post-nominal letters VC) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. ... Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum (June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ...


Churchill later returned to Oldham and used the publicity he had gained to stand again for the seat in the 1900 general election when he was elected for the seat. It was the successful launch of a political career which would last a total of sixty-two years, serving as an MP in the House of Commons from 1900 to 1922 and from 1924 to 1964. He remained politically active even in his brief years out of the Commons. At first a member of the Conservative Party, he 'crossed the floor' in 1904 to join the Liberals over his opposition to protective tariffs. Mumps Bridge, Oldham Oldham is a town in North West England, on the north-eastern edge of the Greater Manchester conurbation. ... In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right in the United Kingdom. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party to form a new party which would become known as...

Winston Churchill (highlighted) as Home Secretary, at the Sidney Street Siege, January 3, 1911

Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... The Siege of Sidney Street, popularly known as the Battle of Stepney, was a gunfight in Londons East End in 1911. ...

Ministerial office

In the 1906 general election, Churchill won a seat in Manchester. In the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman he served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. Churchill soon became the most prominent member of the Government outside the Cabinet, and when Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, it came as little surprise when Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade. Under the law at the time, a newly-appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election. Churchill lost his Manchester seat to the Conservative William Joynson-Hicks, but was soon elected in another by-election at Dundee. As President of the Board of Trade he pursued radical social reforms in conjunction with David Lloyd George, the new Chancellor of the Exchequer. This article is about the city in England. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (September 7, 1836 - April 22, 1908) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... A Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, in the United Kingdom government structure, is a minister who is junior to a Minister of State who is then junior to a Secretary of State. ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith (September 12, 1852 - February 15, 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... William Joynson-Hicks, 1st Viscount Brentford 23 June 1865-8 June 1932, popularly known as Jix, was a UK Conservative politician, most known for his tenure as Home Secretary during which he gained a reputation for strict authoritarianism. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ...


In 1910 Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary, where he was to prove somewhat controversial. A famous photograph from the time shows the impetuous Churchill taking personal charge of the January 1911 Sidney Street Siege, peering around a corner to view a gun battle between cornered anarchists and Scots Guards. His role attracted much criticism. Arthur Balfour asked, "He [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing but what was the Right Honourable gentleman doing?" 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... The Siege of Sidney Street, popularly known as the Battle of Stepney, was a gunfight in Londons East End in 1911. ...


In 1911, Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he would hold into the First World War. He gave impetus to military reform efforts, including development of naval aviation, tanks, and the switch in fuel from coal to oil. However, he was also one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I, which led to his description as "the butcher of Gallipoli." When Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded Churchill's demotion as the price for entry. For several months Churchill served in the non-portfolio job of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, before resigning from the government feeling his energies were not being used. He rejoined the army, though remaining an MP, and served for several months on the Western Front. During this period his second in command was a young Archibald Sinclair who would later lead the Liberal Party. A database query syntax error has occurred. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, is a town in northwestern Turkey. ... The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı), formerly Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... Categories: Historical stubs | World War I ... Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso (then Sir Archibald Sinclair) (October 22, 1890-June 15, 1970) was leader of the UK Liberal Party from 1935 until 1945. ...


Return to power

In December 1916, Asquith fell and was replaced by Lloyd George. However, the time was thought to not yet be right to risk the Conservatives' wrath by bringing Churchill back into government. However in July 1917 Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions. After the end of the war Churchill served as both Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air (1919-1921). On the possible use of gas weapons in quelling uprisings in the British mandated territories of the former Ottoman Empire, Churchill wrote: 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. ... The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, a British cabinet-level position, first applied to Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... League of Nations mandates were territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...

I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. We have definitely adopted the position at the Peace Conference of arguing in favour of the retention of gas as a permanent method of warfare. It is sheer affectation to lacerate a man with the poisonous fragment of a bursting shell and to boggle at making his eyes water by means of lachrymatory gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes. The moral effect should be so good that the loss of life should be reduced to a minimum. It is not necessary to use only the most deadly gases: gases can be used which cause great inconvenience and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent effects on most of those affected.

During this time (1919-1921), he undertook with surprising zeal the cutting of military expenditure. However, the major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle." He secured from a divided and loosely organized Cabinet an intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine. He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921, and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 which established the Irish Free State. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish...


Career between the wars

In October 1922, Churchill underwent an operation to remove his appendix. Upon his return, he learned that the government had fallen and a General Election was looming. The Liberal Party was now beset by internal division and Churchill's campaign was weak. He lost his seat at Dundee, quipping that he had lost his ministerial office, his seat and his appendix all at once. Churchill stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, but over the next twelve months he moved towards the Conservative Party, though initially using the labels "Anti-Socialist" and "Constitutionalist." Two years later, in the General Election of 1924, he was elected to represent Epping (where there is now a statue of him) as a "Constitutionalist" with Conservative backing. The following year he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that, "Anyone can rat [change parties], but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat." 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15th November 1922. ... This is about Epping in England. ...


He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw the United Kingdom's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926. This decision prompted the economist John Maynard Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, correctly arguing that the return to the gold standard would lead to a world depression. Churchill later regarded this as one of the worst decisions of his life. To be fair to him, it must be noted that he was not an economist and that he acted on the advice of the Governor of the Bank of England, Montague Norman (of whom Keynes said: "Always so charming, always so wrong".) The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (August 3, 1867 - December 14, 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ... Gold standard - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... In 1926 the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) called out workers on a general strike for nine days in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent the wages and conditions of coal miners from being reduced. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ... The word depression can mean: A decrease of functional activity in behavior patterns. ... The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady. The Bank of England Functions of the bank It performs all the recognized functions of a central bank -- to maintain price stability, and subject to...


During the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette, and during the dispute he argued that "either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country." Furthermore, he was to controversially claim that the Fascism of Benito Mussolini had "rendered a service to the whole world," showing as it had "a way to combat subversive forces" — that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. In 1926 the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) called out workers on a general strike for nine days in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent the wages and conditions of coal miners from being reduced. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The British Gazette was a short-lived British newspaper published by the government during the General Strike of 1926. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. In the next two years, Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was now at the lowest point in his career, in a period known as 'the wilderness years.' He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times - a biography of his ancestor, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough - and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (which was not published until well after WWII). He became most notable for his outspoken opposition towards the granting of independence to India. James Ramsay MacDonald (October 12, 1866 - November 9, 1937) was Britains first Labour Prime Minister (January-November 1924 and June 1929-August 1931) and subsequently Prime Minister of the National Government of August 1931-June 1935. ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all major political parties. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (May 26, 1650 - June 16, 1722), in full The Most Noble Captain-General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Marlborough, Baron Churchill of Sandridge, Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, KG, PC (in addition... History of the English Speaking Peoples cover A History of the English Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and the English speaking nations, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from the Norman Conquest of Britain (1066) to the beginning of World War I (1914). ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


Soon, though, his attention was drawn to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the dangers of Germany's rearmament. For a time he was a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself and counter the belligerence of Germany. Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler. He was also an outspoken supporter of King Edward VIII during the Abdication Crisis, leading to some speculation that he might be appointed Prime Minister if the King refused to take Baldwin's advice and consequently the government resigned. However, this did not happen, and Churchill found himself politically isolated and bruised for some time after this. Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House... Like King Henry VIII of England, whose wish to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s rocked his kingdom, King Edward VIII created a crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he wished to marry Wallis Simpson: many have argued that the problem for Edward...


Role as wartime Prime Minister

At the outbreak of the Second World War Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In this job he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so- called "Bore War", when the only noticeable action was at sea. He organized a strike on German forces in Norway. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was the phase of World War II marked by no military operations in Continental Europe, that followed the collapse of Poland. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Churchill advocated the preemptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron ore fields of Narvik early in the War. However, the procrastination of the Chamberlain War Cabinet in approving the operation allowed Nazi Germany to organize an invasion of their own to secure their iron supplies. Chamberlain's fear was that a preemptive occupation of neutral Norwegian territory might bring the ire of the United States; this probably influenced his decision to delay the Norwegian operation until a German invasion of Norway. The British forces did eventually eject the Germans from Narvik but by that stage, France was near capitulation and the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force was about to begin at Dunkirk. It was decided by the British Government to withdraw troops from Norway for the defence of the British Isles and to support the war effort in France. Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... A War Cabinet is committee formed by a government in time of war. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Boer War in case Britain ever needed to... Dunkirk is the English name for the city of Dunkerque in northern France: see Dunkirk, France. ... British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of...


Despite the failure of this operation, upon Chamberlain's resignation in May, 1940, Churchill was appointed Prime Minister and formed an all-party government. In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, he created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. He immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook in charge of aircraft production. It was Beaverbrook's astounding business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... A defence minister (Commonwealth English) or defense minister (American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Sir William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook (May 25, 1879 - June 9, 1964) was a Canadian–British business tycoon and politician. ...

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Winston Churchill on the cover of TIME Magazine (Sep. 30, 1940).

Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled United Kingdom. His first speech as Prime Minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech. He followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the immortal line, "We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender." The other included the equally famous "Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.'" At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname "The Few" for the Allied fighter pilots who won it. (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Battle of Britain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... On 4 June 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous We shall fight on the beaches speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, shortly after taking over as Prime Minister in the first year of World War II. It was given in the wake of the withdrawal of... On 18 June 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous This was their finest hour speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, shortly after taking over as Prime Minister in the first year of World War II. It was given as France continued to reel from the stunning... On August 20, 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous Never was so much owed by so many to so few speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, at the height of the Battle of Britain, often viewed as the most critical turning point of World War II... The Few is a term used to describe the Allied airmen of the Royal Air Force (RAF) who won the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. ...

His good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured the United Kingdom vital supplies via the North Atlantic Ocean shipping routes. It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of not only providing military hardware to Britain without the need for monetary payment, but also of providing, free of fiscal charge, much of the shipping that transported the supplies. Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the USA; and so Lend-lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE), under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog". This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chiang Kai-shek ( October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... This is the most common use of FDR. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation). ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 Photocopy of the Cairo Declaration, an unsigned press release The Cairo Conference of November 22- 26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... This is the most common use of FDR. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended... Military strategy in the Waterloo campaign Military strategy is a collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. ... List of World War II conferences Note: links to conference, not location. ... Atlantic Charter - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Europe first (sometimes known as Germany first) was the key element of the grand strategy employed by the United States and Britain during World War II. According to this policy, the United States and Britain would use the preponderance of their resources to subdue Germany and Italy in Europe first... The Declaration by the United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 by the governments (several of them governments-in-exile) of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), often called the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organisation initiated by Winston Churchill in July of 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, generally known as Hugh Dalton (1887-1962) was a British Labour Party politician, and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. ... The Minister of Economic Warfare was a British government position which existed during the Second World War. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but unregimented raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... Special forces or special operations forces is a term used to describe relatively small military units raised and trained for reconnaissance, unconventional warfare and special operations. ...

Dwight D. Eisenhower with Winston Churchill during World War II

However, some of the military actions during the war remain controversial. Churchill was at best indifferent and perhaps complicit in the Great Bengal Famine of 1943 which took the lives of at least 2.5 million Bengalis. Japanese troops were threatening British India after having successfully taken neighbouring British Burma. Some consider the British government's policy of denying effective famine relief a deliberate and callous scorched earth policy adopted in the event of a successful Japanese invasion. Churchill supported the bombing of Dresden shortly before the end of the war; Dresden was primarily a civilian target with many refugees from the East, and was of allegedly little military value. However, the bombing was helpful to the allied Soviets. Dwight D. Eisenhower (left) and Winston Churchill. ... Dwight D. Eisenhower (left) and Winston Churchill. ... Order: 34th President Vice President: Richard Nixon Term of office: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Preceded by: Harry S. Truman Succeeded by: John F. Kennedy Date of birth: October 14, 1890 Place of birth: Denison, Texas Date of death: March 28, 1969 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The bombing of Dresden by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13th and 15th, 1945 remains one of the most controversial events of World War II, even after 60 years. ...


Churchill was party to treaties that would re-draw post-WWII European and Asian boundaries. The boundary between North Korea and South Korea was proposed at the Yalta Conference, as well as the expulsion of Japanese forces from those countries. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were discussed as early as 1943 by Roosevelt and Churchill; the settlement was officially agreed to by U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam (Article XIII of the Potsdam protocol). North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... After World War II terms, expulsion was a euphemism for ethnic cleansing of territories settled by Germans. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was held in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ...


One of these settlements concerned the borders of Poland, i.e. the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union (the so-called Curzon line) and between Germany and Poland (the so-called Oder-Neisse line). Despite the fact that Poland was the first country that resisted Hitler, Polish borders and government were determined by the Great Powers without asking the views of the Polish government in exile. Poles who had fought alongside Britain throughout the war felt betrayed. Churchill himself opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences. The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Curzon line was a boundary line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a border between Poland, to the west, and Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine, to the east. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... The Oder-Neisse line (German: Oder-Neiße-Grenze; Polish: Granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... Western betrayal refers to certain views about the Allied policy towards various Central European countries from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 to the decades-long aftermath of World War II, the Cold War. ...

Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin at the Yalta Conference

A part of the settlement was an agreement to transfer the remaining citizens of Germany from the area. (Transfer of Poles didn't need to be approved.) The exact numbers and movement of ethnic populations over the Polish-German and Polish-USSR borders in the period at the end of World War II is extremely difficult to determine. This is not least because, under the Nazi regime, many Poles were replaced in their homes by the conquering Germans in an attempt to consolidate Nazi power. In the case of the post-WWII settlement, Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders. As Churchill expounded in the House of Commons in 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions." Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Djugashvili(Stalin) at the Yalta conference - reduced size verson of Media:Crc ros sta. ... Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Djugashvili(Stalin) at the Yalta conference - reduced size verson of Media:Crc ros sta. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After World War II

Although the importance of Churchill's role in World War II was undeniable, he had many enemies in his own country. His expressed contempt for a number of popular ideas, in particular public health care and better education for the majority of the population, produced much dissatisfaction amongst the population, particularly those who had fought in the war. Immediately following the close of the war in Europe, Churchill was heavily defeated at election by Clement Attlee and the Labour Party. Some historians think that many British voters believed that the man who had led the nation so well in war was not the best man to lead it in peace. Others see the election result as a reaction against not Churchill personally, but against the Conservative Party's record in the 1930s under Baldwin and Chamberlain. The British general election of 1945 held on July 5th 1945 but not counted and declared until July 26, 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th century. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to...


Winston Churchill was an early supporter of the pan-Europeanism that eventually led to the formation of the European Common market and later the European Union (for which one of the three main buildings of the European Parliament is named in his honour). Churchill was also instrumental in giving France a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (which provided another European power to counter-balance the Soviet Union's permanent seat). Churchill also occasionally made comments supportive of world government. For instance, he once said[1] (http://www.worldbeyondborders.org/quotes.htm): The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... A world government is a hypothetical entity consisting of a single government with authority over an entire planet. ...

Unless some effective world supergovernment for the purpose of preventing war can be set up ... the prospects for peace and human progress are dark ...If ... it is found possible to build a world organization of irresistible force and inviolable authority for the purpose of securing peace, there are no limits to the blessings which all men enjoy and share.

At the beginning of the Cold War, he famously mentioned the "Iron Curtain," a phrase originally created by Joseph Goebbels. The phrase entered the public consciousness after a 1946 speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri when Churchill, a guest of Harry S. Truman, famously declared, "From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere." The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... In the summer of 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary, Alois Mock and Gyula Horn, ceremoniously cut through the border defences separating their countries. ... Joseph Goebbels Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Westminster College is the name of several colleges including: In the UK: Westminster College, Cambridge, UK Westminster College, Oxford, UK In the United States: Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Westminster College, Missouri, USA Westminster College, Pennsylvania, USA This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Fulton is a city located in Callaway County, Missouri. ... Missouri, named after the Missouri Siouan Indian tribe meaning canoe, is a Midwestern state of the United States with Jefferson City as its capital. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Location within Italy Trieste ( Latin Tergeste, Slovenian and Croatian Trst, German and Friulian Triest) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region and Trieste province, population 211,184 (2001). ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,387,404 inhabitants (as of September 2004); down from 4. ... Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... See Budapest (band) for the British melancholic post-grunge band. ... Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Bucharest (population 2. ... National Theatre, Sofia Alexander Nevski Cathedral The city of Sofia (Bulgarian: София), at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, has a population of 1,208,930 (2003), and is the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. ...


Second term

Churchill during his second term
Churchill during his second term

Churchill was restless and bored as leader of the Conservative opposition in the immediate postwar years. After Labour's defeat in the General Election of 1951, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His third government - after the wartime national government and the short caretaker government of 1945 - would last until his resignation in 1955. During this period he renewed what he called the "special relationship" between Britain and the United States, and engaged himself in the formation of the post-war order. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


His domestic priorities were, however, overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action.


Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute

The crisis began under the government of Clement Attlee. In March 1951, the Iranian parliament—the Majlis—voted to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and its holdings by passing a bill strongly backed by the elderly statesman Mohammed Mossadegh, a man who was elected Prime Minister the following April by a large majority of the parliament. The International Court of Justice was called into settle the dispute, but a 50-50 profit sharing arrangement, with recognition of nationalization, was rejected by Mossadegh. Direct negotiations between the British and the Iranian government ceased, and over the course of 1951, the British racheted up the pressure on the Iranian government, and explored the possibility of a coup against it. U.S. President Harry S. Truman was reluctant to agree, placing a much higher priority on the Korean War. The effects of the blockade and embargo were staggering, and led to a virtual shutdown of Iran’s oil exports. Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Majlis is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ...


Churchill's return to power brought with it a policy of undermining the Mossadegh government. Both sides floated proposals unacceptable to the other, each side believing that time was on its side. Negotiations broke down and as the blockade's political and economic costs mounted inside Iran, coup plots rose from the army, the "National Front" and from pro-British factions in the Majlis.


Churchill and his Foreign Secretary pursued two mutually exclusive goals. On one hand, they wanted "development and reform" in Iran; on the other hand, they did not want to give up the control or revenue from AOIC that would have permitted that development and reform to go forward. Initially they backed Sayyid Zia as an individual with whom they could do business, but as the embargo dragged on, they turned more and more to an alliance with the military. Churchill's government had come full circle, from ending the Attlee plans for a coup, to planning one itself. The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ...


The crisis dragged on until 1953. Churchill approved a plan, with help from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, to back a coup in Iran. The combination of external and internal political pressure converged around Fazlollah Zahedi. Over the summer of 1953, demonstrations grew in Iran and, with the failure of a plebiscite, the government was destabilized. Zahedi, using foreign financing, took power, and Mossadegh surrendered to him on August 20, 1953. Order: 34th President Vice President: Richard Nixon Term of office: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Preceded by: Harry S. Truman Succeeded by: John F. Kennedy Date of birth: October 14, 1890 Place of birth: Denison, Texas Date of death: March 28, 1969 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ...


The coup pointed to an underlying tension within the post-War order: the industrialized Democracies, hungry for resources to rebuild in the wake of World War II, and to engage the Soviet Union in the Cold War, dealt with emerging states such as Iran as they had with colonies in a previous era. On one hand, spurred by the fear of a third world war against the USSR, and committed to a policy of containment at any cost, they were more than willing to circumvent local political prerogatives. On the other hand, many of these local governments were both unstable and corrupt. The two factors created a vicious circle - intervention led to more dictatorial rule and corruption, which made intervention rather than establishment of strong local political institutions a greater and greater temptation. The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ...


The Mau Mau Rebellion

In 1951, grievances against the colonial distribution of land came to a head with the Kenya Africa Union demanding greater representation and land reform. When these demands were rejected, more radical elements came forward, launching the Mau Mau rebellion in 1952. On August 17, 1952, a state of emergency was declared, and British troops were flown to Kenya to deal with the rebellion. As both sides increased the ferocity of their attacks, the country moved to full-scale civil war. The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ... Kenya (pronounced as KEN-ya) is a country of East Africa, bordering Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and the Indian Ocean. ...


In 1953, the Lari massacre, perpetrated by Mau-Mau insurgents against Kikuyu loyal to the British, changed the political complexion of the rebellion, and gave the public-relations advantage to the British. Churchill's strategy was to use a military stick, combined with implementing many of the concessions that Attlee's government had blocked in 1951. He ordered an increased military presence and appointed General Sir George Erskine, who would implement Operation Anvil in 1954 that broke the back of the rebellion in the city of Nairobi. Operation Hammer, in turn, was designed to root out rebels in the countryside. Churchill ordered peace talks opened, but these collapsed shortly after his leaving office. The Kĩkũyũ (otherwise spelled Gĩkũyũ) tribe is Kenyas most populous ethnic group. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Capitals in Africa | Kenya ...


Malaya Emergency

In Malaysia, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and once again Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion, while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not. He stepped up the implementation of a "hearts and minds" campaign, and approved the creation of fortified villages, a tactic that would become a recurring part of Western military strategy in South-East Asia. (See Vietnam War). The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ...


The Malayan Emergency was a more direct case of a guerilla movement, centred in an ethnic group, but backed by the Soviet Union. As such, Britain's policy of direct confrontation and military victory had a great deal more support than in Iran or in Kenya. At the highpoint of the conflict, over 35,000 British troops were stationed in Malaysia. As the rebellion lost ground, it began to lose favour with the local population. Malayan emergency was an insurrection and guerilla war of Malay Races Liberation Army in Malaysia from 1948-1960. ...


While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer tenable. In 1953, plans were drawn up for independence for Singapore and the other crown colonies in the area. The first elections were held in 1955, just days before Churchill's own resignation, and by 1957, under Prime Minister Anthony Eden, Malaysia became independent. National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) National anthem: Majulah Singapura Capital Singapore1 Largest city Singapore1 Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Government President Prime minister Westminster system (de jure) Dominant-party system (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Independence - From Malaysia August 9, 1965 Area  - Total... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ...


Honours for Churchill

Immediately after World War II and his government's electoral defeat, Churchill was offered elevation to the House of Lords as the first-ever Duke of London. Hopeful that his political career was not yet over, he declined. This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


In 1953 he was awarded two major honours: he was knighted as a Knight of the Garter (becoming Sir Winston Churchill) and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values". A stroke in June of that year led to him being paralysed down his left side. He retired because of his health on April 5, 1955 but retained his post as Chancellor of the University of Bristol. 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90%of strokes) or by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - approximately 10% of strokes). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The University of Bristol was founded in 1876 as the University College, Bristol. ...


In 1956 he received the Karlspreis (engl.: Charlemagne Award), an award by the German city of Aachen to those who most contribute to the European idea and European peace. Bill Clinton received the Karlspreis in 2000. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46 N, 6°6 E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ...


During the next few years he revised and finally published A History of the English Speaking Peoples in four volumes. In 1959 Churchill inherited the title of Father of the House, becoming the MP with the longest continuous service — since 1924. He was to hold the position until his retirement from the Commons in 1964, the position of Father of the House then passing to Rab Butler. History of the English Speaking Peoples cover A History of the English Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and the English speaking nations, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from the Norman Conquest of Britain (1066) to the beginning of World War I (1914). ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... There is also the designation of Father of the House of Lords The longest continuously serving member of certain national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, is customarily designated Father of the House. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, familiarly known as Rab, (1902-1982) was a British politician, one of the few to have served in all three posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary. ...


Family

On September 2, 1908, at the socially-desirable St. Margaret's, Westminster, Churchill married Clementine Hozier, a dazzling but largely penniless beauty whom he met at a dinner party that March (he had proposed to actress Ethel Barrymore, but was turned down). They had five children: Diana; Randolph; Sarah, who co-starred with Fred Astaire in Royal Wedding; Marigold, who died in early childhood; and Mary, who has written a book on her parents. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years). ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Anglican church of St. ... Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (April 1, 1885 - December 12, 1977) (née Clementine Ogilvy Hozier) was the wife of Sir Winston Churchill. ... Categories: People stubs | 1879 births | 1959 deaths | Cinema actors | Stage actors | American actors | Best Supporting Actress Oscar | Best Supporting Actress Oscar Nominee ... This article is about the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchills son. ... The Honourable Sarah Millicent Hermione Churchill (October 7, 1914 – September 24, 1982) was a British actress. ... Fred Astaire Fred Astaire (May 10, 1899 - June 22, 1987), born Frederick Austerlitz in Omaha, Nebraska, was an American film and Broadway ballroom dancer and actor. ...


Clementine's mother was Lady Blanche Henrietta Ogilvy, second wife of Sir Henry Montague Hozier and a daughter of the 7th Earl of Airlie. Clementine's paternity, however, is open to healthy debate. Lady Blanche was well known for sharing her favours and was eventually divorced as a result. She maintained that Clementine's father was Capt. William George "Bay" Middleton, a noted horseman. But Clementine's biographer Joan Hardwick has surmised, due to Sir Henry Hozier's reputed sterility, that all Lady Blanche's "Hozier" children were actually fathered by her sister's husband, Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford, better known as a grandfather of the infamous Mitford sisters of the 1920s. The title Earl of Airlie was created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1586 for James Ogilvy. ... Capt. ... The Mitfords were an aristocratic British family noted for their accomplishments in writing and their notorious lives, particularly of the daughters of the family, known as the Mitford sisters. ...


Churchill's son Randolph and his grandsons Nicholas Soames and Winston all followed him into Parliament. The Honourable Nicholas Soames (born 12 February 1948, Croydon) is a British Conservative politician. ... This article is about the living politician. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...


When not in London on government business, Churchill usually lived at his beloved Chartwell House in Kent, 2 miles south of Westerham. He and his wife bought the house in 1922, and lived there until his death in 1965. During his Chartwell stays, he enjoyed writing there, as well as painting, bricklaying, and admiring the estate's famous black swans. London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Chartwell was the home of Sir Winston Churchill, located in Kent, two miles south of Westerham. ... This article is about the English county of Kent. ... Westerham is a village which is now almost a town. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


Last days

Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill retired as Prime Minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden, who had long been his ambitious protégé. Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and in the south of France. Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ...


In 1963, pursuant to an Act of Congress, U.S. President John F. Kennedy named Churchill the first Honorary Citizen of the United States. Churchill was too ill to attend the White House ceremony, so his son and grandson accepted the award for him. Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... A non-U.S. citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ...


On January 15, 1965 Churchill suffered another stroke — a severe cerebral thrombosis — that left him gravely ill. He died nine days later, on January 24, 1965, 70 years to the day of his father's death. His body lay in State in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral. This was the first state funeral for a non royal family member since that of Field Marshal Lord Roberts of Kandahar in 1914. It was Churchill's wish that, were French President Charles de Gaulle to outlive him, his (Churchill's) funeral procession should pass through Waterloo Station. As his coffin passed down the Thames on a boat, the cranes of London's docklands bowed in salute. The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government) and the RAF staged a fly-past of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The state funeral was the largest gathering of dignitaries in Britain as representatives from over 100 countries attended it, including de Gaulle, other heads of state and government, and members of royalty. It also saw largest assemblage of statesmen in the world until the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005. January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honor heads of state or other important people of national significance. ... This article is about the cathedral in London. ... Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar, Pretoria and Waterford, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC (September 30, 1832 - November 14, 1914) was a distinguished British soldier and one of the most successful commanders of the Victorian era. ... Portrait of General Charles de Gaulle. ... Facade of Waterloo Station, London Waterloo is a major train station and transport interchange located in the Waterloo district of London, which was itself named after the Battle of Waterloo in which Napoleon was defeated near Brussels. ... A salute is a gesture or other action used to indicate respect. ... The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army It is made up of a number of regiments. ... (Redirected from 21 gun salute) A 21-gun salute is fired by the members of the U.S. Army. ... RAF is an abbreviation for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Fraction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Rachunarski Fakultet RAF is also an... The English Electric Lightning is a supersonic British fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its natural metal exterior that was used throughout much of its service life with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. ... His Holiness Pope John Paul II, officially in Latin , born Karol Józef Wojtyla [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at Saint Martin's Churchyard, Bladon, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim. Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Latin Oxonia) is a county in South East England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Blenheim Palace, The Great Court. ...


At the same time the funeral took place, people in the United States paid tribute to the friendship between Churchill and Roosevelt, because the funeral took place on January 30, the anniversary of FDR's birth. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Churchill as historian

Statue of Winston Churchill in Parliament Square, opposite the Palace of Westminster in central London. Another cast of the same statue is found in Oslo, Norway.

Churchill was a prolific writer throughout his life, and during his periods out of office regarded himself as a professional writer who was also a Member of Parliament. Despite his aristocratic birth, he inherited little money (his mother spent most of his inheritance) and always needed ready cash to maintain his lavish lifestyle. Some of his historical works, such the History of the English-Speaking Peoples, were written primarily to raise money. Download high resolution version (690x1026, 148 KB)this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Adam Carr. ... Download high resolution version (690x1026, 148 KB)this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, Adam Carr. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Although Churchill was an excellent writer, he was not a trained historian, and his historical works show many limitations. In his youth he was an avid reader of history, but within a narrow range. The major influences on his historical thought, and his prose style, were Clarendon's history of the English Civil War, Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Macaulay's History of England. He had no knowledge of, or interest in, social or economic history, and he always saw history as essentially political and military, driven by great men rather than by economic forces or social change. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (February 18, 1609 - December 9, 1674), English historian and statesman. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of Charles I of England and the supporters... Edward Gibbon. ...


Churchill was the last (and one of the most influential) exponents of "Whig history" - the belief of the 18th and 19th century Whigs that the British people had a unique greatness and an imperial destiny, and that all British history should be seen as progress towards fulfilling that destiny. This belief inspired his political career as well as his historical writing. It was an old-fashioned view of history even in Churchill's youth, but he never modified it or showed any interest in other schools of history. Although he employed professional historians as assistants, they had no influence over the content of his works. Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... This article is about the British Whig party. ...


Churchill's historical writings fall into three categories. The first is works of family history, the biographies of his father, Life of Lord Randolph Churchill (1906), and of his great ancestor, Marlborough: His Life and Times (four volumes, 1933-38). These are still regarded as fine biographies, but are marred by Churchill's desire to present his subjects in the best possible light. He made only limited use of the available source materials, and in the case of his father suppressed some material from family archives that relected badly on Lord Randolph. The Marlborough biography shows to the full Churchill's great talent for military history. Both books have been superceded by more scholarly works, but are still highly readable.


The second category is Churchill's autobiographical works, including his early journalistic compilations The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1898), The River War {1899), London to Ladysmith via Pretoria (1900) and Ian Hamilton's March (1900). These latter two were issued in a re-edited form as My Early Life (1930). All these books are colourful and entertaining, and contain some valuable information about Britain's imperial wars in India, Sudan and South Africa, but they are essentially exercises in self-promotion, since Churchill was already a Parliamentary candidate in 1900. The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... The Republic of the Sudan, or Republic of Sudan (in recent years the definite article has increasingly been dropped in common usage) is the largest country in Africa, situated in the northeast part of the continent. ... The Republic of South Africa is a large republic located at the southern tip of the continent. ...


Churchill's reputation as a writer, however, rests on the third category, his three massive multi-volume works of narrative history. These are his histories of the First World War - The World Crisis (six volumes, 1923-31) - and of The Second World War (six volumes, 1948-53), and his History of the English-Speaking Peoples (four volumes, 1956-58, much of which had been written in the 1930s). These are among the longest works of history ever published (The Second World War runs to more than two million words), and earned him the Nobel Prize for Literature.


Churchill's histories of the two world wars are, of course, far from being conventional historical works, since the author was a central particpant in both stories and took full advantage of that fact in writing his books. Both are in a sense therefore memoirs as well as histories, but Churchill was careful to broaden their scope to include events in which he played no part - the war between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, for example. Inevitably, however, Churchill placed Britain, and therefore himself, at the centre of his narrative. Arthur Balfour described The World Crisis as "Winston's brilliant autobiography, disguised as a history of the universe." Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


As a Cabinet minister for part of the First World War and as Prime Minister for nearly all of the Second, Churchill had unique access to official documents, military plans, official secrets and correspondence between world leaders. After the First War, when there were few rules governing these documents, Churchill simply took many of them with him when he left office, and used them freely in his books - as did other wartime politicians such as David Lloyd George. As a result of this, strict rules were put in place preventing Cabinet ministers using official documents for writing history or memoirs once they left office. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


The World Crisis was inspired by Lord Esher's attack on Churchill's reputation in his memoirs. It soon broadened out into a general multi-volume history. The volumes are a mix of military history, written with Churchill's usual narrative flair; diplomatic and political history, largely written to justify Churchill's own actions and policies during the war; portraits of other political and military figures, usually written to further political vendettas or settle debts (most notably with Lloyd George), and personal memoir, written in a colourful but highly selective manner. Today these books are almost useless as historical references. As with all Churchill's works, they have nothing to say about economic or social history, and are coloured by his political views - particularly in regards to the Russian Revolution. But they remain highly readable for their narrative skill and vivid portrayals of people and events. Reginald Baliol Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, PC (30 June 1852 - 22 January 1930) was an historian and Liberal politician in the United Kingdom. ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. ...


When he resumed office in 1939, Churchill fully intended writing a history of the war then beginning. He said several times: "I will leave judgements on this matter to history - but I will be one of the historians." To circumvent the rules against the use of official documents, he took the precaution throughout the war of having a weekly summary of correspondence, minutes, memoranda and other documents printed in galleys and headed "Prime Minister's personal minutes." These were then stored at his home for future use. As well, Churchill wrote or dictated a number of letters and memorandums with the specific intention of placing his views on the record for later use as a historian. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


This all became a source of great controversy when The Second World War began appearing in 1948. Churchill was not an academic historian, he was a politician, and was in fact Leader of the Opposition, still intending to return to office. By what right, it was asked, did he have access to Cabinet, military and diplomatic records which were denied to other historians?


What was unknown at the time was the fact that Churchill had done a deal with the Attlee Labour government which came to office in 1945. Recognising Churchill's enormous prestige, Attlee agreed to allow him (or rather his research assistants) free access to most documents, provided that (a) no official secrets were revealed (b) the documents were not used for party political purposes and (c) the typescript was vetted by the Cabinet Secretary, Sir Norman Brook. Brook took a close interest in the books and rewrote some sections himself to ensure that nothing was said which might harm British interests or embarrass the government. Churchill's history thus became a semi-official one. Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


Churchill's privileged access to documents and his unrivalled personal knowledge gave him an advantage over all other historians of the Second World War for many years. The books had enormous sales in both Britain and the United States and made Churchill a rich man for the first time. It was not until after his death and the opening of the archives that some of the deficiencies of his work became apparent.


Some of these were inherent in the unique position Churchill occupied as a historian, being both a former Prime Minister and a serving politician. He could not reveal military secrets, such as the work of the codebreakers at Bletchley Park (see Ultra), or the planning of the atomic bomb. He could not discuss wartime disputes with figures such as Dwight Eisenhower, Charles de Gaulle or Tito, since they were still world leaders at the time he was writing. He could not discuss Cabinet disputes with Labour leaders such as Attlee, whose goodwill the project depended on. He could not reflect on the deficiencies of generals such as Archibald Wavell or Claude Auchinleck, for fear they might sue him (some indeed threatened to do so). During World War II, British cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine. ... This article is about WWII intelligence material codenamed Ultra. For other usages, see Ultra (disambiguation) Ultra (sometimes capitalised ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decrypts of German communications in World War II (WWII); the term eventually became the common standard terminology for Britain and... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Portrait of General Charles de Gaulle. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from the Royal...


Other deficiencies were of Churchill's own making. Although he described the fighting on the Eastern Front, he had little real interest in it and no access to Soviet or German documents, so his account is a pastiche of secondary sources, largely written by his assistants. The same is true to some extent of the war in the Pacific, except for episodes such as the fall of Singapore in which he was involved. His account of the U.S. naval war in the Pacific was so heavily based on other writers that he was accused of plagiarism.


The real focus of Churchill's work is always on the war in western Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa, but here his work is based heavily on his own documents, so it greatly exaggerates his own role. He had little access to American documents, and even those he did have, such as his letters from Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower, had to be used with caution for diplomatic reasons. Although he was of course a central figure in the war, he was not as central as his books suggest, particularly after 1943, when the U.S. and the Soviet Union became the domiant forces on the Allied side. Although he is usually fair, some personal vendettas are aired - against Stafford Cripps, for example. Harry S. Truman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Rt Hon Sir Stafford Cripps Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952), British Labour politician, was born in London, the son of a Conservative member of the House of Commons who late in life, as Lord Parmoor, joined the Labour Party. ...


The Second World War can still be read with great profit by students of the period, provided it is seen mainly as a memoir by a leading participant rather than as an authoritative history by a professional and detached historian. The war, and particularly the period between 1940 and 1942 when Britain was fighting alone, was the climax of Churchill's career and his personal account of the inside story of those days is unique and invaluable. But since the archives have been opened far more accurate and reliable histories have been written.


Churchill's History of the English-Speaking Peoples was commissioned and largely written in the 1930s when Churchill badly needed money, but it was put aside when war broke out in 1939, being finally issued after he left office for the last time in 1955. Although it contains much fine writing, it shows Churchill's deficiencies as a historian at their most glaring. It is generally regarded as tendentious and very old-fashioned, seeing world history as a one-dimensional pageant of battles and speeches, kings and statesmen, in which the English occupy central stage. Events of central importance to modern history, such as the industrial revolution, are scarcely mentioned. Although Churchill's enormous prestige ensured that the books were respectfully received and sold well, they are nowlittle read. The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century and 19th century Great Britain. ...


Quotes

"The morning had been golden; the noontide was bronze; and the evening lead. But all were solid, and each was polished till it shone after it fashion."


"In war: resolution. In defeat: defiance. In victory: magnanimity. In peace: goodwill."


"Democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time."


"A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on."


"A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty."


"A politician needs the ability to foretell what is going to happen tomorrow, next week, next month, and next year. And to have the ability afterwards to explain why it didn't happen."


"A prisoner of war is a man who tries to kill you and fails, and then asks you not to kill him."


"We have not journeyed across the centuries, across the oceans, across the mountains, across the prairies, because we are made of sugar candy."


[On the occasion of the proposed post-war re-engineering of the House of Commons] "We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us."


[In response to Lady Astor saying "Winston, you are drunk!", Churchill replied] "And you, madam, are ugly. But in the morning, I shall be sober."


[Lady Astor once told Winston "If you were my husband I would poison your drink!", to which Winston replied] "M'Lady, if I were your husband, I should gladly drink it!"


Miscellaneous and trivia

  • Many attribute some of Churchill's extraordinary abilities to his being affected by bipolar disorder, commonly known as manic depression. In his last years, Churchill is believed by several writers to have suffered from Alzheimer's disease, though the Churchill Centre disputes this. Certainly he suffered from fits of depression that he called his "black dog." Some researchers also believe that Churchill was dyslexic, based on the difficulties he described himself having at school. However, the Churchill Centre and other experts strongly refute this (Source: http://www.winstonchurchill.org ).
  • Churchill also overcame a severe stammer and lisp, but some of his speeches were still marred with traces of them. Churchill even thought that these added an interesting element to a speaker's voice: "Sometimes a slight and not unpleasing stammer or impediment has been of some assistance in securing the attention of the audience. . ." [3]  (http://www.winstonchurchill.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=814)[4]  (http://www.stuttersfa.org/pressrm/chrchill.htm)
  • The United States Navy destroyer USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81) is named in his honour. In 1963, Churchill was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.
  • Churchill's mother was American and some, including Churchill himself, have said that his maternal grandmother was an Iroquois, which would make Churchill the only British prime minister of Native American descent. Research has failed to validate this contention, and some doubt its accuracy.
  • In 1995, a row erupted after the National Lottery spent 12 million pounds of its 'good causes' budget on Churchill's personal papers after his descendants said they were tempted to sell them to American academics. Churchill's family were heavily criticised for not offering the papers to the nation for free.
  • John Lennon's middle name was Winston. His mother named him after the prime minister.
  • The Churchill cigar size actually was named after him.
  • In July 1944 Churchill requested from the Chief of Staff General Ismay a study on the potential use of poison gas as a means of shortening the war or retaliating against the V-1 and V-2 rockets then falling on London:
I want you to think very seriously over this question of poison gas. I would not use it unless it could be shown either that (a) it was life or death for us, or (b) that it would shorten the war by a year... If the bombardment of London became a serious nuisance and great rockets with far-reaching and devastating effect fell on many centres of Government and labour, I should be prepared to do anything that would hit the enemy in a murderous place. I may certainly have to ask you to support me in using poison gas. We could drench the cities of the Ruhr and many other cities in Germany in such a way that most of the population would be requiring constant medical attention. We could stop all work at the flying bomb starting points. I do not see why we should have the disadvantages of being the gentleman while they have all the advantages of being the cad. There are times when this may be so but not now... (source: Prime Minister's Personal Minute, D.217/4, 6 July 1944)
The study concluded and advised Churchill that the use of such weapons would not benefit the war effort.

A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Chaim Weizmann Chaim Weizmann (חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) ( November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel which eventually became the Weizmann Institute... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Full name Churchill College Motto Forward Named after Sir Winston Churchill Previous names - Established 1966 Sister College Trinity College Master Sir John Boyd Location Storeys Way Undergraduates 210 Graduates 440 Homepage Boatclub Churchill College Churchill College was founded in 1960 as the national and commonwealth memorial to Winston Churchill. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after Oxford). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Churchill tank Infantry Tank IV Churchill. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... Bipolar Affective Disorder, also known as manic depression, or BPAD is a disorder of the brain resulting in unusually extreme highs and lows of an individuals mood, i. ... In ordinary conversation, nearly any mood with some element of sadness may be called depressed. However, for depression to be termed clinical depression it must reach criteria which are generally accepted by clinicians; it is more than just a temporary state of sadness. ... Stuttering is a speech disorder in which pronunciation of the (usually) first letter or syllable of a word is repeated involuntarily. ... Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS (DDG-81) is an Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer of the United States Navy homeported in NS Norfolk, Virginia. ... A non-U.S. citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A play here! sign outside a newsagent, incorporating the National Lotterys logo of a stylised hand with crossed fingers. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to discover the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... John Lennon John Winston Lennon, later John Ono Lennon, (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), is best known as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for The Beatles. ... Corona cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of tobacco leaves that have already been dried and fermented, which is lit for the purpose of inhaling (or merely drawing into the mouth rather than into the lungs) its smoke (see tobacco smoking). ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Dudley Field Malone (1882 - 1950) was a lawyer and member of the Democratic Party who served as the collector of the Port of New York (1913-1917) and resigned to protest the failure of the Wilson Administration to advocate a Woman Suffrage Amendment. ... Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan chat in court during the trial. ... Directed by Michael Curtiz with a screen play by Howard Koch based on the book by Ambassador Joseph E. Davies this 1943 film stands out as a unique example of pro-Soviet propaganda produced by the United States during World War II. Davies was the U.S. ambassador to the... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay of Wormington (June 21, 1887 - 1965) was a British soldier and diplomat. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... German test launch. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Churchill's war cabinet, May 1940 - May 1945

A defence minister (Commonwealth English) or defense minister (American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as Presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Arthur Greenwood (1880—1954) became deputy leader of the Labour Party under Clement Attlee, with Winston Churchill appointing him to the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio in 1940. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ...

Changes

1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook (May 25, 1879 - June 9, 1964) was a Canadian–British business tycoon and politician. ... The Minister of Aircraft Production was the British government position in charge of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, one of the specialised supply ministries set up by the British Government during World War II. As the name suggests, it was responsible for aircraft production for the British forces; primarily the... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley of Westdean (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British statesman. ... Sir Howard Kingsley Wood (19 August 1891 - 21 September 1943) was a Conservative British politician. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... The Rt Hon Ernest Bevin Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951), British labour leader and politician, was born in a small village in Somerset, England. ... Minister of Labour re-directs here. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Minister of State, in parliamentary systems, is a junior minister. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Minister of Supply was a position in the British Government which existed to co-ordinate the supplying of equipment to the armed forces. ... Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos (1893-1972) was a British businessman who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Minister of Production was a British government position that existed during the Second World War, heading the Ministry of Production. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The position of Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs was a British cabinet level position created in 1925 to deal with British relations with the Dominions — Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, and the Irish Free State. ... The office of Deputy Prime Minister is one that has only existed occasionally in the history of the United Kingdom. ... Rt Hon Sir Stafford Cripps Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952), British Labour politician, was born in London, the son of a Conservative member of the House of Commons who late in life, as Lord Parmoor, joined the Labour Party. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Minister of Production was a British government position that existed during the Second World War, heading the Ministry of Production. ... Lord Casey Richard Gardiner Casey, Baron Casey (29 August 1890 - 17 June 1976), Australian politician and diplomat and 16th Governor-General of Australia, was born in Brisbane, Queensland, the son of a pastoralist and Queensland state politician of Irish descent. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth (January 3, 1888 - March 6, 1965) was a British Labour Party politician and cabinet minister. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley of Westdean (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British statesman. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton (1883-1964) was a British businessman and politician. ... The Minister of Reconstruction was a British government post that briefly existed during the latter stages of the Second World War, charged with planning for the post-war period. ...

Winston Churchill's caretaker cabinet, May - July 1945

Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton (1883-1964) was a British businessman and politician. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as Presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Sir William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook (May 25, 1879 - June 9, 1964) was a Canadian–British business tycoon and politician. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley of Westdean (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British statesman. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... Donald Bradley Somervell, Baron Somervell (August 24, 1889-November 18, 1960) was a British politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Oliver Frederick George Stanley (1896-1950) was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his early death when it was assumed he would soon assume higher office. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury KG (August 27, 1893-February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... The position of Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs was a British cabinet level position created in 1925 to deal with British relations with the Dominions — Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, and the Irish Free State. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Sir Percy James Grigg, better known as Sir P.J. Grigg (December 16, 1890-May 5, 1964) was a British civil servant who was surprisingly moved from being the Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the War Office to become Secretary of State for War, the political head of the... The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, a British cabinet-level position, first applied to Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). ... Leopold Charles Maurice (or Moritz) Stennett Amery (22 November 1873 - 16 September 1955), was a British statesman and Conservative politician. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... Albert Edward Harry Meyer Archibald Primrose, 6th Earl of Rosebery (1882-1974), known by his third name of Harry, was a British politician who briefly served as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1945. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM (10 February 1894 - 29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... Brendan Bracken (1901 - 1958) was an Irish-born British Conservative cabinet minister. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos (1893-1972) was a British businessman who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... Robert Spear Hudson, 1st Viscount Hudson (1886-1957) was a British politician who held a number of ministerial posts during the Second World War. ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, familiarly known as Rab, (1902-1982) was a British politician, one of the few to have served in all three posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary. ...

Winston Churchill's third cabinet, October 1951 - April 1955

The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton (1883-1964) was a British businessman and politician. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as Presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury KG (August 27, 1893-February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, familiarly known as Rab, (1902-1982) was a British politician, one of the few to have served in all three posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (1900-1967) was an important British politician and jurist. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos (1893-1972) was a British businessman who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay of Wormington (June 21, 1887 - 1965) was a British soldier and diplomat. ... The Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations was a British Cabinet office existing between 1947 and 1966, responsible for dealing with British relationship with members of the Commonwealth of Nations (its former colonies). ... The Secretary of State for Scotland is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office. ... George Edward Peter Thorneycroft (1909-1994) was a British Conservative politician who sat as MP for Monmouth in South Wales from 1945 to 1970. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... Professor Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell (April 5, 1886 - July 3, 1957) was a physicist who became an influential scientific adviser to the British government and a close associate of Winston Churchill. ... Walter Turner Monckton, 1st Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, GCVO, KCMG, MC, PC (1891-1965) was a British politician. ... Henry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank (1893-1961), known as Harry Crookshank was a British Conservative politician. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM (10 February 1894 - 29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...

Changes

  • March 1952: Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Ismay as Commonwealth Relations Secretary. Salisbury remains also Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. Lord Alexander of Tunis succeeds Churchill as Minister of Defence.
  • May 1952: Harry Crookshank succeeds Lord Salisbury as Lord Privy Seal, remaining Leader of the House of Commons. Salisbury remains Commonwealth Relations Secretary and Leader of the House of Lords. Crookshank's successor as Minister of Health is not in the Cabinet.
  • November 1952: Lord Woolton becomes Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Woolton as Lord President. Lord Swinton succeeds Lord Salisbury as Commonwealth Relations Secretary.
  • September 1953: Florence Horsbrugh, the Minister of Education, Sir Thomas Dugdale, the Minister of Agriculture, and Gwilym Lloyd George, the Minister of Food, enter the cabinet. The Ministry for the Co-ordination of Transport, Fuel, and Power, is abolished, and Lord Leathers leaves the Cabinet.
  • October 1953: Lord Cherwell resigns as Paymaster General. His successor is not in the Cabinet.
  • July 1954: Alan Lennox-Boyd succeeds Oliver Lyttelton as Colonial Secretary. Derick Heathcoat Amory succeeds Sir Thomas Dugdale as Minister of Agriculture.
  • October 1954: Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, now Lord Kilmuir, succeeds Lord Simonds as Lord Chancellor. Gwilym Lloyd George succeeds him as Home Secretary. The Food Ministry is merged into the Ministry of Agriculture. Sir David Eccles succeeds Florence Horsbrugh as Minister of Education. Harold Macmillan succeeds Lord Alexander of Tunis as Minister of Defence. Duncan Sandys succeeds Macmillan as Minister of Housing and Local Government. Osbert Peake, the Minister of Pensions and National Insurance, enters the Cabinet.

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (December 10, 1891 - June 16, 1969) was a British military commander and Field Marshal, notably during World War II as the commander of the 15th Army Group. ... Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, (1884-1972), known as Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton from 1935 until 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s. ... Gwilym Lloyd George, 1st Viscount Tenby, (4 December 1894 - 1967) was a British politician and cabinet minister. ... Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory (26 December 1899 - 20 January 1981) was a British Conservative politician. ... Duncan Edwin Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys1 (January 24, 1908-November 26, 1987) was a British politician and a minister in successive Conservative governments. ...

References

  • Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War by Robert Massie (ISBN 1844135284); deals with forty years of European politics by reference to the naval arms race between Britain and Germany. Contains chapters on Churchill's early life (chapter 40: "I Do Believe That I Am a Glowworm") and period as First Lord of the Admiralty (chapter 41: Churchill at the Admiralty).
  • Churchill: A Life by Martin Gilbert (ISBN 0-8050-2396-8)
  • Quotations database (http://www.worldbeyondborders.org/quotes.htm), World Beyond Borders.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of 20th Century Quotations by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-860103-4)

An arms race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. ... The word Britain is used to refer to the United Kingdom (UK) the island of Great Britain, which consists of the countries of England, Scotland, and Wales sometimes the Roman province called Britain or Britannia The word British generally means belonging to or associated with Britain in one of the... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:


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Preceded by:
David Lloyd George
President of the Board of Trade
1908–1910
Succeeded by:
Sydney Buxton
Preceded by:
Herbert Gladstone
Home Secretary
1910–1911
Succeeded by:
Reginald McKenna
Preceded by:
Reginald McKenna
First Lord of the Admiralty
1911–1915
Succeeded by:
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by:
Edwin Samuel Montagu
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1915
Succeeded by:
Herbert Samuel
Preceded by:
Christopher Addison
Minister of Munitions
1917–1919
Succeeded by:
The Lord Inverforth
Preceded by:
The Viscount Milner
Secretary of State for War
1919–1921
Succeeded by:
Sir Laming Worthington-Evans
Preceded by:
The Lord Weir
Secretary of State for Air
1919–1921
Succeeded by:
Frederick Edward Guest
Preceded by:
The Viscount Milner
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1921–1922
Succeeded by:
The Duke of Devonshire
Preceded by:
Philip Snowden
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1924–1929
Succeeded by:
Philip Snowden
Preceded by:
The Earl Stanhope
First Lord of the Admiralty
1939–1940
Succeeded by:
A. V. Alexander
Preceded by:
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the House of Commons
1940–1942
Succeeded by:
Sir Stafford Cripps
Prime Minister
1940–1945
Succeeded by:
Clement Attlee
Preceded by:
Minister of Defence
1940–1945
Preceded by:
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1940–1955
Succeeded by:
Sir Anthony Eden
Preceded by:
The Marquess of Willingdon
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1941–1965
Succeeded by:
Sir Robert Menzies
Preceded by:
Clement Attlee
Prime Minister
1951–1955
Succeeded by:
Sir Anthony Eden
Preceded by:
David Grenfell
Father of the House
1959–1964
Succeeded by:
Rab Butler


David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... Sydney Charles Buxton, 1st Earl Buxton was the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1914 to 1920. ... Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, GCB, GCMG, GBE (February 18, 1854 - March 6, 1930) was a British Liberal politician and statesman. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Reginald McKenna (1863-1943) was a Liberal British statesman. ... Reginald McKenna (1863-1943) was a Liberal British statesman. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison, KG, PC (19 June 1869 - 11 December British medical doctor and politician. ... The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, a British cabinet-level position, first applied to Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, (May 31, 1868 - May 6, 1938), was a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (1891-1908), Governor General of Canada (1916-1921), and Colonial Secretary (1922-1924). ... Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden (July 18, 1864 - May 15, 1937) was a British politician, and the first Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... The Right Honourable Gordon Brown, PC, MP, current Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the ancient title held by the British cabinet minister whose responsibilities are akin to the posts of Minister for Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other jurisdictions. ... Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden (July 18, 1864 - May 15, 1937) was a British politician, and the first Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... James Richard Stanhope, 13th Earl of Chesterfield and 7th Earl Stanhope (1880-1967) was a British politician in the late 1930s as The Earl Stanhope. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Albert Victor Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough, (1 May 1885 - 11 January British Labour and Co-operative politician. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Rt Hon Sir Stafford Cripps Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952), British Labour politician, was born in London, the son of a Conservative member of the House of Commons who late in life, as Lord Parmoor, joined the Labour Party. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... A defence minister (Commonwealth English) or defense minister (American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 - 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right in the United Kingdom. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... George Freeman Thomas later Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon of Ratton (September 12, 1866 - August 12, 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. ... Rt Hon Robert Menzies Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (20 December 1894 – 14 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG ( June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... There is also the designation of Father of the House of Lords The longest continuously serving member of certain national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, is customarily designated Father of the House. ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, familiarly known as Rab, (1902-1982) was a British politician, one of the few to have served in all three posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary. ...


 
 

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