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Encyclopedia > Sinocentrism
The "Sinocentric World": The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). Areas using only Chinese characters in green; in conjunction with other scripts, dark green; maximum extent of historic usage, light green.
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The "Sinocentric World": The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). Areas using only Chinese characters in green; in conjunction with other scripts, dark green; maximum extent of historic usage, light green.

Sinocentrism is any ethnocentric perspective that regards China to be central or unique relative to other countries. In pre-modern times, this took the form of viewing China as the only civilization in the world, and foreign nations or ethnic groups as barbarians. In modern times, this can take the form of according China unwarranted significance or supremacy at the cost of other nations in East Asia or elsewhere in the world. Image File history File links 800px-Map-Chinese_Characters. ... Image File history File links 800px-Map-Chinese_Characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Ethnocentricity is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own ethnic culture. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ...


Critics of this theory allege that "Sinocentrism" is a poorly construed portrayal of China designed to incite anti-Chinese sentiment. According to this view, China has been generally passive throughout its history: with rare exceptions, China is said never to have made any forceful attempts to invade or colonize other nations. China's territorial expansion is attributed to ethnic groups such as the Mongols and Manchus, not the Han Chinese. However, in modern times, such ethnic groups are now regarded as equally part of the Chinese nation in the People's Republic of China, under the pluralistic Zhonghua Minzu ideology. Anti-Chinese sentiment is a consistent hostility toward the government, culture, history, or people of China, particularly Peoples Republic of China. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions- in other words, a civic nationality as opposed to an ethnic one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole. ...


Similarly, China is said not to have forced other civilizations to conform to its standards. Many of its neighbors - Korea and Japan included - willingly emulated China during these ancient times because they recognized elements of Chinese civilization as being worthy of emulation. Many foreign scholars - such as the Koreans who invented metal movable type - were given equal honors in Chinese courts. Marco Polo and the early Jesuits were treated with a great deal of respect and admiration for their skills despite having different personal beliefs. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254, Venice, Italy; or Curzola, Venetian Dalmatia - now Korčula, Croatia — January 8, 1324, Venice) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Doubts have also been expressed about the use of "Sinocentrism" as a catch-all term for explaining China's interactions with the rest of the world. Subjective mentalities explain less than the realities of the Chinese strategic situation, in particular its need to control and defend its frontiers and deal with surrounding territories. What some have regarded as a sense of cultural and moral superiority was often merely an attempt to limit and control contact between foreigners and Chinese. For instance, the Qing Emperors tended to mistrust the loyalty of their Chinese subjects and their exclusionary policy against the Europeans was probably motivated by fear that the latter might cause problems among their subjects. As in any country, Chinese foreign policy should be seen within the context of domestic political imperatives.

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Related concepts

Sinocentrism, unlike Han chauvinism, does not necessarily have a racial basis in Han Chinese ethnicity. Successive peoples from the north, such as the Xianbei, Jurchens, or Manchus, were quite ready to place themselves at the center of the model, although they were not always successful. The Xianbei empires during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, for example, regarded the Han Chinese regimes of southern China as "barbarians" because they refused to submit to Xianbei rule. Similarly, the Manchu Qing Dynasty regarded the initial wave of European incursions during the mid-19th century as "barbarians". Han chauvinism (大汉族主义, 大汉沙文主义) or Hanism (汉本位) is a term which is used in the China, Taiwan, and Japan, referring to people carrying ethnocentric viewpoints that favor the Han Chinese majority ethnic group in China at the expense of the other minority ethnic groups, often under the assumption of cultural or racial superiority. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... This article is about China. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the...


Sinocentrism is also not synonymous with Chinese nationalism. The successive dynasties of China were Sinocentric in the sense that they regarded Chinese civilization to be universal in its reach and application. Nationalism, in contrast, is a more modern concept focused primarily on the idea of a unified, cohesive, and powerful Chinese nation, as one of the nations of the world. Inasmuch as Chinese nationalism involves heavy doses of 'ethnic pride', it may incorporate Sinocentric sentiments. The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation...


The Sinocentric system

The Sinocentric system was a hierarchical system of international relations that prevailed in East Asia before the adoption of the Westphalian system in modern times. Geographic scope of East Asia East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the...


At the center of the system stood China, ruled by the dynasty that had gained the Mandate of Heaven. This 'Celestial Empire' (神州 shénzhōu), distinguished by its Confucian codes of morality and propriety, regarded itself as the only civilization in the world; the Emperor of China (huangdi) was regarded as the only legitimate Emperor of the entire world (lands 'under heaven' or 天下 tianxia). The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pinyin: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Shang Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... All under heaven (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: tiān xi ) is a concept in Chinese history. ...


Identification of the heartland and the legitimacy of dynastic succession were both essential aspects of the system. Originally the center was synonymous with the Central Plain, an area that was expanded through invasion and conquest over many centuries. The dynastic succession was at times subject to radical changes in interpretation, such as the period of the Southern Song when the ruling dynasty lost the traditional heartland to the northern barbarians. The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; pinyin: ) also called the Middle Plain (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: ), is made of the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ...


Outside the center were several concentric circles. Local ethnic minorities were not regarded as 'foreign countries' but were governed by their own leaders (土司 tusi), subject to recognition by the Emperor, and were exempt from the Chinese bureaucratic system.


Outside this circle were the tributary states which offered tribute (朝貢) to the Chinese Emperor and over which China exercised suzerainty. Under the Ming, when the tribute system entered its heyday, these states were classified into a number of groups. The southeastern barbarians (category one) included some of the major states of East and Southeast Asia, such as Korea, Japan, the Ryukyu Kingdom, Annam, Cambodia, Siam, Champa, and Java. A second group of southeastern barbarians covered countries like Sulu, Malacca, and Sri Lanka. Many of these are independent states in modern times. In addition, there were northern barbarians, northeastern barbarians, and two large categories of western barbarians (from Shanxi, west of Lanzhou, and modern-day Xinjiang), none of which have survived into modern times as separate states. A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... Korea (한국, Hanguk, or ì¡°ì„ , Choseon) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The Ryukyu Kingdom was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Rough location of Champas core territories. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sulu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ...


The system was complicated by the fact that some tributary states had their own tributaries. Laos was a tributary of Vietnam and the Ryukyu Kingdom paid tribute to both Japan and China.


Beyond the circle of tributary states were countries in a trading relationship with China. The Portuguese, for instance, were allowed to trade with China from leased territory in Macau but never entered the tributary system.


Under this scheme of international relations, only China had an Emperor or 'huangdi' (皇帝), who was the Son of Heaven; other countries only had Kings or 'wang' (王). (See Chinese sovereign). The Japanese use of the term Emperor or 'tennō' (天皇) for the ruler of Japan was a subversion of this principle. Significantly, the Koreans still refer to the Japanese Emperor as a King, conforming with the traditional Chinese usage. The king or wang (王 wáng) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... His Majesty Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇 tennō) is a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ...


While Sinocentrism tends to be identified as a politically inspired system of international relations, in fact it possessed an important economic aspect. The Sinocentric tribute and trade system provided Northeast and Southeast Asia with a political and economic framework for international trade. Under the tribute-trade system, articles of tribute (貢物) were presented to the Chinese emperor. In exchange, the emperor presented the tributary missions with return bestowals (回賜). Special licences were issued to merchants accompanying these missions to carry out trade. Trade was also permitted at land frontiers and specified ports. This sinocentric trade zone was based on the use of silver as a currency with prices set by reference to Chinese prices.


The political aspect of this system is that countries wishing to trade with China were required to submit to a suzerain-vassal relationship with the Chinese sovereign. After investiture (冊封) of the ruler, the emperor permitted missions to China to pay tribute.


The Sinocentric model was not seriously challenged until contact with the European powers in the 18th and 19th century, in particular the Opium War. This was mainly due to the fact that China did not come into direct contact with any of the major empires of the pre-modern period. For example, trade and diplomatic contact with the Roman Empire, and later, the Eastern Roman Empire, was usually via proxies in the form of Persians. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to some dispute as to Europes actual borders. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


Response of other countries

Within Asia, the cultural and economic centrality of China was recognized and most countries submitted to the sinocentric model, if only to enjoy the benefits of a trading relationship. However, clear differences of nuance can be discerned in the responses of different countries.


Japan

In Japan, an ambivalent tone was set early in its relationship with China. Shotoku Taishi (574-622), Prince Regent of Japan, is famous for having sent a letter to the Emperor of China starting with the words: "The Emperor of the land where the sun rises sends a letter to the Emperor of the land where the sun sets to ask if you are healthy?" (日出處天子致書日沒處天子無恙云云). This is commonly believed as the origin of the name Nippon (source of the sun), although the actual characters for Nippon (日本) were not used. Not long after this, however, Japan remodeled its entire state and administrative apparatus on the Chinese system under the Taika Reforms, the beginning of a prolonged period of Chinese influence on all aspects of Japanese culture. Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ... ...


In 1401, during the Muromachi period (室町時代), the shogun Yoshimitsu (足利義満) restarted the lapsed tribute system, describing himself in a letter to the Chinese Emperor as "Your subject, the King of Japan". The benefit of the tribute system was a profitable trade in which Japanese products were traded for Chinese goods. However, the system lasted less than ten years. The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... Kinkaku, the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji, originated as the villa of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. ...


Earlier in the same era, the Mongol invasions in the late thirteenth century had evoked a national consciousness of the role of the kamikaze (神風) in defeating the enemy. Less than fifty years later (1339-43), Kitabatake Chikafusa wrote the Jinnōshōtōki (神皇正統記, 'Chronicle of the Direct Descent of the Divine Sovereigns') emphasizing the divine descent of the imperial line. The Jinnōshōtōki provided a Shinto view of history stressing the divine nature of the Japan and its spiritual supremacy over China and India. In the Tokugawa era, the study of Kokugaku (国学) arose as an attempt to reconstruct and recover the authentic native roots of Japanese culture, particularly Shintoism, excluding later elements borrowed from China. The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... A kamikaze (just left of center near the top border), a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Kitabatake Chikafusa (北畠親房)(d. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... Kokugaku (国学; lit. ...


As a country that had much to gain by eclipsing Chinese power in East Asia, Japan has perhaps been most ardent in identifying and demolishing what it dismissively calls Chūka shisō (中華思想), loosely meaning 'Zhonghua ideology'. One manifestation of Japanese resistance to Sinocentrism was the insistence for many years in the early 20th century on using the name Shina (支那) for China, based on the Western word 'China', in preference to the name Chūgoku (中国 Central Country) advocated by the Chinese themselves. This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. ... Shina (支那, シナ) is a Japanese term that is viewed by most Chinese people as a highly offensive racist term for China. ...


One of the enduring perceptions among Chinese history buffs in Japan is that general depopulation and the incursion of races from the north during the period of the Three Kingdoms (三国) led to the virtual replacement of the original Chinese race by non-Chinese. Often the general thrust of this kind of claim is to deny the continuity of Chinese civilization and discredit modern Chinese pretensions to supremacy based on appeals to ancient history. The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu. ...


In a somewhat perverse affirmation of the spirit of sinocentrism, claims are sometimes heard that the Japanese, not the Chinese, are the legitimate heirs of ancient Chinese culture. For instance, in the early Edo period, neo-Confucianist Yamaga Soko asserted that Japan was superior to China in Confucian terms and more deserving of the name "Chūgoku". Other scholars picked this up, notably Aizawa Seishisai in his political tract Shinron (新論 New Theses) in 1825. Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ... Yamaga Soko (September 21, 1622 - October 23, 1685) was a Japanese philosopher and strategist. ...


Vietnam

Vietnam had a much more intimate relationship with China. Vietnam was under Chinese rule for approximately 1,000 years before gaining independence in the 10th century. In subsequent centuries the Vietnamese drove out Chinese invaders on a number of occasions, to the extent that conflict with China may be seen as one of the main themes of Vietnamese history.


However, Vietnam was also heavily Sinicized, using Classical Chinese as its official literary language and adopting most aspects of Chinese culture, including the administrative system, architecture, philosophy, religion, and literature of China. This is the current collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ...


Vietnam persistently identified itself in relation to China, regarding itself as the kingdom of the south as against China in the north, as seen in this line from a poem (in Chinese) by General Lý Thường Kiệt (1019-1105): 'Over mountains and rivers of the South reigns the Emperor of the South.'


The name 'Việt' itself is cognate with Yue (越), referring to peoples of Southern China who were largely conquered by the north under the Qin. The Vietnamese are considered as belonging to the Yue. The current name of the country, Vietnam, is derived from Nam Việt (南越), meaning 'Southern Yue', the name of a post-Qin kingdom covering southern China and northern Vietnam. The Chinese, who were unwilling to recognize Vietnam as a successor to the Southern Yue state, altered this to Việt Nam (越南 South of Yue). Yue (pinyin: Yuè, Wade-Giles: Yüeh, also Yuet, Viet) refers to ancient non-Sinicized or semi-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... Nam Việt (Chinese language: 南越, Pinyin: Nányuè) was an ancient kingdom that consisted much of modern northern Vietnam and the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. ...


Myanmar

Myanmar (Burma) is an interesting case. Unlike East Asian states, which communicated in written Chinese, Myanmar used a different written language in its communications with China. While China consistently regarded Myanmar as a vassal, Myanma records indicate that Myanmar considered itself as China's equal. Under the Myanma interpretation, Myanmar was the "younger brother" and China was the "elder brother".


Europe

The best-known official encounter between Chinese sinocentrism and the arrogance of Europeans was the celebrated Macartney mission of 1792-93, which sought to establish a permanent British presence in Peking and open up trade relations. The rebuff of the Chinese emperor to the British overtures has passed into legend: "We have never valued ingenuous articles nor do we have the slightest need of your country's manufactures, therefore O King, as regards to your request to send someone to remain at the capital, which it is not in harmony with the regulations of the Celestial Empire - we also feel very much that it is of no advantage to your country." Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to some dispute as to Europes actual borders. ... George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. ... (help· info) (IPA pei˩ tɕɪŋ˦), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


It was to be more than half a century before the European version of ethnocentrism gained the upper hand thanks to superior arms and a war (the Opium War). Led by the British, one Western power after another imposed "unequal treaties" on the Chinese, including provisions of extraterritoriality that excluded Europeans from the application of local laws. There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, 열강) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...


Today

The Sinocentric model of political relations came to an end in the 19th century when China was overwhelmed militarily by European nations. The ideology suffered a further blow when Japan, having undergone the Meiji Restoration, defeated China in the First Sino-Japanese War. As a result, China adopted the Westphalian system of equal independent states. In modern Chinese foreign policy, the PRC is associated with the Non-Aligned Movement, and has repeatedly stated that it will never seek hegemony (永不称霸). The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005) The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ...


Culturally, one of the most famous attacks on sinocentrism and its associated pretensions was made by the author Lu Xun in The True Story of Ah Q, satirizing the ridiculous way in which the protagonist claimed 'spiritual victories' despite being humiliated and defeated. Lu Xun (Traditional: 魯迅; Simplified: 鲁迅; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lu Hsün) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936), the pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: 周樹人; Simplified Chinese: 周树人; pinyin: ), has been considered one of the most influential Chinese writers of the 20th century and the founder... The True Story of Ah Q, or Ā Q Zhèngzhuàn (Traditional Chinese: 阿Q正傳, Simplified Chinese: 阿Q正传), is a long short fiction by Lu Xun, first published between December 1921 and February 1922. ...


While China has renounced claims to superiority over other nations, some argue that China never really completely abandoned Sinocentrism. A sinocentric view of history lies behind many modern Chinese constructs of history and self-identity. Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ...


After its establishment, the People's Republic of China (PRC) moved quickly to incorporate previous subsidiary territories such as Tibet and Xinjiang into Chinese national territory, while Mongolia was excluded only because it was a Soviet ally. On the other hand, this is regarded in China as acts that any sovereign state in the world would take to defend its sovereignty and integrity, since Tibet and Xinjiang were internationally recognized as parts of China at that time; thus, this has nothing to do with Sinocentrism. Some of these territories have demonstrated the desire to be independent (for instance Tibet). Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: Xīzàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: Zàngqū [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Elements of Sinocentrism have also been identified in China's recent relations with Korea and Japan. In 2004, Chinese scholars claimed that the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, which included southern Manchuria and northern Korea, should be regarded as a part of the history of China when its capital was in modern-day Manchuria, and a part of the history of Korea when its capital was in modern-day Korea. This caused an outcry among Koreans who regarded Goguryeo as exclusively part of their history. Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 BCE – 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ...


On a cultural level, some have noticed a partiality for certain Chinese people to claim that Western borrowings go back to Chinese antecedents rather than admit that they actually came from the West, or to claim that some aspects of Western culture were originally borrowed from China (spaghetti being a well-known example). It is quite possible for certain innovations and ideas evolved independently between China and the West. Spaghetti in a bowl. ...


See also

Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions- in other words, a civic nationality as opposed to an ethnic one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole. ... Han chauvinism (大汉族主义, 大汉沙文主义) or Hanism (汉本位) is a term which is used in the China, Taiwan, and Japan, referring to people carrying ethnocentric viewpoints that favor the Han Chinese majority ethnic group in China at the expense of the other minority ethnic groups, often under the assumption of cultural or racial superiority. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands and frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... All under heaven (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: tiān xi ) is a concept in Chinese history. ... Historically, ancient China has been one of the worlds oldest empires. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Imperial China has had a long tradition of foreign relations. ... States that used to pay tribute to Imperial China include: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sinocentrism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2713 words)
The Sinocentric model was not seriously challenged until contact with the European powers in the 18th and 19th century, in particular the Opium War.
One of the enduring perceptions among Chinese history buffs in Japan is that general depopulation and the incursion of races from the north during the period of the Three Kingdoms (三国) led to the virtual replacement of the original Chinese race by non-Chinese.
In a somewhat perverse affirmation of the spirit of sinocentrism, claims are sometimes heard that the Japanese, not the Chinese, are the legitimate heirs of ancient Chinese culture.
123Student (1070 words)
The Sinocentric and Nationalist approach China maintained during the Industrial Revolution resulted in the innablity to reap its benefits at an early stage.
The Sinocentric world view the government applied not only hindered the success the Industrial Revolution had to offer, it also blinded its own views of the growing powers in the West.
An issue that must be kept in mind is that while it appears that China might be attempting to adapt to the ways of the global market it must keep in mind the risks that an rapidly expanding country once took, the United States and the tragic Black Tuesday stock market crash of 1929.
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