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Encyclopedia > Sindarin
Sindarin
Created by: J.R.R. Tolkien 
Setting and usage: Fantasy world of Arda
Total speakers:
Category (purpose): constructed languages
 artistic languages
  fictional languages
   languages of Middle-earth
    Sindarin 
Category (sources): a priori language, but relative to the other Elvish languages
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: art
ISO/DIS 639-3: sjn 

Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. In Tolkien's mythos, it was the Elvish language most commonly spoken in Middle-earth in the Third Age. It was the language of the Sindar, those Teleri which had been left behind on the Great Journey of the Elves. It was derived from an earlier language called Common Telerin. When the Ñoldor returned to Middle-earth, they adopted the Sindarin language, although they believed their native Quenya more beautiful. Sindarin shared common roots with Quenya, and the two languages had many similar words. Sindarin was said to be more changeful than the older tongue, however, and there were a number of regional 'dialects' of the tongue. The Sindarin spoken in Doriath was said to be the highest and most noble form of the language. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... // For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein all of the places mentioned in the Lord Of The Rings and related material once existed. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture the way natural languages do. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language (conlang) designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... Some authors use fictional languages as a device to underline differences in culture, by having their characters communicate in a fashion which is both alien and dislocated. ... The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) is best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... In the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, the fictional Sindar (meaning Grey People, singular Sinda, although the later term was not generally used by Tolkien) are Elves of Telerin descent. ... The main part of this article relates to the version of Middle-earths history that is considered canon by most Tolkien fans who accept such labels (see: Middle-earth canon). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Great Journey, or the Great March was the journey that the Elves known as the Eldar took from Cuiviénen, the place of their awakening, to Valinor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Common Telerin is the primordial tongue of the Teleri or Lindar clan of the Elves. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Ñoldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves, the Tatyar. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth, Doriath was the land of the Sindar. ...


Before the downfall, most of the Men of Númenor also spoke the language. Knowledge of it was kept in the Númenórean realm in exile Gondor, especially amongst the learned. Sindarin is the language referred to as the Elven-tongue in The Lord of the Rings. The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... One rendition of the flag of Gondor Gondor is a fictional country from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Cover design for the three volumes of The Lord of the Rings by Tolkien This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Tolkien originally imagined that the language which would become Sindarin was spoken by the Ñoldor (second clan of Elves). However, Tolkien later decided that it was the language of the Sindar. For this reason it is called Noldorin in the older material, such as the Etymologies. When Noldorin became Sindarin, it also adopted some features of the originally unrelated language Ilkorin. Tolkien based the sound and some of the grammar of his Noldorin/Sindarin on Welsh, and Sindarin displays some of the consonant mutations that characterise the Celtic (especially Brythonic) languages. The language was also probably influenced to an extent by the Germanic languages, as Tolkien was a scholar of Old English, Old Norse and Gothic. The Elves (always pluralized as such, never Elfs) are one of the races that appear in the work of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, the fictional Sindar (meaning Grey People, singular Sinda, although the later term was not generally used by Tolkien) are Elves of Telerin descent. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Gothic language (*gutiska razda, *𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺𐌰 𐍂𐌰𐌶𐌳𐌰, * ) is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths and specifically by the Visigoths. ...


The written script alphabet of the Elven languages is typically Tengwar, although Cirth can also be used. First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ...

Contents


Grammar

Sindarin is mainly analytic, though traits of its highly inflected progenitor can still be seen.


Phonology

Sindarin was designed to have a Welsh-like phonology. It has most of the same sounds and similar phonotactics. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Phonotactics (in Greek phone = voice and tactic = course) is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. ...

Letter IPA Notes
a a
b b
c k
ch x
d d
dh ð
e ɛ
f f, v Represents [v] when final or before n, [f] everywhere else.
g g
h h
hw ʍ
i j, i Represents [j] when initial before vowels, [i] everywhere else.
l l
lh
m m
n n
ng ŋ, ŋg Represents [ŋ] when final, [ŋg] everywhere else.
o ɔ
p p
ph f, ff Represents [f] when final, [ff] everywhere else.
r r
rh
s s
t t
th θ
u u
v v
w w
y y Pronounced like German ü or French u

An accent signifies a long vowel (á, é, etc). In a monosyllabic word, a circumflex is used (â, ê, etc). However, for practical reasons, users of the ISO Latin-1 character set often substitute ý for ŷ. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


Diphthongs are ai (pronounced like aisle), ei (day), ui (too young), and au (cow). If the last diphthong finishes a word, it is spelt aw. There are also diphthongs ae and oe with no English counterparts; Tolkien recommended to substitute ai and oi respectively if one does not care about details. If one does care, it is similar to pronouncing a or o respectively in the same syllable as one pronounces an e (as in pet). German-speakers would have an advantage, as ae and oe are pronounced like German ei/ai and eu/äu.


In archaic Sindarin, there was a vowel similar to German ö (IPA: [œ]), which Tolkien mostly transcribed as œ (usually not as oe as is often found in publications like the Silmarillion, cf. Nirnaeth Arnoediad [read: Nírnaeth Arnœdiad], Goelydh [read: Gœlydh]). This vowel later came to be pronounced ɛ and is therefore transcribed as such [sc. Gelydh].


Archaic Sindarin also had a spirant m or nasal v (IPA: [ɱ]), which was transcribed as mh (though always pronounced [v] in later Sindarin).


Nouns

Pluralization

Sindarin plurals are characterised by i-affection, or umlaut. The Sindarin term for this is prestanneth (disturbance, affection). Almost all Sindarin words form their plurals like English man/men and goose/geese — by changing the vowels in the word. The plural patterns are: Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... In linguistics the term Umlaut is used in a variety of closely related ways, some narrower, some broader. ...

  • In non-final syllables:
    • a > e — galadh > gelaidh
    • e > e — bereth > berith
    • i > i — dineth > dinith
    • o > e — gowest > gewist
    • u > y — tulus > tylys
    • y > y — (no example available)
  • In final syllables:
    • a with one consonant following > ai — aran > erain
    • a with two or more consonants following > e — narn > nern
    • â > ai — tâl > tail
    • e > i — adaneth > edenith
    • ê > î — hên > hîn
    • i > i — brennil > brennil
    • î > î — dîs > dîs
    • o > y — brannon > brennyn
    • ó > ý — bór > býr
    • ô > ŷ — thôn > thŷn
    • u > y — urug > yryg
    • û > ui — hû > hui
    • y > y — ylf > ylf
    • ý > ý — mýl > mýl
    • au > oe — naug > noeg

Note that ai can sometimes become î (or, less commonly, ý).


The reason for this is that the primitive plural ending (still present in Quenya as -i) affected the vowels in the word by making them higher and fronter. After this sound change occurred, the suffix disappeared when all final vowels were lost. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Class Plural

Sindarin also has several suffixes which denote a so-called class plural. For example, -ath indicates a group of something, e. g. elenath from elen (an archaic form of êl), meaning star, and -ath. It means a group of stars or all the stars in the sky. Another ending, -rim, is used to indicate a race, e. g. nogothrim from nogothdwarf and -rim, meaning the race of dwarves. The ending -hoth is generally used in an unfriendly sense, e. g. gaurhoth from gaurwerewolf and -hoth, meaning werewolf-host.


Mutation

Sindarin has a complex series of mutations. There are three main different types of mutations: soft mutation (or lenition), nasal mutation and stop (occlusive) mutation. Additionally, a mixed mutation is also observed after certain particles or prepositions. Finally, it is presumed that Sindarin also once had what we could call an archaic spirantal mutation (also sometimes called liquid mutation by scholars). It is still uncertain whether this mutation is still productive or if it only occurs in ancient constructs. Initial consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which the first consonant of a word is changed according to a certain grammatical environment. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ...


Initial mutations must not be confused with assimilations that may occur in compound words (such as, for instance, in the names Araphor, Arassuil and Caradhras). Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ...


The following table outlines how different consonants are affected by the different mutations.

Basic Soft Nasal Mixed Stop Liquid
b v m b b v
c g ch g ch ch
d dh n d d dh
g ' ng g g '
h ch ch h ch ch
lh thl 'l 'l thl 'l
m v m m m v
p b ph b b ph
rh thr 'r 'r thr 'r
s h s h s s
t d th d th th

Here the apostrophe indicates elision. In music, see elision (music). ...


Words beginning in b-, d-, or g- which descend from older mb-, nd-, or ng- are affected differently by the mutations:

Basic Soft Nasal Mixed Stop Liquid
b m mb mb mb b
d n nd nd nd d
g ng g g g g

Take, for example, the deictic article i, which triggers soft mutation. When added to a word like tâl, it becomes i dâl. In Sindarin's phonological history, t became d in the middle of a word. Because i tâl at the time was considered one word, the t became d, and thus i dâl. However, without the article the word is still tâl.


Mutation is triggered in various ways:

  • Soft mutation, the most widely occurring mutation, is triggered by the singular article i, the prefixes athra-, ath-, go-, gwa-, ú-, and u-, as well as the prepositions ab, am, adel, be, dad, di, na, nu, and î, and after avo. It also affects the second element in a compound, an adjective following a noun, and the object of a verb.
  • Nasal mutation is triggered by the plural article in, and the prepositions an, dan, and plural 'nin.
  • Mixed mutation is triggered by the genitive article en, and the prepositions ben, erin, nan, 'nin, and uin (with a singular word; when there is a plural the mutation is Nasal, as in aglar 'ni Pheriannath "glory to-the Halflings").
  • Stop mutation is triggered by the prepositions ed, ned, and o(d).
  • Liquid mutation is presumably triggered by the preposition or.

Pronouns

Pronouns are perhaps the most poorly attested feature of Sindarin. What has been reconstructed by the comparative method is largely conjectural and is not agreed upon, and therefore will not be addressed in this article. The comparative method (in linguistics) is a method used to detect genetic relationships between languages and to establish a consistent relationship hypothesis by reconstructing: the common ancestor of the languages in question, a plausible sequence of regular changes by which the historically known languages can be derived from that common...


Sindarin pronouns, like those in English, still maintain some case distinction. Sindarin pronouns have nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative forms. The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ...

First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative im e
Accusative nin #men le (resp.) le (resp.) den di
hain (inanim.)
Genitive nín mín [subi. vín] lín tîn [subi. dîn]
Dative enni [refl. anim] ammen
Enclitic -n -m ?-ch -r

Verbs

Sindarin verbs are also quite complex. The number of attested verbs in Sindarin is small, so the Sindarin verb system is imperfectly known; no verb has a full paradigm of forms available. There are two main types of verbs: basic and derived. Basic verbs have stems which end in a consonant, and derived verbs have stems which incorporate some sort derivational morpheme (such as a causative ending) which ends in -a.


Basic Verbs

Basic verbs, though smaller in number than derived verbs, have a very complex conjugation which arises from Sindarin's phonological history.


Basic verbs form the infinitve by adding -i: giri from gir-. This ending causes an a or o in the stem to umlaut to e: blebi from blab-. Sindarin does not use infinitive forms very often, and rather uses the gerund to achieve the same meaning.


For all persons except the third person singular, the present tense is formed by the insertion of -i, and the proper enclitic pronomial ending: girin, girim, girir. As with the infinitive, -i causes an a or o in the stem to umlaut to e: pedin, pedim, pedir, from pad-. The third person singular, because it has a zero-ending, does not require the insertion of -i. This leaves the bare stem, which, because of Sindarin's phonological history, causes the vowel of the stem to become long: gîr, blâb, pâd.


The past tense of basic verbs is very complicated and poorly attested. One common reconstructed system is to use -n: darn. However, the only time this -n actually remains is after a stem in -r. After a stem ending in -l, -n becomes -ll: toll. After -b, -d, -g, -v, or -dh, it is metathesized and then assimilated to the same place of articulation as the consonant it now follows. The consonant then experiences what could be called a "backwards mutation": -b, -d, and -g become -p, -b, and -c, and -v and -dh become -m and -d. The matter is complicated even further when pronomial endings are added. Because -mp, -mb, -nt, -nd, and -nc did not survive medially, they become -mm-, -mm-, -nn-, -nn-, and -ng. In addition, past tense stems in -m would have -mm- before any pronomial endings. Because this all may seem rather overwhelming, look at these examples which show step-by-step transformations: Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • cab- > **cabn > **canb > **camb > camp, becoming camm- with any pronomial endings.
  • ped- > **pedn > **pend > pent, becoming penn- with any pronomial endings.
  • dag- > **dagn > **dang (n pronounced as in men) > **dang (n pronounced as in sing) > danc, becoming dang- with any pronomial endings.
  • lav- > **lavn > **lanv > **lanm > **lamm > lam, becoming lamm- before any pronomial endings.
  • redh- > **redhn > **rendh > **rend > rend, becoming renn- before any pronomial endings.

The future tense is formed by the addition of -tha. An -i is also inserted between the stem and -tha, which again causes a and o to umlaut to e. Endings for all persons except for the first person singular can be added without any further modification: giritham, blebithar. The first person singular ending -n causes the -a in -tha to become -o: girithon, blebithon, pedithon.


The imperative is formed with the addition of -o to the stem: giro!, pado!, blabo!.


Derived Verbs

Derived verbs have a much less complex conjugation because they have a thematic vowel (usually a) which reduces the number of consonant combinations which occur.


The infinitive is formed with -o, which replaces the -a of the stem, e. g. lacho from lacha-.


The present tense is formed without modification to the stem. Pronomial endings are added without any change.


The past tense is formed with the ending -nt, which becomes -nne with any pronomial endings, e. g. erthant, erthanner.


The future tense is formed with -tha. With the addition of the first person singular -n, this becomes -tho.


The imperative is formed like the infinitive.


Dialects

During the First Age there were several dialects of Sindarin: In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the First Age began with the awakening of the Elves, and ended with the final overthrow of Morgoth by the combined armies of Valinor and Beleriand. ...

  • Doriathrin or the language of Doriath, a form of the language which preserved many archaic forms;
  • Falathrin or the language of the Falas, later also spoken in Nargothrond;
  • North Sindarin, the dialects originally spoken in Dorthonion and Hithlum by the Sindar, these dialects contained many unique words and were not fully intelligible with the Sindarin of Beleriand proper.

With the exception of Doriathrin, the dialects were changed under Ñoldorin influence, and adopted many Quenya features, as well as unique sound changes devised by the Ñoldor (who loved changing languages). The distinct dialects disappeared after the Ñoldor and Sindar were dispersed during the later Battles of Beleriand. In the refuges on the Isle of Balar and the Mouths of Sirion a new dialect arose among the refugees, which mainly took after Falathrin. During the Second Age and Third Age Sindarin was a lingua franca for all Elves and their friends, until it was displaced as the Common tongue by Westron, a descendant of Adûnaic which was heavily influenced by Sindarin. Doriathrin is an extinct dialect of the conlang Sindarin. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth, Doriath was the land of the Sindar. ... Falathrin is an extinct dialect of the conlang Sindarin. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, The Falas (Coast or Shore) was an area on the west coast of Beleriand, south of Nevrast. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Nargothrond (Halls of Narog) is the stronghold built by Finrod Felagund, delved into the banks of the river Narog in Beleriand, and the lands to the north (the Talath Dirnen or Guarded Plain) ruled by the city. ... North Sindarin is an extinct dialect of the conlang Sindarin. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Dorthonion (Land of Pines), later Taur-nu-Fuin, was a highland region of the First Age, lying immediately to the north of Beleriand, and south of the plains of Ard-galen (later Anfauglith) that bordered Morgoths stronghold of Thangorodrim. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Hithlum is the region north of Beleriand near the Helcaraxë. Hithlum was separated from Beleriand proper by the Ered Wethrin mountain chain, and was named after the sea mists which formed there at times: Hithlum is Sindarin for Mist... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Beleriand was the region of northwestern Middle-earth during the First Age. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Silmarillion, there were many battles between the Elves of Beleriand and the forces Morgoth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Isle of Balar was a refugee camp of the Eldar and Edain of Beleriand. ... Mouths of Sirion is a fictional location in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth universe. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... The Third Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Adûnaic (language of the west) was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age. ...


Sindarin is actually a Quenya term, a dative form meaning to the Sindar. The Sindarin word was likely to have been Edhellen ("Elvish"). Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, the fictional Sindar (meaning Grey People, singular Sinda, although the later term was not generally used by Tolkien) are Elves of Telerin descent. ...


Reference

  • The original version of this article was written for Everything2.

Everything2, or E2 for short, is a large collaborative Internet community, currently at www. ...

See also

The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... Neo-Eldarin is a term that may be employed to describe the language of texts attempting to actually use the Elven tongues invented by British author and philologist J.R.R. Tolkien for his Middle-earth legendarium. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sindarin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2074 words)
Sindarin was said to be more changeful than the older tongue, however, and there were a number of regional 'dialects' of the tongue.
Sindarin is the language referred to as the Elven-tongue in The Lord of the Rings.
During the Second Age and Third Age Sindarin was a lingua franca for all Elves and their friends, until it was displaced as the Common tongue by Westron, a descendant of Adûnaic which was heavily influenced by Sindarin.
Sindar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (867 words)
In the Second and Third Age, Sindarin became known as the Noble Tongue, and became the Elvish tongue used in daily speech throughout Middle-earth (helped by the decree of Thingol, who forbade the use of the Ñoldorin language in his realm).
Sindarin eventually replaced Ñoldorin Quenya as the language used by the Ñoldor in Beleriand, even in predominantly Ñoldorin settlements, with the exception of Gondolin, where Turgon revived Quenya.
The Peredhil, Elrond and Elros, were partially of Sindarin Elven descent, as their mother Elwing was the daughter of Dior, the son of Lúthien, the daughter of Thingol and Melian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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