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Encyclopedia > Sinology

Sinology is the study of China, and things related to China, using a combination of Western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. Some would date its origins as far back as Marco Polo in the 13th century. The systematic study of China began in the 16th century, when missionaries, notably Matteo Ricci, introduced Christianity to China. Early sinological research often concentrated on the compatibility of Christianity with Chinese culture. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer (presumably of noble origins from Sebenico and Curzola in Dalmatia) who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (Macerata, October 6, 1552 - Peking, May 11, 1610) (Chinese: 利瑪竇; pinyin: Lì Mǎdòu) was an Italian Jesuit priest whose missionary activity in China during the Ming Dynasty marked the beginning of modern Chinese Christianity. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


During the Age of Enlightenment, sinologists started to introduce Chinese philosophy, ethics, legal system, and aesthetics into the West. Though often unscientific and incomplete, their works inspired the development of Chinoiserie and a series of debates comparing Chinese and Western cultures. At that time, sinologists often described China as an enlightened kingdom, comparing it to Europe, which had just emerged from the Dark Ages. Among those interested in China was Voltaire, who wrote the play L'orphelin de la Chine, inspired by the Orphan of Zhao. The Age of Enlightenment refers to either the eighteenth century in European philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... Chinoiserie refers to an artistic style which reflects Chinese influence and is characterized through the use of elaborate decoration and intricate patterns. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. ... The Orphan of Zhao, or Orphan of the House Tcho (趙氏孤兒) is a Chinese play of the Yuan Dynasty, attributed to someone named Ji Junxiang (紀君祥), about whom almost nothing is known. ...


In 1814, a chair of Chinese and Manchu was founded at Collège de France - Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat, who taught himself Chinese, became the first Professor of Chinese in Europe. Abel-Rémusat's counterpart in England and Germany were Samuel Kidd (1797–1843) and Hans Georg Conon von der Gabelentz respectively. Secular scholars gradually came to outnumber missionaries, and in the 20th century sinology slowly gained a substantial presence in Western universities. In modern history, sinology has seen its influence in politics, due to its role in think tanks. The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Cover of Iu-kiao-li, ou les deux cousines Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (September 5, 1788 - June 4, 1832) was a French sinologist. ... Westerners did not take up the study of the Chinese language until the 16th century. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Hans Conon von der Gabelentz (March 16, 1807, Poschwitz near Altenburg - December 11, 1874, Lemnitz) was a noted German philologist and sinologist, as well as famed hyperpolyglot. ... This article is about the institution. ...


Etymology

Sino, derived from sina, possibly refers to the Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty to unite China. It may also refer to the Sinites, a Canaanite tribe mentioned in the Tanakh, particularly the Book of Genesis. Early missionaries to China speculated that the modern Chinese be the descendants of this tribe, whom they believed brought to China a primitive monotheism (the worship of heaven or Tian 天). The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...


In China, sinology is known as 國學/国学 (Guóxué, "National Studies"). It is called 支那学 (shinagaku "China Studies") or 漢学 (kangaku "Han Studies") in Japanese.


Sinologists

See List of Sinologists A list of Sinologists around the world, past and present. ...


Further reading

  • Honey, David B. Incense at the Altar: Pioneering Sinologists and the Development of Classical Chinese Philology. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 2001. (See also E.G.Pulleyblank's important review of this book.)
  • "The Politics of Permission: Sources and Interpretations In the Scholarship on the Early Years of the PRC" (Brent Haas) at Studies of Modern Chinese History: Reviews and Historiographical Essays (University of California, San Diego, USA).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sinology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (451 words)
Sinology is the study of China using a combination of western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, other missionaries such as James Legge (1815–1897) pushed for the establishment of sinology as a discipline in western universities.
Secular scholars gradually came to outnumber missionaries, and in the 20th century sinology slowly gained a substantial presence in Western universities.
The Victorian Translation of China: INTRODUCTION (3998 words)
Professional sinology, or sinological Orientalism, was in this way a largely peripheral discourse within the newly emerging academic salons of international Orientalism in the nineteenth century, disciplinary organizations best exemplified by the tradition of regular scholarly congresses that, beginning in Paris in 1873, met in the great imperial capitals of the Western world.
Sinology and comparative religions may well be the two most peculiar, and orphaned, offspring of the human sciences in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Moreover, the tense relationship of missionary tradition with Orientalistic disciplines such as sinology and the rise of sympathetic, impartial, or comparative approaches to the study of non-Christian religion and civilization is a sorely neglected aspect of this history.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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