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Encyclopedia > Singidunum

Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. Known today as Beograd (Belgrade), the capital city of Serbia and Montenegro, the city is one of the oldest in Europe. It has arisen (according to legend and verified history) from its ashes 38 times. Scordisci were, in ancient geography, a Celtic tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia between the Savus, Dravus and Danube. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...

Contents


Prehistoric

The area near the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers has been continuously inhabited since the mid to late Paleolithic period. Skulls of Neanderthals and human remains dating back to the Stone Age have been found in the area. The remains of the Vinča culture, a Neolithic culture that flourished along the Danube River between 6,000 to 3,000 BC, discovered and named after Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade. Sava also Save (in German: Save; in Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, , Bulgarian: Дунав (Dunav), Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius), all ultimately derived from the PIE *dānu, meaning river or stream, is Europes second... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC), stretching around the course of Danube in Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ...


Pre-Roman Influence

From 600 B.C. to the 4th century B.C. major tribal movement by the Thracian-Cimmerian tribes, followed by the Scythian tribes, began across the Balkan region, though they never established a permanent residence there. The first evidence of primitive fortification came later in the 3rd century B.C., with the settlement of the Celtic or Thraco-Celtic tribe, the Scordisci, who picked the strategic hilltop at the meeting of the two rivers as the basis for their habitation. It was 279 B.C. when the name Singidun was mentioned for the first time. The second part of the word is Celtic, dūn(on) meaning "lodgement, enclosure, or fortress". Singi is still unexplained but there are some theories, the two most prominent that it could be the word meaning round, hence "round fort" [citation needed], or it could be named after the Sings, a Thracian tribe that occupied the area prior to the arrival of the Scordisci [citation needed]. (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Events Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Gaulish migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia 282-226: Colossus of Rhodes 281 BC Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination... A Celtic cross. ... Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Thracian languages, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Scordisci were, in ancient geography, a Celtic tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia between the Savus, Dravus and Danube. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC - 279 BC - 278 BC 277 BC 276...


There is little trace left of this era of the city's history, except for burial sites, a few of which are the tribe's warriors that contain valuable artifacts. A residual artifact leftover from the tribes that secured the area is the Celtic spiritual influence that was taken up and woven into the Roman classical culture of the city.


The Roman Era

The Romans first began to conquer lands surrounding Singidun during the first century B.C. In 75 B.C., Gaius "Quintus" Scribonius Curio, the proconsul of Macedonia, invaded the Balkan interior as far as the Danube, in an effort to drive out the Scordisci, Dardanians, Dacians and other tribes. The Romans had victories during these campaigns, but only stayed briefly, leaving the area outside of Roman control. Thus, very little is known about these operations or when the area was organized into the province of Moesia. It wasn't until the rule of Octavian, when Marcus Licinius Crassus, the grandson of the Caesarian Triumvir and then proconsul of Macedonia, finally stabilized the region with a campaign beginning in 29 B.C. Moesia was formally organized into a province some time before 6 A.D., when the first mention of its governor, Caecina Severus, is made. Singidun was Romanized to Singidunum. It became one of the primary settlements of Moesia, situated between Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica) and Viminacium (modern Kostolac), both of which overshadowed Singidunum in significance, and just across the Sava River from Taurunum (modern Zemun) in Pannonia. Singidunum became an important and strategic position along the Via Militaris, an important Roman road connecting fortresses and settlements along the Danubian limes, or border. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72... Gaius Scribonius Curio (flourished in 1st Century BC) Roman Statesman and orator. ... Albani (Albanoi), tribe in ancient Illyria, from Alexander G. Findlays Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849 The Dardani were an ancient Indo-European tribe that lived in Dardania (largely corresponding to present day Kosovo, as well as other parts of present day southern Serbia) and was... Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited chiefly by Thracian peoples. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS·¹) (ca. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS·¹) (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24...   This article is about the year 6. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... New pedestrian bridge built in 1993, connecting Sremska Mitrovica and Mačvanska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica (Serbian: Сремска Митровица or Sremska Mitrovica, Rusin: Сримска Митровица, Croatian: Sr(ij)emska Mitrovica, Hungarian: Szávaszentdemeter, German: Syrmisch Mitrowitz, Latin: Sirmium) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... Viminacium was the capital of the Roman province of Moesia. ... A small Serbian town on the Danube river, located where Viminacium used to be. ... Coat of Zemun Zemun (Земун, Hungarian: Zimony, German: Semlin) is a major suburb of Belgrade situated on the left bank of the Sava river. ... A limes is a Roman wall marking the boundaries of the Roman Empire. ...


Singidunum reached its height with the arrival of Legio IV Flavia Felix in 86 A.D. The legion set up as a square-shaped castrum (fort), which occupied Upper Town of today's Kalemegdan. At first, the fortress was set up as earthen bulwarks, but soon after, it was fortified with stone, the remains of which can be seen today near the northeastern corner of the acropolis. The legion also constructed a bridge over the Sava, connecting Singidunum with Taurunum. The 6,000-strong legion became a major military asset against the continuous threat of the Dacians just across the Danube. Another step the Romans took to help strengthen Singidunum was the settlement of its legion veterans next to the fortress. In time, a large settlement grew out from around the castrum. The town took on a rectlinear construction, with its streets meeting at right angles. The grid structure can be seen in today's Belgrade with the orientation of the streets Uzun Mirkova, Dušanova, and Kralja Petra I . Studentski Trg (Students' Square) was a Roman forum, bordered by thermae (a public bath complex whose remains were discovered during the 1970s) and also preserves the orientation the Romans gave Singidunum. Other remnants of Roman material culture such as tombs, monuments, sculptures, ceramics, and coins have been found villages and towns surrounding Belgrade. Hadrian granted Singidunum the rights of municipium during the mid 2nd century A.D.. Singidunum later outgrew this status and became a full-fledged colony. Singidunum and Moesia experienced a peaceful period, but that was not to last, due to the growing turmoil not only from outside the Roman Empire, but also from within. Antoninianus minted under Carausius. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Events Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games Births September 19 - Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor 138-161 Deaths... In the Roman Empire, a castra (the plural form of castrum, castri, a fortification) was a Roman military camp. ... Monument to France in Kalemegdan Kalemegdan is the fortress that remained of the ancient city of Singidunum, todays Belgrade. ... The Forum of Cosa, in Italy. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... A bust of Hadrian. ... A municipium was the second highest class of a Roman city, and was inferior in status to the colonia. ...


The Byzantines and the Barbarians

The Roman Empire began to rapidly decline at the end 3rd century A.D. The province of Dacia, established by several successful and lengthy campaigns by Trajan, began to collapse under pressure from the invading Goths in 256 A.D. By 270 A.D., Aurelian, faced with the sudden loss of many provinces and major damage done by invading tribes, abandoned Dacia altogether. Singidunum found itself once again on the limes of the fading Empire, one of the last major strongholds to survive mounting danger from the invading barbarian tribes. (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century _ other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Marble statue of Trajan at Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana) Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Events Births Arius, founder of Arianism Deaths Invasions Goths invade Asia Minor. ... Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ...


In 395 A.D., upon the death of Theodosius I, the Roman Empire was split into two, with Singidunum lying on the northwestern border of the Eastern Roman Empire (later to become the Byzantine Empire). Moesia and Illyricum suffered devastating raids by the successive invasions of the Huns, Ostrogoths, Gepidaes, Sarmatians, Avars, and Slavs. Singidunum fell to the Huns in 441 A.D., who razed the city and fortress, selling its Roman inhabitants into indentured servitude. Over the next two hundred years, the city passed hands several times: Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ), is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Events The Huns invade the Balkans. ...

  • The Byzantine Empire reclaimed the city after the fall of the Huns in 454 A.D.
  • The Sarmatians conquered the city shortly thereafter
  • The Ostrogoths seize the city around, expelling the Sarmatians, in 470 A.D.
  • The Gepidaes invaded the city in 488
  • The Ostrogoths recapture the city in 504
  • The Byzantine Empire reclaims the city in 510 according to a peace accord between Constantinople and the barbarian tribes

Byzantine emperor Justinian I rebuilt Singidunum in 535 A.D., restoring the fortress and city to its former military importance. The city saw a brief peaceful period of about fifty years, but was then sacked with the arrival of the Avars in 584 The Byzantine Empire reclaimed it 8 years later, in 592 A.D., but finally lost it in the early half of the 7th century when the Avars sacked and burned Singidunum to the ground. Around 630 A.D., the Slavs settled in the area and in Singidunum. By this time, however, the city had lost its importance as a border fortification and was largely ignored by the Avars and Slavs who dominated the area. The city would re-emerge later, mentioned as Beograd, a Slavic word meaning "white city" (due to the color of the stone it was built from), in a letter written on April 16, 878 by Pope John VIII to Bulgarian prince Boris I Mihailo. With its new name, Beograd, would eventually be restored to the same strategic significance it had held throughout its history, but never again would it be mentioned as Singidunum. Byzantine Empire (Greek: ), is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events September 21 - Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aëtius in his own throne room. ... Events Euric, king of the Visigoths, defeats an attempted invasion of Gaul by the Celtic magnate Riothamus. ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ... Events Theodoric the Great defeats the Gepids. ... Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ... Constantinople[1] was the name of the modern-day city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey over the centuries that it served as the second capital of the unified Roman Empire, and after its division into East and West, of the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire (from the city... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... Events The Visigoths conquer the Suevi kingdom in Spain. ... Events After the great slaughter at Woddesbeorg, Ceawlin is deposed as both king of Wessex and Bretwalda. ... (6th century - 7th century - 8th century _ other centuries) Events The religion of Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is revealed, and Arabs spread Islam into Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... John VIII was pope from 872 to 882. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ...


See also

For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited chiefly by Thracian peoples. ... Antoninianus minted under Carausius. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ), is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...

External links

  • Official Site of Beograd: Ancient Period
  • Official Site of Beograd: Byzantine Empire
  • Ancient Worlds: Singidunum
  • Belgrade Fortress: History

  Results from FactBites:
 
City of Belgrade - Ancient Period (683 words)
In that period, Singidunum was the center of the Christian diocese.
Between Singidunum and Taurunum, there was a bridge over the Sava, which connected the two towns and which was a part of one of the most important Roman roads.
Thus, Singidunum became an important crossroad for the Roman provinces of Moesia, Dacia, Pannonia and Dalmatia.
Singidunum at AllExperts (1190 words)
Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name.
Singidunum and Moesia experienced a peaceful period, but that was not to last, due to the growing turmoil not only from outside the Roman Empire, but also from within.
Singidunum found itself once again on the limes of the fading Empire, one of the last major strongholds to survive mounting danger from the invading barbarian tribes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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