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Encyclopedia > Single Party Period of Republic of Turkey
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History of the Republic of Turkey
v  d  e
War of Independence | Single Party Period | Multi-Party Period
Timeline of Independence | Timeline of Republic
Economic History | Constitutional History | Military History
Atatürk, modern Turkey's founder and first President
Atatürk, modern Turkey's founder and first President

The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... One of the new states from the Ottoman Empire was the Republic of Turkey. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events for the Turkish War of Independence (including the background starting with the end of the First World War). ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey // The wearing of the turban and the fez, a traditional Ottoman hat, is outlawed. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... // Overview Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...

For more details on this topic, see Kemal Atatürk.

The government was formed from the Ankara-based revolutionary group, led by Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...

Contents

Reforms

Main article: Atatürk's reforms

Atatürk’s reforms are a series of legal changes concerning the Turkish society initiated between 1922 and 1938 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first president of the Republic of Turkey. ...

Politics of Single Party

After the foundation of the Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar, the religious groups joined to liberals and consecutively widespread bloody disorders took place especially in the eastern territory. The liberal party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt for a multiparty democracy was made until 1945. Turkey was admitted to the League of Nations in July 1932. The Liberal Republican Party (sometimes referred to as the Free Republican Party; in Turkish Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) was a political party founded by Ali Fethi Okyar in the early years of the Turkish Republic. ... Atatürk and Okyar, August 1930 Ali Fethi Okyar (29 April 1880 - 7 May 1943) was an early Turkish nationalist and politician. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


National Chief

Atatürk's successor after his death on November 10, 1938 was Ismet Inönü. Ismet Inönü was a strong believer in caution and preparation in state management. During his presidency, two forces continuously counter acted with each other. One group wanted to increase the control over state functions, another group wanted to debate domestic and foreign affairs. Inönü's main legacy was the method he left to Turkey to balance these forces. November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ä°smet Ä°nönü 1884-1973 Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ...


Inönü did not have too much chance to play among these forces, as the WWII was just fall on his shoulders. What we know from the history, he chose the first side, and he increased his control over the state. We also know that his control moved a big group of politicians, journalists, landowners and elites from different segments to the other opposing side. The political pendulum moved beyond what was expected from it and this first generation republic elites became the source of 1961 constitution. Even though the movement of the pendulum was beyond Inönü's control, the design of the pendulum can be easily attributed to him.


The national chief period can be seen like an intersection in the history of Turkey. His policies were unique in the sense that instead of following complete suppression of expression or fully representative democracy, he personally forced the system into multi-party politics. Politics of Anatolia did not yield to personal politics because of the geoplitical position. And maybe it did not fit to Inönü 's way of taking secure steps, in a place full of unexpected turns. History of Ottoman Empire shows that Turkish state can not change its politics with its neighbours as easily as it can change a sultan. However, the Turkish state needed a leader to mobilize the nation for its own strategic goals. Turkey needed a leader without having the full control of presidency. Multi-party project gave that chance to Turkey. Multi-party politics was shaped during Inönü's watch. In multi-party politics, as shaped in Turkey, there is a leader who controls a party that is balanced with other parties. Besides the definition of presidency, it also produced different definitions of freedom, equality, and justice. Multi-party politics introduced coups into the system, which acts as mandatory shift in the political party design. If we say Ataturk defined the nation, Inönü defined the politics of that nation.


Politics before WWII

Politics of WWII

When all its western neighbours were under Axis occupation during World War II, Turkey signed a peace treaty with Germany and officially remained neutral until near the end of war. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in February 1945 it declared war on Germany and Japan. This was largely symbolic, as no Turkish troops engaged in battle. Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1952. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


1927 Census

The first census of the repuclic was on 1927. The census gathered data about literacy, economic and social values.


 
 

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