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Encyclopedia > Siouan languages
Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages

The Siouan (a.k.a. Siouan proper, Western Siouan) languages are a Native American language family of North America. The Siouan family is related to the Catawban family, together making up the Siouan-Catawban family. Some authors use the term Siouan to refer to the Siouan-Catawban family and the term Siouan proper to refer to the Siouan family. Image File history File links Siouan_langs. ... Image File history File links Siouan_langs. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... North American redirects here. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Catawban languages The Catawban (also Eastern Siouan) languages form a small language family in east North America. ... Siouan-Catawban is a language family of North America. ...


While the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota comprise "the Great Sioux Nation", the language family is much broader and includes "the old speakers", the Ho-Chunk and their linguistic cousins, the Crow. The Siouan family also extends back East and down South. Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Look up Dakota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Lakota (friends or allies, sometimes also spelled Lakhota) are a Native American tribe, also known as the Sioux (see Names). ... The Great Sioux Nation is a general term sometimes applied to the Sioux generally or the Lakota specifically. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... Crow indians (Karl Bodmer) The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone River valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ...


While social migrations have yet to be definitively worked out, linguistic and historical sittings indicate a southern origin of Siouan people, with migrations over a thousand years ago from North Carolina and Virginia to Ohio, then both down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and up to the Missouri, and across Ohio to Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, home of the Dakota. Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Look up Dakota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Family division

The Siouan family consists of 17 languages with various sub-languages:


I. Missouri River Siouan (a.k.a. Crow-Hidatsa)

1. Crow (a.k.a. Absaroka, Apsaroka, Apsaalooke, Upsaroka)
2. Hidatsa (a.k.a. Gros Ventre, Minitari, Minnetaree)

II. Mandan Siouan The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Absáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, and the current chairman of the tribal council is Carl Venne. ... Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprised of a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas. ...

3. Mandan
a. Nuptare
b. Neutare

III. Mississippi Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Central Siouan) why did u chanage it |name=Mandan |states=United States |region=Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota |speakers=6 |familycolor=American |fam1=Siouan-Catawban |fam2=Siouan |iso2=sio||iso3=mhq}} Mandan is an endangered Siouan language. ...

A. Dakotan (a.k.a. Sioux-Assiniboine-Stoney)
4. Sioux
a. Santee-Sisseton (a.k.a. Santee, Eastern Sioux, Dakota)
i. Santee
ii. Sisseton
b. Yankton-Yanktonai (a.k.a. Yankton, Central Sioux, Dakota)
i. Yankton
ii. Yanktonai
c. Teton (a.k.a. Lakhota, Lakota, Western Sioux)
i. Northern Teton
ii. Southern Teton
5. Assiniboine (a.k.a. Assiniboin)
6. Stoney (a.k.a. Alberta Assiniboine)
B. Chiwere-Winnebago (a.k.a. Chiwere)
7. Chiwere (a.k.a. Ioway-Otoe-Missouria, Ioway-Otoe)
a. Iowa (a.k.a. Ioway)
b. Otoe (a.k.a. Oto, Jiwere)
c. Missouria (a.k.a. Missouri)
8. Winnebago (a.k.a. Hocák, Hochunk, Hochank, Hocangara, Hotcangara, Hochangara)
C. Dhegiha (a.k.a. Dhegihan)
9. Omaha-Ponca
a. Omaha
b. Ponca (a.k.a. Ponka)
10. Kansa-Osage
a. Kansa (a.k.a. Kanza, Kaw) (†)
b. Osage
11. Quapaw (a.k.a. Kwapa, Kwapaw, Arkansas) (†)

IV. Ohio Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Southeastern Siouan) Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Sisseton is a city located in Roberts County, South Dakota. ... The Sioux (also Dakota) are a Native American tribe. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... The Assiniboine language (also Assiniboin, Hohe, or Nakoda) is a Dakotan Siouan language of the Northern Plains, spoken by around 200 Assiniboine people, most of them elderly. ... The Nakoda (also known as Stoney) are a First Nation group, indigenous to both Canada and the United States. ... Chiwere (also called Iowa-Otoe-Missouria) is a Siouan language originally spoken by the Missouria, Otoe, and Ioway peoples in Northeast Kansas and parts of Missouri and Nebraska. ... The Iowa (also spelled Ioway) are a Native American people. ... The Otoe or Oto are a Native American people. ... The Missouri or Missouria were an aboriginal tribe that inhabited parts of the midwestern United States before European explorers arrived. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... The Omaha tribe is a Native American tribe that currently reside in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. ... The Kaw (or Kanza ) are an American Indian people of the central Midwestern United States. ... The Osage are American Indian People of the central Midwest. ... The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas. ...

A. Virginia Siouan
12. Tutelo
13. Saponi (a.k.a. Saponey) (†)
14. Moniton (a.k.a. Monacan) (†)
15. Occaneechi
B. Mississippi Siouan (a.k.a. Ofo-Biloxi) (†)
16. Biloxi (†)
17. Ofo (a.k.a. Ofogoula) (†)

(†) - Extinct language TUTELO is a name classification referring to Indians who historically resided from the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia down to the valleys of the Mayo and Dan Rivers in North Carolina. ... Saponi is the name of one of the eastern Siouan tribes, related to the Tutelo, Occaneechi, Monacan and other eastern Siouan peoples, whose original homeland is in North Carolina and Virginia. ... The Monacan are an Indian tribe in Virginia, located in Amherst County, Virginia near Lynchburg, Virginia. ... The Occaneechi are Native Americans related to the Saponi, Tutelo, Monacan, and other eastern Siouan peoples living in the Piedmont region of present-day North Carolina and Virginia. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


Another view of both the Dakotan and Mississippi Valley branches is to represent them as dialect continuums. Notice: This article does not have information about the Virginia Souian group. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


Genetic relations

Some linguists associate Siouan languages with Caddoan and Iroquoian languages in a Macro-Siouan language family. The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Macro-Siouan languages are a proposed language family that includes the Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan languages. ...


See also

  • Siouan-Catawban languages

Siouan-Catawban is a language family of North America. ...

Bibliography

  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.

External links


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