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Encyclopedia > Sioux
Sioux

Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man, circa 1885
Total population

150,000+ [1][2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (846 × 1536 pixels, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... The Hunkpapas are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States of America (SD, MN, NE, MT, ND), Canada (MB, SK, AB)
Language(s)
English, Sioux
Religion(s)
Christianity (incl. syncretistic forms), Midewiwin
Related ethnic groups
Assiniboine, Stoney (Nakoda), and other Siouan peoples

The Sioux (pronounced /ˈsuː/) are a Native American and First Nations people. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on dialect and subculture: Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) is from the term for the Grand Medicine Society of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. ... Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890-1891. ... Mark Stoney is a British musician, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist. ... The Nakoda (also known as Stoney) are a First Nation group, indigenous to both Canada and the United States. ... Siouan is a family of related Native American languages in North America. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... The Great Sioux Nation is a general term sometimes applied to the Sioux generally or the Lakota specifically. ...

  • Isanti ("Knife," originating from the name of a lake in present-day Minnesota): residing in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota, and northern Iowa, and are often referred to as the Santee or Dakota.
  • Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana ("Village-at-the-end" and "little village-at-the-end"): residing in the Minnesota River area, they are considered to be the middle Sioux, and are often referred to as the Yankton or Nakota.
  • Teton or Tetonwan (uncertain, perhaps "Dwellers on the Prairie"): the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture, and are often referred to as the Lakota.

Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and also in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada. Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... The Dakotas is a collective term used in the United States to refer to the states of North and South Dakota together. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Mendota Bridge crossing the Minnesota River, just above its mouth View of the Minnesota River from Memorial Park; southeast of Granite Falls, MN. The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Contents

Oceti Sakowin

The historical Sioux referred to the Great Sioux Nation as the Oceti Sakowin (Očhéti Šakówį [oˈtʃʰetʰi ʃaˈkʰowĩ]), meaning "Seven Council Fires". Each fire was symbolic of an oyate (people or nation). The seven nations that comprise the Sioux are: Mdewakanton, Wahpetowan (Wahpeton), Wahpekute, Sissetowan (Sisseton), the Ihantowan (Yankton), Ihanktowana (Yanktonai), and the Teton (Lakota).[3] The Seven Council Fires would assemble each summer to hold council, renew kinships, decide tribal matters, and participate in the Sun Dance.[4] The seven divisions would select four leaders known as Wicasa Yatapicka from among the leaders of each division.[4] Being one of the four leaders was considered the highest honor for a leader; however, the annual gathering meant the majority of tribal administration was cared for by the usual leaders of each division. The last meeting of the Seven Council Fires was in 1850.[4] The Great Sioux Nation is a general term sometimes applied to the Sioux generally or the Lakota specifically. ... Mdewakantonwan are one of the sub-tribes of the Isanti (Santee) Sioux. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ...


Today the Teton, Isanti, or Ihantowan/Ihanktowana are usually known as either the Lakota, Dakota, or Nakota respectively.[3] In any of the three main dialects, "Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota" all translate to mean "friend," or more properly, "ally." Usage of Lakota, Dakota, or Nakota may then refer to the alliance that once bound the Great Sioux Nation together.


Political organization

The historical political organization was based on the participation of individuals and the cooperation of many to sustain the tribe’s way of life. Leaders were chosen based upon noble birth and demonstrations of bravery, fortitude, generosity, and wisdom.[4]


Political leaders were members of the Naca Ominicia society and decided matters of tribal hunts, camp movements, whether to make war or peace with their neighbors, or any other community action.[5] Societies were similar to fraternities; men joined to raise their position in the tribe. Societies were composed of smaller clans and varied in number among the seven divisions.[4] There were two types of societies: Akicita, for the younger men, and Naca, for elders and former leaders.[4] Look up fraternity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Akicita ("warrior") societies existed to train warriors, hunters, and to police the community.[5] There were many smaller Akicita societies, including the Kit-Fox, Strong Heart, Elk, and so on.[5]


Leaders in the Naca societies, per Naca Ominicia, were the tribal elders and leaders, who would elect seven to ten men, depending on the division, each referred to as Wicasa Itancan ("chief man"). Each Wicasa Itancan interpreted and enforced the decisions of the Naca.[5]


The Wicasa Itancan would elect two to four Shirt Wearers who were the voice of the society. They settled quarrels among families and also foreign nations.[4] Shirt Wearers were often young men from families with hereditary claims of leadership. However, men with obscure parents who displayed outstanding leaderships skills and had earned the respect of the community might also be elected. Crazy Horse is an example of a common-born "Shirt Wearer".[4] For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ...


A Wakincuza ("Pipe Holder") ranked below the "Shirt Wearers". The Pipe Holders regulated peace ceremonies, selected camp locations, and supervised the Akicita societies during buffalo hunts.[5]

Wahktageli ("Gallant Warrior" [1]), a Yankton Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Wahktageli ("Gallant Warrior" [1]), a Yankton Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Horse racing of the Sioux (Karl Bodmer)
Horse racing of the Sioux (Karl Bodmer)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3376x4755, 3613 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3376x4755, 3613 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Karl Bodmer, (February 6, 1809-October 30, 1893), was a Swiss painter of the American West. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3986x3344, 3148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3986x3344, 3148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Karl Bodmer, (February 6, 1809-October 30, 1893), was a Swiss painter of the American West. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3762x2960, 2685 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3762x2960, 2685 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sioux ... Karl Bodmer, (February 6, 1809-October 30, 1893), was a Swiss painter of the American West. ...

Name origins

The name "Sioux" is an abbreviated form of Nadouessioux borrowed into French Canadian from Nadoüessioüak from the early Odawa exonym: naadowesiwag "Sioux".[6] It was first used by Jean Nicolet in 1640.[3] The Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake (massasauga, Sistrurus).[7] This information was interpreted by some that the Ottawa borrowing was an insult. However, this Proto-Algonquian term most likely is ultimately was derived from a form *-a·towe·, meaning simply "speak foreign language",[6] which was later extended in meaning in some Algonquian languages to refer to the massasauga. Thus, contrary to many accounts, the old Odawa word naadowesiwag did not equate the Sioux with snakes. This is not confirmed though, since usage over the previous decades has led to this term having negative connotations to those tribes to which it refers. This would explain why many tribes have rejected this term when referring to themselves. French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... The Odawa language, Daawaamwin or Nishnaabemwin is a dialect of Anishinaabemowin spoken by the Odawa/Ottawa peoples. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Jean Nicolet (born 1598 - died November 1, 1642) was a French voyageur noted for exploring the Northwest Territory. ... Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the name given to the posited proto-language of the languages of the Algonquian family. ... The massasauga (Sistrurus catetanus) is a venomous rattlesnake of North America. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Binomial name Sistrurus catenatus Rafinesque, 1818 Sistrurus catenatus is a venomous rattlesnake species, commonly known as the massasauga. ...


Some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sicangu Oyate, and the Oglala often use the name Oglala Lakota Oyate, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. (The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper).[3]


Linguistics

The earlier linguistic 3-way division of the Dakotan branch of the Siouan family identified Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee and Yankton, Nakota = Yanktonai & Assiniboine. This classification was based in large part on each group's particular pronunciation of the autonym Dakhóta-Lakhóta-Nakhóta, meaning the Yankton-Yanktonai, Santee, and Teton groups all spoke mutually intelligible varieties of a Sioux idiom.[7] However, more recent study identifies Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages with Sioux being the third language that has three similar dialects: Teton, Santee-Sisseton, Yankton-Yanktonai. Furthermore, the Yankton-Yanktonai never referred to themselves using the pronunciation Nakhóta but rather pronounced it the same as the Santee (i.e. Dakhóta). (Assiniboine and Stoney speakers use the pronunciation Nakhóta or Nakhóda). Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages The Siouan (a. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890-1891. ...


The term Dakota has also been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc. This was mainly because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived supposedly meaning "snake."[4]


[[Media:Example.ogg--~~~~Insert non-formatted text here]]==Modern geographic divisions== The Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and also in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada. Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The earliest known European record of the Sioux was in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.[7] Furthermore, after the introduction of the horse, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the [[organshowalaBold text]] and the Powder River country.[5] The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ... Yellowstone River, Fishing Bridge, July 1959. ... Powder River may refer: The Powder River in Wyoming and Montana in the United States The Powder River in Oregon in the United States This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Isanti (Santee or Dakota)

The Isanti people migrated north and westward from the south and east into Ohio then to Minnesota. In the past, they were a woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and subsistence farming. Migrations of Anishinaabe/Chippewa (Ojibwa) people from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward, giving the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west of the Mississippi River and up to its headwaters.[7] For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


Ihanktonwan-Ihanktonwana (Nakota or Yankton-Yanktonai)

The Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana, or the Yankton (Ihanktowan: "End village") and Yanktonai (Ihanktowana: "Little end village") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two sub-groups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the lower Yanktonai (Hunkpatina).[7]


Economically, they were involved in quarrying pipestone. The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 18th century, they were recorded as living in the Mankato region of Minnesota.[8] Pipestone can refer to: Pipestone, Minnesota, a town in the state of Minnesota, USA. Pipestone County, Minnesota, the county in which the town of Pipestone is located. ... Mankato is an acoustic/vocal duo from Wheaton, IL. Influenced by talent such as Kepano Green, Dashboard Confessional, Damien Rice, Coldplay, Muse, Delirious, Ben Folds, and of course The Beatles. ...


Teton (Lakota)

The Sioux likely obtained horses sometime during the seventeenth century (although some historians date the arrival of horses in South Dakota to 1720). The Teton (Lakota) division of the Sioux emerged as a result of this introduction. Dominating the northern Great Plains with their light cavalry, the western Sioux quickly expanded their territory further to the Rocky Mountains (or Heska, "white mountains"). The Lakota once subsided on the buffalo hunt and corn-trade with the eastern Sioux and their linguistic cousins the Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri.[7] Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ...


Ethnic divisions

The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, and further branched into bands. The Yankton-Yanktonai, the smallest division, reside on the Yankton reservation in South Dakota and the Northern portion of Standing Rock Reservation. The Santee live on reservations, reserves, and communities in Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Canada. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. Today, many Sioux also live outside their reservations. Flag of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...

Womendress of the Sioux
Womendress of the Sioux
Baby sling of the Sioux
Baby sling of the Sioux
  • Santee division (Dakota)
    • Mdewakantonwan ("Spirit Lake Village")
      notable persons: Taoyateduta
    • Sisitonwan (Sisseton, uncertain, perhaps "Fishing Grounds Village")
    • Wahpekute ("Leaf Archers")
      notable persons: Inkpaduta
    • Wahpetonwan ("Leaf Village")
  • Yankton-Yanktonai division (Nakota)
    • Ihanktonwan (Yankton, "End Village")
    • Ihanktonwana (Yanktonai, "Little End Village")
      notable persons: Wanata, Chief War Eagle
    • Stone sub-division (Nakoda)

Mdewakantonwan are one of the sub-tribes of the Isanti (Santee) Sioux. ... Taoyateduta, known as Little Crow Taoyateduta (1810?–July 3, 1863) was a chief of the Mdewakanton Sioux tribe. ... Inkpaduta (variously translated as Red End, Red Cap, or Scarlet Point) (about 1797 – 1881 or 1882) was a war chief of the Santee Sioux during the 1857 Spirit Lake Massacre and the 1862 Dakota War against the United States Army in Minnesota and the Dakota Territory. ... Wanata, painted by Charles Bird King Wanata was a Yankton Sioux chief. ... War Eagle was born in Minnesota or Wisconsin in around 1785. ... Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890-1891. ... The Nakoda (also known as Stoney) are a First Nation group, indigenous to both Canada and the United States. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ... For the Irish poet, see Billy Mills (poet) William Billy Mills (born June 30, 1938) is the only American ever to win an Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 m run which he did at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. ... The Hunkpapas are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... The Sihasapa are a division of the Titonwan, or Teton, a Sioux tribe from the Tetons. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... Miniconjou are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota Sioux, who formerly inhabited an area from the Black Hills in South Dakota to the Platte River, with a present-day population in west-central South Dakota. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Touch the Clouds (Lakota: Mahpia Icahtagya), was a chief to the Minneconjou Teton Lakota. ... Part of indian genealogy tree (more informations at http://www. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Two Kettles was a sub division of the Lakota tribe of Native Americans. ...

Reserves and First Nations

Today, one half of all enrolled Sioux in the United States live off the reservation. Also, to be an enrolled member in any of the Sioux tribes in the United States, 1/4 degree is required.[9] This article is about Native Americans. ... Blood Quantum Laws is an umbrella term that describes legislation enacted to define membership in Native American groups. ...


In Canada, the Canadian government recognizes the tribal community as "First Nations." The land-holdings of the these First Nations are called "Reserves". First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ...


Modern Reservations, Reserves, and Communities of the Sioux

Reserve/Reservation Community Bands residing Location
Fort Peck Indian Reservation Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes Hunkpapa, Lower Yanktonai, Wahpekute, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Assiniboine (Canoe Paddler, Red Bottom) Montana, USA
Spirit Lake Reservation

(Formerly Devil's Lake Reservation) The Fort Peck Indian Reservation lies in northeastern Montana, USA. It is the homeland of the Assiniboine tribe of Native Americans. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Spirit Lake Tribe (In Santee Sioux: Mni Wakan Oyate, formerly Devils Lake Sioux) is a Sioux tribe and its reservation is located in east-central North Dakota on the northern shores of Devils Lake. ...

Spirit Lake Tribe

(Mni Wakan Oyate) The Spirit Lake Tribe (In Santee Sioux: Mni Wakan Oyate, formerly Devils Lake Sioux) is a Sioux tribe and its reservation is located in east-central North Dakota. ...

Wahpeton, Sisseton, Upper Yanktonai North Dakota, USA
Standing Rock Indian Reservation Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Upper Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfoot North Dakota, South Dakota USA
Lake Traverse Indian Reservation Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Sisseton, Wahpeton South Dakota, USA
Flandreau Indian Reservation Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton South Dakota, USA
Cheyenne River Indian Reservation Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Minneconjou, Blackfoot, Two Kettle, Sans Arc South Dakota, USA
Crow Creek Indian Reservation Crow Creek Sioux Tribe Lower Yanktonai South Dakota, USA
Lower Brule Indian Reservation Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Brulé South Dakota, USA
Yankton Sioux Indian Reservation Yankton Sioux Tribe Yankton South Dakota, USA
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation Oglala Sioux Tribe Oglala, few Brulé South Dakota, USA
Rosebud Indian Reservation Rosebud Sioux Tribe (also as Sicangu Lakota or Upper Brulé Sioux Nation)

(Sićangu Oyate) Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Flag of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Dakota and Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Lake Traverse Indian Reservation is the homeland of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate, a branch of the Sioux group of Native Americans. ... The Sisseton–Wahpeton Oyate are two combined bands and two sub-divisions of the Santee Dakota (Sioux) people located on the Lake Traverse Reservation in northeast South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Cheyenne River Indian Reservation was created in 1889 following the defeat of the Lakota in the Indian Wars of the 1870s. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Crow Creek Indian Reservation is located on the east bank of the Missouri River in central South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Lower Brulé Indian Reservaion is an Indian reservation that belongs to the Lower Brulé Sioux Tribe. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Oglala Sioux tribal flag Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Oyanke in Lakota) is an Oglala Sioux Native American reservation located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Rosebud Indian Reservation is home of the Sicangu Oyate, also known as the Sicangu Lakota, the Upper Brule Sioux Nation, and the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. ... The Rosebud Indian Reservation (RIR) is an Indian reservation in South Dakota, United States. ...

Sićangu, few Oglala South Dakota, USA
Upper Sioux Indian Reservation Upper Sioux Community

(Pejuhutazizi Oyate) Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Upper Sioux Indian Reservation is located along the Minnesota River in Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota five miles (8 km) south of Granite Falls. ...

Mdewakanton, Sisseton, Wahpeton Minnesota, USA
Lower Sioux Indian Reservation Lower Sioux Indian Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USA
Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation

(Formerly Prior Lake Indian Reservation) Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Lower Sioux Indian Reservation is located along the southern bank of the Minnesota River in Redwood County, Minnesota. ... The Lower Sioux Indian Reservation is located along the southern bank of the Minnesota River in Redwood County, Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation is located within the city of Prior Lake in Scott County, Minnesota, and was previously known as Prior Lake Indian Reservation until it was modified by the Indian Reorganization Act on November 28, 1969. ...

Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USA
Prairie Island Indian Community Prairie Island Indian Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USA
Mille Lacs Lake Indian Reservation Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe (Mille Lacs Indians, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Minnesota) Ojibwa, Mdewakanton Minnesota, USA
St. Croix Indian Reservation St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Ojibwa, Mdewakanton Wisconsin, USA
Santee Indian Reservation Santee Sioux Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Nebraska, USA
Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Sioux Valley First Nation Sisseton, Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute Manitoba, Canada
Dakota Plains Indian Reserve 6A Dakota Plains Wahpeton First Nation Wahpeton, Sisseton Manitoba, Canada
Dakota Tipi 1 Reserve Dakota Tipi First Nation Wahpeton Manitoba, Canada
Birdtail Creek 57 Reserve, Birdtail Hay Lands 57A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Birdtail Sioux First Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Yanktonai Manitoba, Canada
Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation Reserve, Oak Lake 59A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Canupawakpa Dakota Nation Wahpekute, Wahpeton, Yanktonai Manitoba, Canada
Standing Buffalo 78 Reserve Standing Buffalo Dakota First Nation Sisseton, Wahpeton Saskatchewan, Canada
Whitecap Reserve Whitecap Dakota First Nation Wahpeton, Sisseton Saskatchewan, Canada
Dakota Plains Wahpeton First Nation Wahpeton Saskatchewan, Canada
Wood Mountain 160 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Wood Mountain Hunkpapa Saskatchewan, Canada
Carry the Kettle Nakota First Nation Indian Reserves, Assiniboine 76 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Carry the Kettle First Nation Assiniboine Saskatchewan, Canada
Little Black Bear 84 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Little Black Bear Cree-Assiniboine First Nation Cree, Assiniboine Saskatchewan, Canada
Mosquito 109 Reserve, Grizzly Bear's Head 110 & Lean Man 111 Reserves, Mosquito, Grizzly Bear's Head, Lean Man Treaty Land Entitlement Indian Reserve 1, Golden Eagle Indian Reserve Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man First Nations (Mosquito, Grizzly Bear's Head, Lean Man) Assiniboine, Cree Saskatchewan, Canada
White Bear 70 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* White Bear First Nation Assiniboine, Cree, Ojibwa Saskatchewan, Canada
Stoney 142-143-144 Reserves, Stoney 142B Reserve, Big Horn 144A Reserve, Eden Valley 216 Reserve Bearpaw, Chiniki and Wesley Stoney Alberta, Canada

[3] Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Prairie Island Indian Community is a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in Goodhue County, Minnesota along the Mississippi River, near Red Wing. ... Prairie Island Indian Community is a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in Goodhue County, Minnesota along the Mississippi River, near Red Wing. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is home to the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe in Central Minnesota, about 100 miles (160 km) north of Minneapolis-St. ... Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is home to the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe in Central Minnesota, about 100 miles north of Minneapolis-St. ... The Mille Lacs Indians are a Band of Indians formed from the unification of the Mille Lacs Band of Mississippi Chippewa (Ojibwe) with the Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Sioux (Dakota). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Tribes Location St. ... Tribes Location St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Santee Indian Reservation a Dakota (Sioux) reservation located in northeast Nebraska along Lewis and Clark Lake and the Missouri River. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... History The North West Mountain Police were sent to the Wood Mountian area to establish the Queens Law in the frontier west of early Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...

* Reserves shared with other First Nations

History

Alliance with French fur merchants

Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants,[10] who were trying to gain advantage in the struggle for the North American fur trade against the English, who had recently established the Hudson's Bay Company. The Dakota were thus lured into the European economic system and the bloody inter-aboriginal warfare that stemmed from it. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ...


Dakota War of 1862

Main article: Dakota War of 1862
This drawing of the mass hanging in Mankato, Minnesota was long a familiar icon in Minnesota.
This drawing of the mass hanging in Mankato, Minnesota was long a familiar icon in Minnesota.

When 1862 arrived shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to tell them that they were 'free to eat grass or their own dung'. As a result, on August 17, 1862 the Dakota War began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer and most of his family, igniting further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The Santee then attacked the trading post, and Myrick was later found among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.[11] Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... Download high resolution version (1040x777, 99 KB)Public domain (copyright expired). ... Download high resolution version (1040x777, 99 KB)Public domain (copyright expired). ... “Mankato” redirects here. ... Andrew J. Myrick (died August 18, 1862), was a trader who operated a store in southwest Minnesota near the Minnesota River in the late part of his life. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Mendota Bridge crossing the Minnesota River, just above its mouth View of the Minnesota River from Memorial Park; southeast of Granite Falls, MN. The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ...


On November 5, 1862 in Minnesota, in courts-martial, 303 Santee Sioux were found guilty of rape and murder of hundreds of American settlers and were sentenced to be hanged. No attorneys or witness were allowed as a defense for the accused, and many were convicted in less than five minutes of court time with the judge.[12] President Abraham Lincoln remanded the death sentence of 284 of the warriors, signing off on the execution of 38 Santee men by hanging on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota, the largest mass-execution in U.S. history.[13] is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... “Mankato” redirects here. ...


Afterwards, annuities to the Dakota were suspended for four years and the monies were awarded to the white victims. The men who were pardoned by President Lincoln were sent to a prison in Iowa, where more than half died.[12]


During and after the revolt, many Santee and their kin fled Minnesota and Eastern Dakota to Canada, or settled in the James River Valley in a short-lived reservation before being forced to move to Crow Creek Reservation on the east bank of the Missouri.[12] A few joined the Yanktonai and moved further west to join with the Lakota bands to continue their struggle against the United States military.[12] The James River in North and South Dakota The James River (also known as the Jim River or the Dakota River) is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 710 mi (1,143 km) long, in the U.S. states of North Dakota and South Dakota. ...


Others were able to remain in Minnesota and the east, in small reservations existing into the 21st century, including Sisseton-Wahpeton, Flandreau, and Devils Lake (Spirit Lake or Fort Totten) Reservations in the Dakotas. Some ended up eventually in Nebraska, where the Santee Sioux Tribe today has a reservation on the south bank of the Missouri. Those who fled to Canada now have descendants residing on eight small Dakota Reserves, four of which are located in Manitoba (Sioux Valley, Long Plain [Dakota Tipi], Birdtail Creek, and Oak Lake [Pipestone]) and the remaining four (Standing Buffalo, Moose Woods [White Cap], Round Plain [Wahpeton], and Wood Mountain) in Saskatchewan. The Spirit Lake Tribe (In Santee Sioux: Mni Wakan Oyate, formerly Devils Lake Sioux) is a Sioux tribe and its reservation is located in east-central North Dakota. ... The Santee Indian Reservation a Dakota (Sioux) reservation located in northeast Nebraska along Lewis and Clark Lake and the Missouri River. ...


Red Cloud's War

Main article: Red Cloud's War

Red Cloud's War (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Shelburne Cats and the South Burlington Rebels. The war caused 500 deaths for SB and 2 for Shelburne because they sacrificed them.Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory and the Montana Territory from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the Powder River Country in north central Wyoming, which lay along the Bozeman Trail, a primary access route to the Montana gold fields. The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... Wyoming Territory was an organized territory of the United States that was existed from 1868 until its admission to the Union as the State of Wyoming in 1890. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ... The Powder River Country is depicted in red on a map of the western United States The Powder River Country refers to an area of the Great Plains in northeastern Wyoming in the United States. ... The Chicken Trail was an overland route connecting the Oregon Trail to the gold rush territory of Montana. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


The war is named after Red Cloud, a prominent chief of Oglala Sioux who led the war against the United States following encroachment into the area by the U.S. military. The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie, resulting in a complete victory for the Sioux and the temporary preservation of their control of the Powder River country.[14] Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ...


Black Hills War

Main article: Black Hills War

Between 1876 and 1877, the Black Hills War took place. The Lakota and their allies fought against the United States military in a series of conflicts. The earliest being the Battle of Powder River, and the final battle being at Wolf Mountain. Included are the Battle of the Rosebud, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Battle of Warbonnet Creek, Battle of Slim Buttes, Battle of Cedar Creek, and the Dull Knife Fight. The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Little Wolf Col. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Two Moons Nelson A. Miles Strength ~500 436 Casualties 3 dead unknown wounded 2 dead 7 wounded The Battle of Wolf Mountain (also known the Battle of the Wolf Mountains, Miless Battle on the Tongue River, and the... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 1,500 1,300 Casualties 36 dead 63 wounded 10-28 dead 21-56 wounded The Battle of the Rosebud (also known the Battle of the Rosebud Creek) occurred June 17, 1876, in the Montana Territory... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... Battle of Warbonnet Creek Conflict Black Hills War, Indian Wars Date July 17, 1876 Place Nebraska Result U.S. victory The Battle of Warbonnet Creek was at most a skirmish characterised by the duel between Buffalo Bill Cody and Yellow Hand and the battle is often referred to as the... Combatants Miniconjou Sioux Sans Arc Sioux United States Commanders American Horse Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 600-800 >1,000 Casualties 10 killed unknown number of wounded 23 captured 3 killed 13 wounded The Battle of Slim Buttes was fought on September 9–10, 1876, in the Dakota Territory between... Combatants Lakota United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Sitting Bull Nelson A. Miles Strength ~300 warriors 398 Casualties 5 dead unknown wounded 0 dead 2 wounded The Battle of Cedar Creek (also called Big Dry Creek or Big Dry River) occurred on October 21, 1876, in the Montana Territory between... Combatants Cheyenne United States Pawnee Commanders Dull Knife Little Wolf Ranald S. Mackenzie Strength 400 1,000 Casualties 40 killed ? wounded 6 killed 26 wounded The Dull Knife Fight was given its name from Chief Dull Knife, who led the Cheyenne warriors during the battle. ...


Wounded Knee Massacre

Main article: Wounded Knee Massacre
Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.
Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.

The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.[15] Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (1490 × 1079 pixel, file size: 368 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Burial of the dead after the massacre of Wounded Knee. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (1490 × 1079 pixel, file size: 368 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Burial of the dead after the massacre of Wounded Knee. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nelson Appleton Miles (August 8, 1839 – May 15, 1925) was an American soldier who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, and the Spanish-American War. ...


On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire), surrounded an encampment of the Lakota bands of the Miniconjou and Hunkpapa [16] with orders to escort them to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... The Hotchkiss gun can refer to different products of the Hotchkiss arms company starting in the late 1800s. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Omaha redirects here. ...


By the time it was over, 25 troopers and more than 150 Lakota Sioux lay dead, including men, women, and children. Some of the soldiers are believed to have been the victims of "friendly fire" because the shooting took place at point blank range in chaotic conditions.[17] Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, many of whom may have died from hypothermia. For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable...


Usage of the Ghost Dance reportedly instigated the massacre. For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


Forced relocation

Traditional location of Sioux tribes (dark green and prior to 1770) and their current reservations (orange)
Traditional location of Sioux tribes (dark green and prior to 1770) and their current reservations (orange)

Later in the 19th century, as the railroads hired hunters to exterminate the buffalo herds, their primary food supply, the Santee and Lakota were forced to accept white-defined reservations in exchange for the rest of their lands, and domestic cattle and corn in exchange for buffalo, becoming dependent upon annual federal payments guaranteed by treaty. In Minnesota, the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 left the Sioux with a reservation twenty miles (32 km) wide on each side of the Minnesota River. The Treaty of Traverse des Sioux was a treaty, signed on July 23, 1851, between the United States government and the Sioux Indians who lived in Minnesota at the time. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Wounded Knee incident

Main article: Wounded Knee incident

The Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized by followers of the American Indian Movement. The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while the U.S. Marshals Service laid siege. The Wounded Knee Incident began in February 1973, and represented the longest civil disorder in the history of the Marshals Service. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Wounded Knee (Lakhota Cankpe Opi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Shannon County, South Dakota, United States. ... AIM logo AIM flag The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States. ... The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States oldest federal law enforcement agency. ...


Republic of Lakotah

Main article: Republic of Lakotah

The Lakotah Freedom Delegation, a group of Native American activists, declared on December 19, 2007 the Lakotah were withdrawing from all treaties signed with the United States to regain sovereignty over their nation. One of the activists, Russell Means, claims that the action is legal and cites Natural, International and U.S. law.[18] The group consider Lakotah to be a sovereign nation, although as yet the state is generally unrecognized. The proposed borders reclaim thousands of square kilometres of North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska and Montana.[19] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Russell Means (born November 10, 1939) is one of contemporary Americas best-known and prolific activists for the rights of American Indians. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Several geo-political entitites in the world have no general international recognition, but they are de facto sovereign states. ...


Derived names

The U.S. states of North Dakota and South Dakota are named for the Sioux. The name for Minnesota originated as the name of a river in the heart of Isanti territory: Mnisota (mni translates to "water" and sota means "hazy or smoky").


Several Midwestern municipalities utilize Sioux in their names, including Sioux City, Iowa, Sioux Center, Iowa, and Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Midwestern rivers include the Little Sioux River in Iowa and Big Sioux River along the Iowa/South Dakota border. This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Sioux City (pronounced ) is a city located in northwest Iowa in the United States. ... Sioux Center is a city in Sioux County, Iowa, United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Gateway to the Plains Location in Minnehaha County and the state of South Dakota Counties (metropolitan area) Government  - Mayor Dave Munson Area  - City 178. ... The Little Sioux is a river in the United States. ... The Big Sioux River is a tributary of the Missouri River in the upper Midwest of the United States. ...


Many smaller towns and geographic features in the northern Great Plains retain their Sioux names (some are heavily Anglicized) or English translations of those names. These are: Wasta (from "Waste" meaning "good"), Owanka, Oacoma, Rapid City (Mne luza: "cataract" or "rapids"), Sioux Falls/Minnehaha County (Mne haha: "waterfall"), Inyan Kara, Sisseton (derived from the orgiinal tribal name "Sissetowan"), Winona ("first daughter"), etc. For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Rapid City is a city located in the western part of South Dakota and is second largest city in the state of South Dakota after Sioux Falls. ... Photo of the waterfall in Sioux Falls Sioux Falls is the largest city located in South Dakota. ... Minnehaha County is a county located in the state of South Dakota. ...


Frontwoman Siouxsie Sioux of the postpunk band Siouxsie and the Banshees also derived her stage name from the "Sioux." Susan Janet Ballion (born May 27, 1957 in Bromley, London), better known by her stage name, Siouxsie Sioux (IPA: , pronounced the same way as Susie Sue), is the lead singer of both the influential rock band Siouxsie & the Banshees and of its splinter group The Creatures. ... ... Siouxsie and the Banshees are a British gothic rock band. ...


The University of North Dakota's athletic team is known as the "Fighting Sioux." While there is a local desire to retain the mascot, numerous Sioux tribes have issued resolutions asking the university to abolish it.[20][21] The University of North Dakota (UND) is a comprehensive, public university in Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA. UND is the largest and oldest university in the state of North Dakota. ... Logo of the North Dakota Fighting Sioux The North Dakota Fighting Sioux is the name of the athletic teams of the University of North Dakota (UND) which is located in the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota, in the United States. ...


Derived names from other Siouan languages

The name Nebraska comes from the related Chiwere language of the Siouan language family. Furthermore, the names of the states Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri derive from the names of other tribes within the Siouan language family: Kansa, Iowa, and Missouri, respectively. The names of the cities of Omaha, Nebraska and Ponca City, Oklahoma also derive from the Omaha and Ponca tribes. The names vividly demonstrate the wide dispersion of the Siouan language family across the Midwestern United States. Though they are considered part of the Siouan language family, none of these tribes or their languages are considered Sioux. Chiwere (also called Iowa-Otoe-Missouria) is a Siouan language originally spoken by the Missouria, Otoe, and Ioway peoples in Northeast Kansas and parts of Missouri and Nebraska. ... Omaha redirects here. ... Ponca City is a city located in Oklahoma. ... The Omaha tribe began as a larger woodland tribe comprised of both the Omaha and Quapaw tribes. ... The Ponca are a Native American tribe originally living around the mouth of the [[Niobrara River],] Nebraska, but was later removed to the Indian Territory. ...


Media

  • Sioux buffalo dance, 1894

    Video clip of a dance performed by a Sioux tribe from Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. This is part of a group of films constituting the first appearance of Native Americans in motion pictures. (3.23 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Sioux buffalo dance, 1894. ... Sioux buffalo dance, 1894. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • "Elegy to the Sioux," a poem by Norman Dubie
  • The mini-series Into the West depicts the Sioux, specifically the Lakota, during some of first ventures of the "White Man" into the great plains and to the Rocky Mountains.

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is a 2007 television film adapted from the book of the same name by Dee Brown. ... Dances with Wolves is a 1990 epic film which tells the story of a United States cavalry officer from the Civil War who travels into the Dakota Territory, near a Sioux tribe. ... Thunderheart (1992) is a crime movie directed by Michael Apted with Fred Ward ,Val Kilmer and Graham Greene. ... Into the West may refer to: Into the West (film) - a 1992 film. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ...

Famous Sioux

Historical

Taoyateduta, known as Little Crow Taoyateduta (1810?–July 3, 1863) was a chief of the Mdewakanton Sioux tribe. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses holding a cane and fan in a photograph taken in 1884 Young-Man-Afraid-Of-His-Horses [Tasunkakokipapi] (1830-1900), also translated as His-Horses-Are-Afraid and They-Fear-Even-His-Horses, was a chief of the Oglala Sioux. ... Ishtakhaba was a Lakota chief who lived in the 19th century. ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ... Black Elk Speaks is an autobiography of an Oglala Sioux written by John Neihardt. ... Lame Deer is a census-designated place located in Rosebud County, Montana. ... Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman (Sioux: Ohiyesa, February 19, 1858 - January 8, 1939) was a Native American author, physician and reformer. ... Colonel Gregory Pappy Boyington, USMC, (December 4, 1912 - January 11, 1988) was an American fighter ace who flew with the American Volunteer Group in China and later was the Commanding Officer of the VMF-214 (The Black Sheep Squadron) during World War II. He also became a prisoner of war... Big Eagle. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ...

Contemporary

Robert Tree Cody Robert Tree Cody (b. ... Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (born 1930) is a Crow Creek Lakota Sioux novelist, poet and academic, whose trenchant views on Native American politics, particularly tribal sovereignty, have caused controversy. ... Mary Crow Dog on the cover of her book Lakota Woman (ISBN 3-423-36104-2) Mary Crow Dog, also known as Mary Brave Bird (born 1953 on the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota), is a Native American writer and activist. ... Vine Deloria, Jr. ... The Native American blues-rock group Indigenous consists of two brothers, Mato Nanji (vocals and guitar, b. ... Jean-Baptiste Illinois Jacquet (October 31, 1922 - July 22, 2004) was a jazz tenor saxophonist most famous for his solo on Flying Home. He is better known simply as Illinois Jacquet. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A saxophonist is a musician who plays the saxophone. ... Russell Means (born November 10, 1939) is one of contemporary Americas best-known and prolific activists for the rights of American Indians. ... For the Irish poet, see Billy Mills (poet) William Billy Mills (born June 30, 1938) is the only American ever to win an Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 m run which he did at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. ... For long track speedskating, see Speed skating. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... Athletics at the 1964 Summer Olympics was composed of 36 events, 24 for men and 12 for women. ... Michael Spears is an American actor, born December 28, 1977 of parents who were Native Americans. ... Bruce Williams and Terry Ree, often billed as The Indian and the White Guy, are a pair of American comedians. ... John Trudell (born February 15, 1946 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an American author, a poet, musician and a former political activist. ... Max Gail & Floyd Red Crow Westerman on set of the feature film Tillamook Treasure Floyd Red Crow Westerman, born in 1936, is a Dakota musician, activist and actor born on the Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakota Sioux reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota. ... Leonard Peltier (born September 12, 1944) is a Native American activist and member of the American Indian Movement. ...

Notes

  1. ^ United States Census Data. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  2. ^ Ethnologue Report for Lakota. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  3. ^ a b c d e Johnson, Michael (2000). The Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Osprey Publishing Oxford. ISBN 185532878X. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hassrick, Royal B.; Dorothy Maxwell, Cile M. Bach (1964). The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-0607-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mails, Thomas E. (1973). Dog Soldiers, Bear Men, and Buffalo Women: A Study of the Societies and Cults of the Plains Indians. Prentice-Hall, Inc.. ISBN 013-217216-X. 
  6. ^ a b Sioux. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Riggs, Stephen R. (1893). Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. Washington Government Printing Office, Ross & Haines, Inc.. ISBN 0-87018-052-5. 
  8. ^ OneRoad, Amos E.; Alanson Skinner (2003). Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton. Minnesota Historical Society. ISBN 0-87351-453-X. 
  9. ^ Enrollment Ordinance. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  10. ^ van Houten, Gerry (1991). Corporate Canada An Historical Outline. Progress Books, 6-7. 
  11. ^ Mark, Steil; Tim Post. "m/part2.shtml Let them eat grass", Minnesota Public Radio, 2002-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  12. ^ a b c d Time-Life Books (1994). War for the Plains. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-9445-0. 
  13. ^ Mark, Steil; Tim Post. "m/part5.shtml Execution and expulsion", Minnesota Public Radio, 2002-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  14. ^ *Brown, Dee (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, ch. 6. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-5531-1979-6. 
  15. ^ Letter: General Nelson A. Miles to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 13, 1917.
  16. ^ Liggett, Lorie (1998). Wounded Knee Massacre - An Introduction. Bowling Green State University. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
  17. ^ Strom, Karen (1995). The Massacre at Wounded Knee. Karen Strom.
  18. ^ Descendants of Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse break away from US, Agence France-Presse news
  19. ^ Bill Harlan. "Lakota group secedes from U.S.", Rapid City Journal, 21 December 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  20. ^ "North Dakota to appeal ruling on Sioux mascot", 2005-09-25. Retrieved on 2007-08-18. 
  21. ^ Tribal Resolutions and other Resolutions asking for the removal of the "Fighting Sioux" moniker and name. Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  22. ^ Upham, Warren (2001). Minnesota Place Names, A Geographical Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, pp. 75. ISBN 0-87351-396-7. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dictionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Warren Upham (b. ...

References

  • Albers, Patricia C. (2001). Santee. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 761-776). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.
  • Christafferson, Dennis M. (2001). Sioux, 1930-2000. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 821-839). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Cox, Hank H. (2005). Lincoln and the Sioux Uprising of 1862. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House. ISBN 1-58182-457-2.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J. (2001a). Sioux until 1850. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 718-760). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J. (2001b). Teton. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 794-820). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J. (2001c). Yankton and Yanktonai. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 777-793). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J.; & Miller, David R. (2001). Assiniboine. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 572-595). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Getty, Ian A. L.; & Gooding, Erik D. (2001). Stoney. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 596-603). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Hein, David (Advent 2002). "Episcopalianism among the Lakota / Dakota Indians of South Dakota." The Historiographer, vol. 40, pp. 14-16. [The Historiographer is a publication of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church and the National Episcopal Historians and Archivists.]
  • Hein, David (1997). "Christianity and Traditional Lakota / Dakota Spirituality: A Jamesian Interpretation." The McNeese Review, vol. 35, pp. 128-38.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Sullivan, Maurice S.: "Jedediah Smith, Trader and Trail Breaker", New York Press of the Pioneers (1936) contains 'politically incorrect' white man's terminology and stereotypical attitudes toward the 'Indians'.
  • Robert M. Utley, "The Last Days of the Sioux Nation" (Yale University, 1963) ISBN 0-300-00245-9
  • Ullrich, Jan. New Lakota Dictionary. (Lakota Language Consortium). ISBN 0-9761082-9-1. Available at http://www.lakhota.org/html/DictionaryPrint.html

Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ... Holt, Rinehart and Winston, sometimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sioux - definition of Sioux in Encyclopedia (731 words)
The Lakota came from the western Dakota of Minnesota who, after the adoption of the horse, tashunka wakan ('holy dog'), became part of the Great Plains Culture with their Minnesota Algonkin-speaking allies, the Tsitsistas (Cheyenne), living in the northern Great Plains, which centered on the buffalo hunt with the horse.
The name Sioux was created by the Canadian French, who abbreviated the Algonquin compound Nadouéssioux (from nadowe ("Iroquois") plus siu ("snake"/the massasauga rattler)), by which a neighboring Ojibwa tribe, or the Ottawa, referred to the Dakota to the west and south.
The Sioux Nation consists of divisions, each of which may have distinct bands, the larger of which are divided into sub-bands.
MSN Encarta - Sioux (1094 words)
A fourth branch is the Yanktonai Sioux, composed of the Yanktonai, Hunkpatina, and Assiniboine bands (the Assiniboine separated from the other bands, probably in the 1600s, and assumed a distinct identity).
In 1837 the Sioux sold all their territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States; additional territory was sold in 1851.
The Sioux have been active in the modern Native American civil rights movement, seeking restoration of their land base and the institution of a modernized form of traditional life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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