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Encyclopedia > Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
"Sinn Féin" logo
Leader Gerry Adams MP MLA
Founded 1905 (original movement), 1969 (modern movement, see history below)
Headquarters 44 Parnell Place
Dublin 1
Republic of Ireland
Six Counties (Northern Ireland) HQ:
53 Falls Road
Belfast, BT12 4PD)
Political Ideology physical force Irish republicanism (linked with the Provisional Irish Republican Army), socialism
International Affiliation none
European Affiliation none
European Parliament Group EUL-NGL
Colours Green
Website http://www.sinnfein.ie (http://sinnfein.ie)
See also

The name Sinn Féin (pronounced [ʃɪn feɪn] in English, [ʃiːɲ fʲeːnʲ] in Irish), which means "ourselves" or "we ourselves" (not as sometimes incorrectly translated, "ourselves alone" or "we alone") has been applied to a series of political movements since 1905 in Ireland, each of which claim or claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. The largest of the modern-day Sinn Féin parties, also referred to as Provisional Sinn Féin, is the only political party to have seats in the parliaments of both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. As a leading representative of the Republican wing of Irish nationalism, Sinn Féin advocates a United Ireland and avowedly leftist values. It is currently the third largest party in Ireland. This article principally deals with the history and current affairs of Provisional Sinn Féin. Sinn Fein logo File links The following pages link to this file: Sinn Féin ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath1),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located2 near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region3. ... ... Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is the largest city in and capital of both Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the second largest city in Ireland. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... Irish Republicanism is the nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (commonly referred to as the IRA) is a paramilitary group which has attempted, through violence, to achieve two goals: British military withdrawal from Ireland, the political unification of Ireland and the creation of an all-Ireland socialist republic. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ... The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... Green is a color seen commonly in nature. ... The politics of the United Kingdom are based upon a unitary state and a constitutional monarchy. ... Political parties in the United Kingdom lists political parties in the United Kingdom. ... Elections in the United Kingdom gives information on election and election results in the United Kingdom. ... The Republic of Ireland is a sovereign, independent state. ... There are a number of political parties in the Republic of Ireland, and coalition governments are common. ... Elections in the Republic of Ireland gives information on election and election results in the Republic of Ireland. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríofa in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... Provisional Sinn Féin evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Irish Republicanism is the nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... A United Ireland is the common demand of Irish nationalists, envisaging that the island of Ireland be united as a political entity. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


The largest nationalist political party in Northern Ireland, Sinn Fein recently displaced the previously dominant nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) in national elections. It currently has 5 Northern Ireland (gaining one in the United Kingdom general election of 2005) MPs in the House of Commons (out of 18 Northern MPs) and 24 MLAs (out of a Northern Ireland Assembly membership of 108, making it the joint second largest, behind the Democratic Unionist Party with 33 seats and alongside the Ulster Unionist Party who also have 24). It is a much smaller political force in the Republic of Ireland, where it currently just has 5 TDs (out of 166) in Dáil Éireann and no members of the Republic's Seanad Éireann (senate). Sinn Féin has a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from both sides of the Irish border; 1 MEP out of 3 in Northern Ireland, and 1 out of 13 in the Republic. Its MEPs sit as part of the left wing European United Left - Nordic Green Left group in the European Parliament. When its voters on both sides of the border are counted, Sinn Féin is the third-largest party on the whole island (although the only time all of Ireland votes at the same time is during elections to the European Parliament). Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005 and won by the Labour Party, led by Tony Blair. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... A TD or Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas (pronounced orr-och-tas) or National Parliament. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Seanad Éireann (English: Senate of Ireland), the Irish Senate, is the upper house of the Oireachtas: the parliament of the Republic of Ireland1. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ...


It had two ministers in the now suspended Executive Committee (cabinet) of the Northern Ireland Assembly. It has never sat in cabinet in the Republic. In 2005 unionist parties, specifically the DUP, indicated that they would not serve in government with Sinn Féin until its relationship with paramilitary groups Provisional Irish Republican Army was terminated. This claim is often seen as hypocritical as the DUP has many links with unionist paramilitary groups. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (commonly referred to as the IRA) is a paramilitary group which has attempted, through violence, to achieve two goals: British military withdrawal from Ireland, the political unification of Ireland and the creation of an all-Ireland socialist republic. ...


Sinn Féin is widely regarded as the political wing of the IRA; people holding this view often refer to the two together as 'Sinn Féin/IRA'. Though the goals of the Sinn Fein and the IRA are often similar, both groups maintain that they are entirely separate and independent from one other. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all...

Contents

Leaders

  • Edward Martyn (1905-1908)
  • John Sweetman (1908)
  • Arthur Griffith (1908-1917)
  • Eamon de Valera (1917-26) - led Fianna Fáil from 1926
  • John Joseph O'Kelly (Sceilg) (1926-1931)
  • Brian O'Higgins (1931-1933)
  • Fr. Michael O'Flanagan (1933-1935)
  • Cathal Ó Marchadha (1935-1937)
  • Margaret Buckley (1937-1950)
  • Pádraig Mac Lógáin (1950-1953)
  • Tomás Ó Dubhghaill (1953-1954)
  • Pádraig Mac Lógáin (1954-1962)
  • Tomás Mac Giolla (1962-1970) - Led Sinn Féin - The Workers' Party from 1977
  • Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (1970-1983) - Led Republican Sinn Féin from 1986
  • Gerry Adams (1983- Present)

Edward Martyn (1859-1923) of Tullira Castle, Co. ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríofa in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... Eamon de Valera[1] (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara (October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and the Republican anti-Treaty opposition in the... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, born 1932 in County Longford, Ireland is the current President of Republican Sinn Féin. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a minor political party operating in Ireland. ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ...

History

Historians dispute whether there is in fact a single Sinn Féin, some seeing a collection of parties descended from each other as its various leaderships in the 1920s, 1930s, 1960s, 1980s and 1990s split, with other moving to form rival parties, most with new names, some keeping the words Sinn Féin in their title. The Sinn Féin of Arthur Griffith certainly has very little in common with the party currently in existence. Griffith had sought to re-establish the dual monarchy, which he contended was still legally in existence. This had been set up under the Constitution of 1782. After Cumann na nGaedheal and Fianna Fáil were founded, in 1923 and 1926, only a tiny rump of the Anglo-Irish War party remained, and this featured very rarely in politics, contesting only a few elections. They appeared in various forms, often radically socialist and militant. It was not until the late 1960s that these groups came together, and their differences ultimately led them to break apart. Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy gun John Logie Baird invents the first working television system (1925) Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly... Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... Cumann na nGaedheal (League of the Gaels) was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army. ...


Early days

, Founder and first leader (–)
Arthur Griffith, Founder and first leader (190517)

Sinn Féin crystallised around the political campaign of Arthur Griffith and William Rooney at the beginning of the 20th century. For many years Sinn Féin was a loose federation of political groups whose only real connection was the newspapers edited by Griffith which inspired them. Most historians opt for November 28, 1905 as a founding date because it was on this date that Griffith first presented his 'Sinn Féin Policy'. In his writings, Griffith declared that the Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland was illegal and that, consequently, the Anglo-Irish dual monarchy which existed under Grattan's Parliament and the so-called Constitution of 1782 was still in effect. historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríofa in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríofa in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Grattan (July 3, 1746 - June 6, 1820) was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century. ...


Though Sinn Féin had a high name recognition factor among voters it attracted minimal support. By 1915 it was, in the words of one of Griffith's colleagues, "on the rocks", so insolvent financially that it could not pay the rent on its party headquarters in Harcourt Street in Dublin. It was rescued by the mistaken belief among the British administration running Ireland from Dublin Castle that it had been behind the 1916 Rising, an unsuccessful attempt to establish an Irish Republic. 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath1),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located2 near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region3. ... Dublin Castle in Dublin, Ireland was the seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922. ... (Redirected from 1916 Rising) The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Casca) was a militarily unsuccessful rebellion staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday in April 1916. ...


Griffith's movement in its first decade tapped into a growing self awareness of an Irish identity and which was reflected in other movements, from the Gaelic Athletic Association in sports to the Gaelic League (Conradh na nGaeilge) in the Irish language and in the appearance in the arts of the Abbey Theatre. The Gaelic Athletic Association (The GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael) is an organisation which is mostly focussed on promoting Irish sports, such as hurling and camogie, Gaelic football and handball, and rounders. ... The Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge) is an organization for the purpose of keeping the Irish language spoken in Ireland. ... Ireland. ...


The Easter Rising

Sinn Féin was wrongly blamed by the British for the Easter Rising, with which it had no association, apart from a desire of separation stronger than Home Rule — the leaders of the Rising were certainly looking for more than Dual Monarchy. Any group that disagreed with mainstream constitutional politics was branded 'Sinn Féin' by British commentators. The term 'Sinn Féin Rebellion' was also used by the Irish media, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC), the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP) and even by a few of those involved in the Rising. The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Casca) was a militarily unsuccessful rebellion staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday in April 1916. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC), was one of Irelands two police-forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The Dublin Metropolitan Police was formed in 1836, after twenty years of attempts to create an effective policing force in Ireland Rural policing in Ireland began when Chief Secretary for Ireland, Robert Peel created the Peace Preservation Force in 1816. ...


Surviving leaders of the Rising under Éamon de Valera took over the party. De Valera replaced Griffith as president. It nearly split between its monarchist and republican wings at its 1917 Árd Fheis (conference) until, in a compromise motion, it proposed the establishment of an independent republic, after which the people could decide whether they wanted a monarchy or republic, subject to the condition that if they chose a monarchy, no member of the British Royal Family could serve as monarch. Eamon de Valera[1] (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara (October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish...


Sinn Féin was boosted by the anger over the execution of Rising leaders, even though before the executions, the Roman Catholic hierarchy, the Irish Independent newspaper (the biggest selling daily newspaper in Ireland then and now) and many local authorities actually called for the mass execution of Rising leaders. Yet even that public sympathy did not give Sinn Féin decisive electoral advantage, It fought a tough battle with the Irish Parliamentary Party under John Redmond, later John Dillon, with each side winning by-elections. It was only after the Conscription Crisis, when Britain threatened to impose conscription to boost its war effort that support decisively swung behind Sinn Féin. The Irish Independents header consists of its name and a green harp The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling broadsheet newspaper. ... In 1882 Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, formed the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), replacing the Home Rule League, as a parliamentary party with strict rules. ... John Edward Redmond (1856-1918) was the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ... John Dillon (September 4, 1851 - August 4, 1927) was an Irish nationalist politician. ... A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of conscription, or mandatory service in the military. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The 1918 General Election

Sinn Féin won 73 of Ireland's 106 seats in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland parliament at the general election in December 1918 and many of the seats it won were uncontested.There were three reasons for this. Firstly, despite being the largest party in Ireland for forty years, the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) had not fought a general election since 1910. In many parts of Ireland its organisation had decayed and was no longer capable of mounting an electoral challenge. Other seats were uncontested because of mass support, with other parties deciding that there was no point in challenging Sinn Féin given it was certain to win. Contemporary documents also suggest a degree of intimidation of opponents. (Piaras Beaslaí recorded one example in a by-election in Longford in 1917 where a Sinn Féin activist put a gun against the head of a Returning Officer and forced him to announce the election of the Sinn Féin candidate even though the IPP candidate had more votes. Potential candidates who were thought of as serious challengers to Sinn Féin candidates were warned against seeking election in some Ulster constituencies and in Munster.) Because so many of the seats were uncontested under sometimes dubious circumstances, it has been difficult to determine what the actual support for the party was in the country. Various accounts range from 45%-48% to 80%. The author of the site on elections in the North estimates a figure of 53%[1] (http://www.ark.ac.uk/elections/h1918.htm). Another estimate would suggest Sinn Féin had the support of approximately 65% of the electorate (unionists accounting for approximately 20-25% and other nationalists for the remainder). The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... In 1882 Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, formed the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), replacing the Home Rule League, as a parliamentary party with strict rules. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Longford (An Longfort in Irish) is the county town of County Longford in the Midlands of Ireland. ... In United Kingdom, a Returning Officer is responsible for overseeing elections in one or more constituencies. ...


On 21 January 1919 Sinn Féin MPs assembled in Dublin's Mansion House and proclaimed themselves the parliament of Ireland, Dáil Éireann. They elected an Áireacht (ministry) headed by a Príomh Áire (prime minister). Though the state was declared to be a republic, no provision was made for a head of state. This was rectified in August 1921 when the Príomh Áire (also known as President of Dáil Éireann was upgraded to President of the Republic, a full head of state. January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Aireacht or Ministry was the cabinet of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... The President of the Republic may be: The Président de la République Française, see President of the French Republic The Πρόεδρος της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας (President of the Hellenic Republic), see President of the Hellenic Republic The President of the Irish Republic (1921-1922) The Presidente della Repubblica Italiana, see President...


Sinn Féin subsequently underwent successive splits (1922, 1926, 1970 and 1986), from which emerged a range of parties, Cumann na nGaedhael, now known as Fine Gael, Fianna Fáil and Official Sinn Féin, later Sinn Féin The Workers Party, later The Workers Party and then Democratic Left, which finally joined the Irish Labour party after serving in government with them, and Republican Sinn Féin. Cumann na nGaedheal (League of the Gaels) was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties. ... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Official Sinn Féin (aka Sinn Féin the Workers Party) evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in 1970. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... Democratic Left is a name given to two political parties: In Ireland, Democratic Left was active from 1992 to 1999. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a minor political party operating in Ireland. ...


The Split over The Treaty

, Second leader of Sinn Féin (–)
Éamon de Valera, Second leader of Sinn Féin (191726)

Following the conclusion (December 1921) of the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations between representatives of the British Government and de Valera's republican government and the narrow approval of the Treaty by Dáil Éireann, a state called the Irish Free State was established. Northern Ireland (a six county region set up under the British Government of Ireland Act 1920) opted out, as the Treaty allowed. cropped standard image (taken February 1932) of de Valera - no suggestion ever of copyright - indeed no-one seems to know who took the original! This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Eamon de Valera[1] (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara (October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ...


The resons for the split were various, though partition was not one of them - the IRA did not split in the North and pro- and anti-treaty republicans looked to pro-treaty Michael Collins for leadership (and weapons). The principal reason for the split is usually described as the question of the Oath of Allegiance which members of the new Dáil would be required to take. It explicitly recognised that the Irish Free State would be part of the British Empire and many republicans found that unacceptable. The pro-treaty forces argued that the treaty gave "freedom to achieve freedom". In general, a partition is a splitting into parts. ... Michael Collins (Irish: Micheál Ó Coileáin; October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of... An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his Sovereign or country. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


A short but bitter Irish Civil War (June 1922 – April 1923) erupted between the supporters of the Treaty and its opponents. De Valera resigned as President of the Republic and sided with the anti-treatyites. The victorious pro-treaty "Free Staters", who amounted to a majority of Sinn Féin TDs and a majority of the electorate, set up the Irish Free State. Many of those pro-treaty Sinn Féin TDs formed their own party, Cumann na nGaedhael, merging with the Centre Party and the Blueshirts in 1933 to form Fine Gael. The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ... The Centre Party was a political party in the Irish Free State in the early 1930s. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ...


Having temporarily suspended armed action in the Free State, the movement split again with the departure (March 1926) of its leader Eamon de Valera, after having lost a motion to abandon abstention if the Oath to the King were abolished. He subsequently founded the Fianna Fáil with fellow advocates of participation in constitutional politics, and entered the Irish parliament (Dáil Éireann) the following year, forming a government in 1932. Eamon de Valera[1] (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara (October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and the Republican anti-Treaty opposition in the... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ...


From "Official Sinn Féin" to Democratic Left

After a number of unsuccessful attempts at armed insurrection, including a naïve link-up to procure weapons in the 1940s between some IRA members and the Nazis, the party in the 1960s moved to the left, adopting a 'stagist' approach similiar to orthodox Communist analysis. The party came under the infleunce of a generation of intellectuals who were associated with the Communist Party of Great Britain's Connolly Association and sought a decisive break from the confessional politics of the past. The new generation of leaders sought to engage Ulster's Protestant workers in an anti-imperialist broad front. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a political party in the United Kingdom, which existed from 1920 to 1991. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh) is one of the four provinces on the island of Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ...


At the same time a new generation of Catholics in the Six Counties benefitted from the creation of a welfare state in the UK and were increasingly likely to demand their rights. The republicans, together with the communists and a new generation of social democrats formed the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association to demand an end to discrimination. NICRA's campaigns - and the violent reposnse of the state - increasingly destabilised Northern Ireland, particularly as Harold Wilson's Labour government in Britain began to exert political pressure for change. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Right Honourable James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, PC (March 11, 1916 – May 24, 1995) was one of the most successful Labour Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and a 1960s icon. ...


In the no reforms were implemented - and in August 1969 Northern Ireland was convulsed by a wave of rioting and sectarian attacks - and British troops were sent in to support the unionist Royal Ulster Constabulary. The violence, or rather the IRA's response to it, discredited the leftist leadership of the republican movement and Fianna Fail politicians in the Republic fearful of communism were instrumental in financing and arming a splinter more concerned with mounting violent resistence to the northern government than fomenting island-wide revolution. Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British military. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


The 1970 split occurred when republicans concerned with the perceived incompetence of the leadership split from the increasingly leftist-dominated IRA and Sinn Féin to form the Provisional IRA and its political wing Provisional Sinn Féin (both bodies were known as 'provisional' after the formation of a 'provisional' army council by the rebels). The remainder of the party became known as Official Sinn Féin, and evolved into a political party which became a radical left force in the Republic of Ireland in the 1980s. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... Provisional Sinn Féin evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... Official Sinn Féin (aka Sinn Féin the Workers Party) evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in 1970. ...


The split was violent and periodic bouts of low level warfare were seen in Belfast and elsewhere. Many individual republicans took their time to decide which side of the division they were on.


In 1977 Official Sinn Féin renamed itself Sinn Féin the Workers Party, under which title it won its first seats in Dáil Éireann in 1981 and 1982. In 1982 it ditched the 'Sinn Féin' tag, calling itself The Workers Party. A further split in 1992 saw the Workers Party leader and all but one of its TDs defect and set up a new party, Democratic Left. Democratic Left served in government with Fine Gael and Labour (199497) before merging with the Labour in 1999. The Labour Party leader and deputy leader elected in 2002 are both former members of the Democratic Left. Meanwhile the remainder of the Workers Party lost its only Dáil seat in the 1992 general election and from then on its only public representatives were on the municipal councils of Dublin and the south-eastern town of Waterford. 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... Sinn Féin The Workers Party, was the name adopted by Official Sinn Féin in 1977. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... In Ireland, Democratic Left was a socialist political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland between 1992 and 1997. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Irish Labour Party The Irish Labour Party (Irish: Páirti an Lucht Oibre) is the third largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Waterford (Irish: Port Lairge) is, historically, the capital of County Waterford in Ireland, though today the city is administered separately from the county, the latter having its seat in Dungarvan. ...


"Provisional Sinn Féin"

, Leader of Sinn Féin (–)
Gerry Adams, Leader of Sinn Féin (1983present)

With the Officials' repudiation of violence in 1972, and its move from republicanism to Marxism, Provisional Sinn Féin became the political voice of the minority of northern nationalists who saw IRA violence as the means of forcing an end to British rule and institutionalised discrimination against nationalists which, in the words of Ulster Unionist leader and Nobel Peace Prize laureate David Trimble, had created "a cold house for Catholics". The British government agreed to legalise Sinn Féin in May 1974. It legalised the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force at the same time as a sop to angry unionists. However it never succeeded in attracting the majority of Catholic support while the IRA continued its campaign of violence. Most Catholics voted for the Social Democratic and Labour Party under Gerry Fitt and later John Hume. A small minority voted for the Alliance Party. Small numbers of Catholics also voted for the leading unionist parties, the Ulster Unionist Party, the Democratic Unionist Party and the shortlived Unionist Party of Northern Ireland. Sinn Fein only achieved the support of the majority of the nationalist community in 2004, eight years after the Belfast Agreement. Photo of Gerry Adams from http://www. ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Provisional Sinn Féin evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes requested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Right Honourable David Trimble (born October 15, 1944) is a Northern Ireland politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), former First Minister of Northern Ireland, MP and MLA. He shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with John Hume of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Gerrard Gerry Fitt, Baron Fitt (born 9 April 1926), is a former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party and a socialist and republican politician. ... John Hume (born January 18, 1937) is a Northern Ireland politician. ... The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Unionist Party of Northern Ireland was a political party founded by Brian Faulkner in September 1974. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Nationalist alienation in the aftermath of the deaths of ten Republican hunger-strikers in Long Kesh prison in 1981 gave Sinn Féin a springboard into electoral politics in the north. An internal power stuggle between a southern leadership of Ruairí Ó Brádaigh and a northern leadership under Gerry Adams, saw Ó Brádaigh and his associates leave to establish Republican Sinn Féin, which they claimed was the 'true' Sinn Féin. The split was over the decision of a majority of Sinn Féin members to abandon abstentionism (i.e., the refusal to accept the legitimacy of, and to participate in, the parliament of the Republic of Ireland). While the policy of abstentionism towards the Westminster British Parliament was continued, it was dropped in relation to Dáil Éireann. Under the presidency (from November 1983) of Gerry Adams, Sinn Féin leaders sought to explore wider political engagement, following what was called the Armalite and the ballot box strategy of political agitation and the use or threat of violence. That decision, augmented by the involvement of SDLP leader John Hume in the Hume–Adams dialogue, and the decision of successive Irish Taoisigh (prime ministers), Charles Haughey, Albert Reynolds, John Bruton and Bertie Ahern to initiate and maintain contact with the Sinn Fein leadership, helped produce the Northern Ireland peace process in the 1990s. Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, born 1932 in County Longford, Ireland is the current President of Republican Sinn Féin. ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a minor political party operating in Ireland. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... The armalite and the ballot box strategy was pursued by the Irish Republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s, a strategy where elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue a paramilitary struggle against the British government and... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... Charles (Charlie) James Haughey (Ir. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932) was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland from 1992 to 1994. ... John Gerard Bruton (born May 18, 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick Bartholemew Ahern (Irish: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachtairn) (born September 12, 1951), commonly called Bertie Ahern, is an Irish politician. ...


Ironically, Adams and company had originally come to dominate the republican movement because of their unwillingness to compromise and their refusal to contemplate a ceasefire. They reassessed their position after it became clear that British intelligence successes, together with increasing Catholic alienation and war weariness meant that a decisive military breakthrough was unlikely and that the violent stalemate would continue. Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London MI5—officially called the Security Service—is one of the British secret service agencies. ...


The new strategy - famously described by Danny Morrison as "the armalite in one hand and the ballot box in the other" - was also, if subtly, eventually ditched as republicans again came to terms with the limits on their political success that continued "armed struggle" imposed. The very thing that propelled Adams into leadership - his opposition to military ceasefires now became central to his approach (albeit this time, unlike during previous ceasefires, the IRA would retain their ability to return to violence at short notice). Daniel Kyle Morrisson (born 3 February 1966) was a former New Zealand cricketer (Black Caps). ...


The Peace Process

The move was also hastened by a series of disastrous IRA attacks, including the accidental killing of people attending a Remembrance Day ceremony in Enniskillen. Multi-party negotiations began in 1994, without Sinn Féin. The IRA declared a ceasefire in the autumn of 1994. The Conservative government had asked that the IRA decommission all of their weapons before Sinn Féin be admitted to the talks, but the Labour government of Tony Blair let them in on the basis of the ceasefire. The IRA returned to bombing for a few months after Sinn Fein were again excluded. Enniskillen (Inis Ceithleann in Irish) is the county town of Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Belfast Agreement

The talks led to the Belfast Agreement of April 10, 1998 (also known as the Good Friday Agreement), which set up an inclusive devolved government, and altered the claim to the whole island in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland. The party has been nominally committed to constitutional politics since then, though the demand that the IRA decommission all of its arms has led to repeated suspensions of the assembly. The IRA started decommissioning arms after a deal was agreed restoring the suspended NI Assembly. The attacks of September 11th, 2001 in America, and Sinn Féin's criticisms of US foreign policy have led to a decrease in much of its support among Americans previously enjoyed in the US, though this has had no detectable effect on Sinn Féin's policies. The alleged discovery of a spy ring by the PSNI, which was widely publicised and supposedly linked to the IRA, operating within the Northern Ireland civil service and including Sinn Fein's head of administration at the Assembly, led to the suspension of the Executive and the reinstatement of direct rule in Northern Ireland by London, a suspension already on the brink of being triggered amid threats of resignation from First Minister David Trimble over the apparently slow pace of IRA decomissioning. No-one was ever charged in relation to this. The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ... The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated Islamist terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Direct Rule is the term given to the running of the day-to-day administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster. ... The term First Minister refers to the leader of a cabinet United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, the term First Minister was once used interchangeably with Prime Minister, as in Winston Churchills famous line: I did not become Her Majestys First Minister so that I might oversee the... The Right Honourable David Trimble (born October 15, 1944) is a Northern Ireland politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), former First Minister of Northern Ireland, MP and MLA. He shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with John Hume of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ...


Increase in support

The party overtook its nationalist rival, the Social Democratic and Labour Party as the largest nationalist party in the 2001 Westminster General Election and Local Election, winning four seats to the SDLP's three. The party however continues to subscribe to an abstentionist policy towards seats in the Westminster British parliament, as taking the seats they won would require them to swear allegiance to the British monarchy and recognise British jurisdiction over Northern Ireland. The party has 5 TDs in the Irish general election, 2002, an increase of four. The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Irish general election of 2002 was held on Friday 17 May 2002, just over three weeks after the dissolution of the 28th Dáil on Thursday 25 April by President Mary McAleese, at the request of the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern. ...


It went on to increase its domination of the nationalist vote in the 2003 Northern Assembly elections, with Martin McGuinness, judged widely to have been a successful Minister for Education in line to take the post of Deputy First Minister in the Northern Ireland Power-Sharing Executive Committee, should the executive be reformed. However the electoral success of the hardline anti-Agreement Democratic Unionist Party, which replaced the Ulster Unionist Party as the leading unionist party, is thought to make the prospect of setting up a new executive less likely. Some critics of Sinn Féin allege that the DUP's electoral success, and its resulting threat to the Agreement, was contributed to by the failure of the IRA to decommission its weapons, a decision that seriously undermined the ability of the pro-Agreement David Trimble to win majority unionist community support. Sinn Féin does not accept that allegation and sees little difference between the two unionist parties. James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (born May 23, 1950) is an Irish nationalist politician. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Right Honourable David Trimble (born October 15, 1944) is a Northern Ireland politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), former First Minister of Northern Ireland, MP and MLA. He shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with John Hume of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ...


While Sinn Féin has traditionally been the only Irish party with elected representatives on both sides of the border, Fianna Fáil has recently opened a cumann in Derry, and recruits members on the campus of Queens University Belfast. Derry or Londonderry (in Irish , Doire Cholm Chille or Doire), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Queens University is the name of more than one institution; see: Queens University, Belfast in Belfast, Northern Ireland Queens University, Kingston in Kingston, Ontario, Canada This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is the largest city in and capital of both Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the second largest city in Ireland. ...


Latest developments

When Sinn Féin and the DUP became the largest parties of the two communities, it was clear (because of the dual majority required by the Good Friday Agreement)that no deal could be made without the support of both parties. They nearly reached a deal in November 2004, but the DUP's insistence on photographic evidence of the decommissing, as had been demanded by Rev Dr Ian Paisley, meant the failure of the arrangement. The robbery of £26.5 million from the Northern Bank in Belfast in December 2004, in which two staff members were forced to participate under threat that their families would be killed if they refused, further scuppered chances of a deal, as PSNI Chief Constable Hugh Orde blamed the IRA. This assessment was echoed by the Garda Siochana Commissioner, Noel Conroy. The two governments, and all political parties bar Sinn Féin itself have publicly accepted this assessment. The Police Constable and the Garda Commissioner jointly briefed the British Prime Minister, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, the Taoiseach, the Minister for Justice and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, at a meeting in Downing Street in early February 2005. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reverend Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born April 6, 1926) is a politician and church leader in Northern Ireland. ... Northern Bank, is a commercial bank, part of the National Australia Bank group. ... The Standard of the PSNI The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Hugh Stephen Orde is the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


In late January 2005 Gerry Adams met separately with prime ministers Tony Blair and Bertie Ahern. Both men reportedly forcefully told the Sinn Fein leader of their conviction that the IRA were involved and warned that the IRA's alleged actions could scupper hopes of a re-establishment of the power-sharing government. The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Patrick Bartholemew Ahern (Irish: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachtairn) (born September 12, 1951), commonly called Bertie Ahern, is an Irish politician. ...


In the aftermath of the row over the robbery, a further controversy erupted when, on RTE's Questions and Answers programme, the chairman of Sinn Fein, Mitchel McLaughlin, insisted that the IRA's controversial killing of a mother of ten young children, Jean McConville, in the early 1970s though "wrong", was not a "crime", as it had taken place in the context of the political conflict. Irish Minister for Justice, Michael McDowell stated that he believed that under Sinn Féin or IRA reasoning, nothing they do is a crime in their eyes (as according to their view, they are acting as the legitimate government of all Ireland - see Irish Republic). He refused to comment on whether he considered the violence of the "Old IRA", in killing spies and British agents during the Anglo-Irish War, similarly criminal. Politicians from the Republic, along with the Irish media strongly attacked McLaughlin's comments, but not McDowell's. Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; English: Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national state broadcaster of Ireland. ... Questions and Answers is a topical debate television programme in the Republic of Ireland. ... Jean McConville was a Belfast woman who was abducted from her home and killed by the Provisional IRA in 1972. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Michael McDowell (born May, 1951) is a senior Irish Progressive Democrats politician. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army. ...


In the Dail on 26 January 2005, when challenged by Sinn Fein TDs over his insistence that the robbery was the work of the IRA, Bertie Ahern listed off punishment beatings that had been carried out recently in Belfast, and which he blamed directly on the IRA. He accused Sinn Fein of stopping the IRA from carrying out punishment beatings (in which a criminal was beaten with a bat and had their legs broken, or was shot in the knees or sometimes in the hands) at sensitive times in negotiations in Northern Ireland, with the beatings beginning again once the negotiations had been completed. Sinn Féin TDs denied the allegation and called the claims "outrageous". January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is the largest city in and capital of both Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the second largest city in Ireland. ...


On 10 February 2005, the government-appointed Independent Monitoring Commission reported that it firmly supported the PSNI and Garda assessments that the Provisional IRA was responsible for the Northern Bank robbery and that certain senior members of Sinn Féin are also senior members of the Provisional IRA and would have had knowledge of and given approval to the carrying out of the robbery. It recommended further financial sanctions against Sinn Fein Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly. The British Government responded by saying it would ask members of the British Parliament to vote to withdraw the parliamentary allowances of the four Sinn Fein MPs elected in 2001. February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Independent Monitoring Commission is an organisation, founded on 7 January 2004, to promote peace and stability in Northern Ireland. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...


Gerry Adams responded to the IMC report by challenging the Irish Government to have him arrested for IRA membership, a crime in both jurisdictions, and conspiracy. [2] (http://www.rte.ie/news/2005/0210/northpolitics.html) Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... Alternate uses: See Conspiracy (disambiguation) Conspiracy, in common usage, is the act of working in secret to obtain some goal, usually understood with negative connotations. ...


On 20 February 2005, Irish Minister for Justice Michael McDowell publicly accused three of the Sinn Féin leadership, Gerry Adams, Martin McGuinness and Martin Ferris (TD for Kerry North) of being on the seven-man IRA Army Council. Gerry Adams denied this at an address in Strabane, on the occasion of a ceremony commemorating three unarmed IRA men killed by the SAS 20 years ago. Martin McGuinness denied the allegations in a TV interview on RTÉ. February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Michael McDowell (born May, 1951) is a senior Irish Progressive Democrats politician. ... Gerry Adams Gerry Adams (born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (born May 23, 1950) is an Irish nationalist politician. ... Martin Ferris (born 1958) is an Irish Sinn Féin politician. ... A TD or Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas (pronounced orr-och-tas) or National Parliament. ... The Kerry North parliamentary constituency is located in the northern half of County Kerry, Ireland, taking in Tralee, Listowel, and Castleisland. ... The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to the removal of the British presence in Ireland. ... Strabane (Irish Gaelic, an Srath Bán, which translates as The White Strand) is a town in the western part of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, on the border with County Donegal. ... Official Unit Names 21 Special Air Service Regiment (Artists Rifles) 22 Special Air Service Regiment 23 Special Air Service Regiment Nicknames The Regiment 21SAS, 22SAS, 23SAS The SAS The sass Them Mottos Who Dares Wins (official) Speed Aggression Surprise (unofficial) Description Britains elite Special Forces unit. ... Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; English: Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of Ireland. ...


On 27 February 2005, a demonstration against the murder of Robert McCartney on 30 January 2005 was held in East Belfast. Alex Maskey, a former Sinn Féin Mayor of Belfast, was told by relatives to "stop making stupid comments" to the press following Gerry MacKay's demand that Maskey "hand over the 12" IRA members involved. McKat did not clarify what he meant by "hand over". The McCartney family want all witnesses to the murder to make statements to the PSNI. People have been reluctant to do so for two reasons; the traditional mistrust of the Police in Northern Ireland by nationalists and fear of reprisal from the IRA members involved. Three IRA men have since been expelled from the organisation but no-one has been charged with the murder. The family of the dead men, though formerly Sinn Féin voters themselves, urged witnesses to the crime to contact the PSNI. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Robert McCartney (born 1936) is a Northern Ireland unionist politician, and leader of the UK Unionist Party, and the only UKUP member of the currently-suspended Northern Ireland Assembly. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Alex Maskey (born January 8, 1951) is a Northern Irish politician who was the first member of Sinn Féin to serve as Belfasts Lord Mayor. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


Irish Taoiseach Bertie Ahern called Sinn Féin and the PIRA "both sides of the same coin". The ostracisation of Sinn Féin was shown in February 2005 when Dáil Éireann passed a motion condemning the party's alleged involvement in illegal activity. US President George W. Bush and Senator Edward Kennedy refused to meet Gerry Adams while meeting the family of Robert McCartney. Senators Kennedy and Hillary Clinton introduced a motion into the US Senate calling on Sinn Féin to break off links with the IRA. The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... Patrick Bartholemew Ahern (Irish: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachtairn) (born September 12, 1951), commonly called Bertie Ahern, is an Irish politician. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current president of the United States. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ...


Accusations, such as the Northern Bank robbery and numerous ones from Michael McDowell have never been supported by solid evidence. Notes such as this Northern Bank £20 note were stolen. ... Michael McDowell (born May, 1951) is a senior Irish Progressive Democrats politician. ...


On 10 March 2005, the House of Commons in London passed without significant opposition a motion placed by the British Government to withdraw the allowances of the four Sinn Fein MPs for one year in response to the Northern Bank Robbery. The effect of this measure is to cost the party approximately GBP 400,000 over the coming year. However, the debate prior to the vote mainly surrounded the more recent events connected with the murder of Robert McCartney. Unionists put down amendments to have the Sinn Fein MPs evicted from their offices at the House of Commons but they were heavily defeated by 358-170 and 357-171 votes respectively, although they had the support of their traditional allies, the Conservative Party. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Notes such as this Northern Bank £20 note were stolen. ... Conservative Party can refer to: Canada Conservative Party of Canada (since 2003) Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-2003) Conservative Party of Canada (historical) (until 1942) Their respective affiliated provincial parties Chile - Conservative Party Colombia - Colombian Conservative Party Denmark - Conservative Peoples Party Honduras - National Party of Honduras Lithuania - Homeland...


See also: Northern Bank robbery Notes such as this Northern Bank £20 note were stolen. ...


Further reading

  • Tim Pat Coogan, The Troubles (Arrow, 1995, 1996) ISBN 009946571X
  • Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins (Hutchinson, 1990) ISBN 0091741068
  • Brian Feeney, Sinn Féin: A Hundred Turbulent Years (2003) HB: ISBN 0299186709 PB ISBN 0299186741
  • Roy Foster, Ireland 1660-1972
  • Geraldine Kennedy (ed.) Nealon's Guide to the 29th Dáil and Seanad (Gill and Macmillan, 2002) ISBN 0717132889
  • F.S.L. Lyons, Ireland Since the Famine
  • Brian Maye, Arthur Griffith (Griffith College Publications)
  • Dorothy McCardle, The Irish Republic (Corgi edition, 1968) ISBN 55207862X
  • Patrick Sarsfield, S. O'Hegarty & Tom Garvin, The Victory of Sinn Féin: How It Won It & how It Used It (1999) ISBN 1900621177
  • Peter Taylor, Behind the Mask: The IRA & Sinn Féin ISBN 1575000776
  • Robert Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism (Penguin, 1972–2000), ISBN 0140291652

External links

Parties with Origins in 1916-21 Sinn Féin

  • Sinn Féin (http://www.sinnfein.ie/)
  • Fine Gael (http://www.finegael.ie/)
  • Fianna Fáil (http://www.fiannafail.ie/)
  • Workers' Party (http://www.workers-party.org/)
  • Republican Sinn Féin Poblachtach (http://www.rsf.ie/)

Other Northern Ireland Parties

  • SDLP website (http://www.sdlp.ie/)
  • Ulster Unionist Party website (http://www.uup.org/)
  • Democratic Unionist Party website (http://www.dup.org.uk/)

Other Irish Websites to View

  • Irish State Online (http://www.gov.ie/)
  • Dáil Éireann Online (http://www.oireachtas.ie/)
  • BBC history website biography of Arthur Griffith (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/easterrising/profiles/po07.shtml)
  • RTÉ Ireland's Millennia biography of Arthur Griffith (http://www.rte.ie/culture/millennia/people/griffitharthur.html)
Political Parties in the United Kingdom
Represented in the House of Commons:

Labour (356) | Conservatives (197) | Liberal Democrats (61) | DUP (9) | SNP (6) | Sinn Féin (5) | Plaid Cymru (3) | SDLP (3) | UUP (1) | IKHH (1) | Respect (1) Political parties in the United Kingdom lists political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) (Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a centre-left political party which favours Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (literally meaning, Party of Wales) is a left-of-centre (describing itself as socialist and proud of it) Welsh nationalist party. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... Independent Kidderminster Hospital and Health Concern (often known by the shorter name Health Concern) is a political party based in Kidderminster, England. ... RESPECT The Unity Coalition is a socialist British political party founded on January 25, 2004 in London. ...

Represented in the Scottish Parliament:

Labour (50) | SNP (26) | Conservatives (18) | Liberal Democrats (17) | Scottish Green Party (7) | Scottish Socialist Party (6) | Scottish Senior Citizens Unity Party (1) The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national unicameral legislature of Scotland. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) (Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a centre-left political party which favours Scottish independence. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Green Party is the Green party in Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... This article deals with the Scottish Socialist Party that was formed in 1998. ... The Scottish Senior Citizens Unity Party (SSCUP) were formed in February 2003, in time to contest that years elections to the Scottish Parliament. ...

Represented in the Welsh Assembly:

Labour (29) | Plaid Cymru (12) | Conservatives (11) | Liberal Democrats (6) | Forward Wales (1) The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following the approval by a small majority of Welsh voters in a referendum held in 1997 of the Labour Governments proposals for devolution. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... Plaid Cymru (literally meaning, Party of Wales) is a left-of-centre (describing itself as socialist and proud of it) Welsh nationalist party. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... Forward Wales (or Cymru Ymlaen in Welsh) is a political party operating in Wales. ...

Represented in the Northern Ireland Assembly (suspended):

DUP (33) | UUP (24) | Sinn Féin (24) | SDLP (18) | Alliance Party (6) | UK Unionist Party (1) | Progressive Unionist Party (1) The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The term Alliance Party is used of several political parties throughout the world. ... The UK Unionist Party (UKUP) is a small political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ...

Represented in the European Parliament:

Conservative (27) | Labour (19) | Liberal Democrats (12) | UKIP (11) | Green Party of England and Wales (2) | SNP (2) | Plaid Cymru (1) | DUP (1) | UUP (1) | Sinn Féin (1) | Veritas (1) The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced you-kip) is a right-wing political party that aims at British withdrawal from the European Union. ... The Green Party of England and Wales emerged as a distinct party in the 1990s. ... In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) (Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a centre-left political party which favours Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (literally meaning, Party of Wales) is a left-of-centre (describing itself as socialist and proud of it) Welsh nationalist party. ... The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... Veritas is a United Kingdom political party, formed in 2005 as a split from the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP). ...

Minor parties:

British National Party | English Democrats | Communist Party of Britain The British National Party (BNP) is the largest political party of the far-right in the United Kingdom. ... The English Democrats Party, previously the English National Party, is a political party in England, which seeks the establishment of a Parliament for England with at least the same powers as those granted to the Scottish Parliament. ... The Communist Party of Britain is the largest Leninist party operating in the United Kingdom, although it chooses not to be active in Northern Ireland where the Communist Party of Ireland works. ...


Political Parties in the Republic of Ireland
Represented in Dáil Éireann:

Fianna Fáil (80) | Fine Gael (32) | Labour Party (21) | Progressive Democrats (8) | Green Party (6) | Sinn Féin (5) | Socialist Party (1) Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ... The Irish Labour Party (Irish: Páirti an Lucht Oibre) is the third largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Progressive Democrats (in Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach) is a free market liberal party in the Republic of Ireland founded in 1985. ... The Green Party/Comhaontas Glas was founded as the Ecology Party of Ireland in 1981. ... The Socialist Party (in Irish Páirtí Sóisialach) is a political party active in Ireland. ...

Represented in Seanad Éireann:

Fianna Fáil (29) | Fine Gael (15) | Labour Party (5) | Progressive Democrats (5) Seanad Éireann (English: Senate of Ireland), the Irish Senate, is the upper house of the Oireachtas: the parliament of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ... The Irish Labour Party (Irish: Páirti an Lucht Oibre) is the third largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Progressive Democrats (in Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach) is a free market liberal party in the Republic of Ireland founded in 1985. ...

Represented in the European Parliament:

Fine Gael (5) | Fianna Fáil (4) | Labour Party (1) | Sinn Féin (1) The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... Fine Gael (IPA in English and in Irish, approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) is the second largest political party in both the Republic of Ireland and Ireland as a whole. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... The Irish Labour Party (Irish: Páirti an Lucht Oibre) is the third largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ...

Minor parties:

Workers Party | Socialist Workers Party | Communist Party of Ireland | Christian Solidarity Party | Republican Sinn Féin Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... The Socialist Workers Party (Ireland) is an Irish, Trotskyist political party. ... The Communist Party of Ireland (CPI) (Irish: Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann) is a Marxist political party in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Christian Solidarity Party (An Comhar Críostaí) is a conservative political party in Ireland without parliamentary representation. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a minor political party operating in Ireland. ...


 
 

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