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Encyclopedia > Sinan
Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan

oca Mi‘mār Sinān Āġā (Ottoman Turkish: خوجه معمار سنان آغا) (April 15, 1489 - July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect for sultans Selim I, Suleiman I, Selim II and Murad III. He was, during a period of fifty years, responsible for the construction or the supervision of every major building in the Ottoman Empire. More than three hundred buildings are listed to his name, not including smaller ones such as Koran schools (sibyan mektebs). His masterpiece is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, although his most famous work is the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. He had under him a large government department and trained many assistants, who, in turn, distinguished themselves, such as Sedefhar Mehmet Ağa, the builder of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque. He is considered the greatest architect of the classical period, compared to his Western contemporary Michelangelo. The stature of Michelangelo and his plans for the St Peter's Basilica in Rome were well-known in Istanbul, since he (and also Leonardo da Vinci) received an invitation to build a bridge over the Bosphorus [1] Sinan can stand for: Mimar Koca Sinan ibn Abd al-Mannan aka Sinan, or Mimar Sinan, (April 15 1489 - July 17, 1588), Turkish architect. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Sedefhar Mehmet AÄŸa (about 1540 - 1617) is recorded as the Ottoman architect of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the Blue Mosque) in Istanbul. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


Sinan was also one of the first earthquake engineers in the world.

Contents

Background

Much of his origin is shrouded in myth. However there are three brief records in the library of the Topkapı Palace, dictated by Sinan to his friend Mustafa Sâi. (Anonymous Text; Architectural Masterpieces; Book of Architecture). In these manuscripts, Sinan divulges some details of his youth and military career. According to these documents Sinan was the son of Abdülmenan (the anonym of Christian fathers whose sons were Moslem converts), but this name is als given as Aptullah, Abdullah and Hristo. Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... A pseudonym (Greek: false name) is a fictitious name used by an individual as an alternative to their legal name (whereas an allonym is the name of another actual person assumed by one person in authorship of a work of art; e. ...


Sinan was born a Christian in Anatolia in a small town called Ağırnas (present name Mimarsinanköy) near the city of Kayseri (as stated in an order of sultan Selim II), probably of Greek[2][3][4] [5] origin. In his youth, he was brought up as a Christian and in the Greek culture. Later, he was sometimes called Kayserli Sinan (referring to his hometown), before receiving the tile of Koca (elder). Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Kayseri (Greek: Καισάρεια), in the antiquity Mazaka and later Caesarea, is an industrialized city in Turkey. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ...


In 1512, he was conscripted into Ottoman service (devṣirme levy). He went to Istanbul as a recruit to the Janissary Corps, and was circumcised as he was converted to Islam under the devshirme system. Since he was over twenty-one years old, he was not admitted to the Imperial Enderun College in the Topkapı Palace but was sent instead to an auxiliary school. He served the Grand Vizier İbrahim Paşa as a novice of the Ibrahim Pasha School (but this is far from being proven). There he was given the Islamic name Sinan. He initially learned carpentry and mathematics. But through his intellectual qualities and ambitions, he soon assisted the leading architects and got his training as an architect. Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devşirme) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ...


Three years later he was a skilled architect and engineer. During this time he was also trained as a cadet (acemioğlan) over six years before being admitted to the brotherhood of Janissaries. This must have been prior to 1520, when he took part in Selim's military campaigns into Rhodes as part of the engineering corps. Two years later he also witnessed the conquest of Belgrade. He was present, as a member of the Household Cavalry, in the Battle of Mohács, led by the new sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He was promoted a captain in the Royal Guard and then given command of the Infantry Cadet Corps. He was later stationed in Austria, where he commanded the 62nd Orta of the Rifle Corps. He became a master of archery, while at the same time, as an architect, learning the weak points of structures when gunning them down. In 1535 he participated in the Baghdad campaign as a commanding officer of the Royal Guard. In 1537 he went on expedition to Corfu and Apulia and finally to Moldavia. Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Suleiman I Louis II of Hungary † Pál Tomori † György Zápolya Strength ~ 100,000 supported by 10,000 to 20,000 irregulars 160 to 300 cannons ~ 25,000 to 28,000 53 cannons (85 initial) John Zápolyas 8,000... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


During all these campaigns he had proven to be a trained engineer and an able architect. When the Ottoman army captured Cairo, Sinan was promoted to chief architect and was given the privilege of tearing down any buildings in the captured city that were not according to the city plan. During the campaign in the East, he assisted in the building of defences and bridges, such as a bridge across the Danube. He converted churches into mosques. During the Persian campaign in 1535 he built ships for the army and the artillery to cross Lake Van. For this he was given the title Haseki'i, Sergeant-at-Arms in the body guard of the Sultan, a rank equivalent to that of the Janissary Ağa. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


When Çelebi Lütfi Pasha became Grand Vizier in 1539, he appointed Sinan, who had previously served under his command, Architect of the Abode of Felicity (another name for Istanbul). This was the start of a remarkable career. It was his task to supervise the constructions and the flow of supplies within the Ottoman empire. he was also responsible for the design and construction of public works, such as roads, waterworks and bridges. Through the years he transformed his office into that of Architect of the Empire, an elaborate government department, with greater powers than his supervising minister. He became the head of a whole Corps of Court Architects, training a team of assistants, deputies and pupils. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ...


Work

His training as an army engineer gave Sinan rather an empirical approach to architecture than a theoretical one. But the same can be said of the great Western Renaissance architects, such as Brunelleschi and Michelangelo. Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


At the start of Sinan's career, Ottoman architecture was highly pragmatical. Buildings were repetitions of former types and were based on rudimentary plans. They were more an assembly of parts than a conception of a whole. An architect could sketch a plan for a new building and an assistant or foreman knew what to do, because novel ideas where avoided. Moreover, architects used an extravagant margin of safety in their designs, resulting in a wasteful use of material and labour. Sinan would gradually change all this. He was to transform established architectural practices, amplifying and transforming the traditions by adding innovations, trying to approach perfection.


The major works of Sinan can be divided roughly into three periods :


The early years (till the mid-1550s) : apprenticeship period

During these years he continued the traditional pattern of Ottoman architecture. But he gradually began exploring other possibilities, because, during his military career, he had the opportunity to study the architectural monuments in the conquered cities of Europe and the Middle East.


His first attempt to build an important monument was the Hüsrev Pasha mosque and its double medresse in Aleppo, Syria. It was built in the winter 1536-1537 between two army campaigns for his commander-in-chief and the governor of Aleppo. It was built in haste and it shows in the coarseness of execution and the crude decoration. Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...

Ṣehzade Mehmet Mosque
Ṣehzade Mehmet Mosque

His first major commission as the royal architect was the construction of a modest Haseki Hürrem complex for Roxelana, the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. He had to follow the plans drawn by his predecessors. Sinan retained the traditional arrangement of the available space without any innovations. Nevertheless it is already better built than the Aleppo mosque and it shows a certain elegance. But it has suffered from many restorations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494-September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...


He started in 1541 the construction of the mausoleum (türbe) of the Grand Admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa. It stands by the shore of Beṣiktaṣ on the European part of Istanbul, at the site where his fleet used to assemble. Oddly enough, the admiral is not buried there, but in his türbe next to the Iskele mosque. This mausoleum has been severely neglected since. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ...


Mihrimah Sultana, the only daughter of Süleyman and wife of the Grand Vizier Rüstem Pasha gave Sinan the commission to build a mosque with medrese (college), an imaret (soup kitchen) and a sibyan mekteb (Koran school) in Üsküdar. The imaret no longer exists. This Iskele Mosque (or Jetty mosque) already shows several hallmarks of Sinan's mature style : a spacious,high-vaulted basement, slender minarets, single-domed baldacchino, flanked by three semi-domes ending in three exedrae and a broad double portico. The construction was finished in 1548. The construction of a double portico was not a first in Ottoman architecture, but it set a trend for country mosques and mosques of viziers in particular. Rüstem Pasha and Mihrimah required them later in their three mosques in Istanbul and in the Rüstem Pasha Mosque in Tekirdağ. The inner portico traditionally have stalactite capitals while the outer portico have capitals with chevron patterns (baklava). Mihrimah Sultan Princess Mihrimah Sultana (1522 – 1578) was a daughter of Sultan Suleiman I, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, and his fourth wife, Aleksandra Lisowska, a Ukrainian woman better known as Roxelana or Karima, the name she was given upon her marriage. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet A baldachin, or baldaquin (Italian: baldacchino, baldachino), is a canopy of state over an altar or throne, It had its beginnings as a cloth canopy, but... An exedra adopted by James Cameron for a neoclassical interior space, at the Hermitage In architecture an exedra is a semicircular recess, often crowned by a half-dome, which is usually set into a buildings facade. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... Rákóczi’s Museum in TekirdaÄŸ The house where the Hungarian national hero Francis II Rákóczi spent his last 15 years, today property of the Hungarian State (Source & permission: Governorate of TekirdaÄŸ). The replica of Rákóczi’s house in TekirdaÄŸ is placed in KoÅ¡ice... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ... Chevron may refer to: Chevron, a V-shaped pattern seen in military or police insigna, heraldry, flag design, and architectural frets Chevron, a series of bones on the underside of the tail of reptiles Chevron Corporation, a petrochemical company Chevron Cars, an advertising campaign of the Chevron Corporation including stylized...


When sultan Süleyman the Magnificent returned from another Balkan campaign, he received news that his heir to the throne Ṣehzade Mehmet had died at the age of twenty-two. In November 1543, not long after Sinan had started the construction of the Iskele Mosque, the sultan ordered Sinan to build of a new major mosque with adjoining complex in memory of his favourite son. This Ṣehzade Mehmet Mosque would become larger and more ambitious than his previous ones. Architectural historians consider this mosque as Sinan's first masterpiece. Obsessed by the concept of a large central dome, Sinan turned to the plans of mosques such as the Fatih Pasha Mosque in Diyarbakır or the Piri Pasha Mosque in Hasköy. He must have visited both mosques during his Persian campaign. Sinan built a mosque with a central dome, this time with four equal half-domes. This superstructure is supported by four massive, but still elegant free-standing, octogonal, fluted piers and four piers incorporated in each lateral wall. In the corners, above roof level, four turrets serve as stabilizing anchors. This coherent concept already is markedly different from the additive plans of traditional Ottoman architecture. Sedefhar Mehmet Ağa would later copy the concept of fluted piers in his Sultan Ahmed Mosque in an attempt to lighten their appearance. Sinan, however, rejected this solution in his next mosques. The Åžehzade Mosque (Turkish: Åžehzade Camii) is a mosque in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Hasköy is a district of MuÅŸ Province of Turkey. ... Sedefhar Mehmet AÄŸa (about 1540 - 1617) is recorded as the Ottoman architect of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the Blue Mosque) in Istanbul. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ...


The period from the mid-1550s to 1570 : qualification stage

By 1550 sultan Süleyman the Magnificent was at the height of his powers. Having built a mosque for his son, he felt it was time to construct his own imperial mosque, an enduring monument larger than all the others, to be built on a gently sloping hillside dominating the Golden Horn. Money was no problem, since he had accumulated a treasure from the loot of his campaigns in Europe and the Middle East. He gave the order to his royal architect Sinan to build a mosque, the Süleymaniye, surrounded by a külliye consisting of four colleges, a soup kitchen, a hospital, an asylum, a hamam, a caravanserai and a hospice for travellers (tabhane). Sinan, now heading a formidable department with a great number of assistants, finished this formidable task in seven years. Before Süleymaniye, no mosques had been built with half cubic roofs. He got the idea of half cubic roof design from the Hagia Sophia. Through this monumental achievement, Sinan emerged from the anonimity of his predecessors. Sinan must have known the ideas of the Renaissance architect Leone Battista Alberti (who in turn had studied De architectura by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius), since he too was concerned in building the ideal church, reflecting harmony through the perfection of geometry in architecture. But, contrary to his Western counterparts, Sinan was more interested in simplification than in enrichment. He tried to achieve the largest volume under a single central dome. The dome is based on the circle, the perfect geometrical figure representing, in an abstract way, a perfect God. Sinan used subtle geometric relationships, using multiples of two when calculating the ratios and the proportions of his buildings. However, in a later stage, he also used divisions of three or ratios of two to three when working out the width and the proportions of domes, such as the Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque at Kadırga. View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... 1208-built (extended 1511) Külliye of Battal Gazi in Seyitgazi near EskiÅŸehir is a blend of Seljuk and Ottoman styles Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word kûl (meaning the whole, all) is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed... This article is about hammam, the Turkish bath. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ...


While he was fully occupied with the construction of the Süllimaniye, Sinan (or better the subordinates of his office under his supervision) draw the plans and gave definite instructions for many other constructions. But it is highly improbable that he supervised the construction of any of the provincial assignments .


Sinan built for the Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha a mosque and a funeral monument (türbe) at Silivrikapı (Istanbul) in 1551. Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ...


The next Grand Vizier Rüstem Pasha gave Sinan several more commissions. In 1550 Sinan built a large inn (han) in the Galata district of Istanbul. About ten years later another han in Edirne, and between 1544 and 1561 the Taṣ Han at Erzerum. He designed a caravanserai in Eregli and an octogal madrasah in Istanbul. “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... Karadeniz Eregli (Ereğli) is a city in Zonguldak, Turkey. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Between 1553 and 1555, Sinan built a mosque at Beşiktaş, a smaller version of the Üç Ṣerefeli mosque at Edirne, for the Grand Admiral Sinan Pasha. This proves again that Sinan thoroughly studied the work of other architects, moreover since he was responsible for the upkeep of these buildings. He copied the old form, pondered over the weaknesses in the construction and tried then his own solution. In 1554 Sinan used the form of the Sinan Pasha mosque again for the construction of the mosque for the next Grand Vizier Kara Ahmed Pasha in Istanbul, his first hexagonal mosque. By applying this hexagonal form, Sinan could reduce the side domes to half-domes and set them in the corners at an angle of 45 degrees. Clearly, Sinan must have appreciated this form, since he repeated it later in mosques such as the Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque at Kadırga and the Atık Valide Mosque at Űskűdar. This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Sinan Pasha (died 1596) was a Turkish soldier and statesman, of Albanian low origin. ...


In 1556 Sinan built the Haseki Hürrem Hamam, replacing the antique Baths of Zeuxippus still standing close to the Hagia Sophia. This would become one of the most beautiful hamams he ever constructed. The Baths of Zeuxippus were built on site of the Temple of Jupiter (seen here). ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...


In 1559 he built the Cafer Ağa madrasah below the forecourt of the Hagia Sophia. In the same year he began the construction of a small mosque for İskender Pasha at Kanlıka, beside the Bosphorus. This was one of the many minor and routine commissions the office of Sinan received over the years.


In 1561, when Rüstem Pasha died, Sinan began the construction of the Rüstem Pasha Mosque, as a memorial supervised by his widow Mihrimah Sultana. It is situated just below the Süleymaniye. This time the central form is octogonal, modelled on the monastery church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, with four small semi-domes set in the corners. In the same year, Sinan built a funeral monument (türbe) for Rüstem Pasha in the garden of the Şehzade Mosque, decorated with the finest tiles Iznik could produce. Mihrimah Sultana, having doubled her wealth after the death of her husband, now wanted a mosque of her own. Sinan built for her the Mihrimah Camii at Edirnekapı (Edirne Gate), on the highest of the seven hills of Istanbul. He raised the mosque on a vaulted platform, accentuating its hilltop site. There is some speculation concerning the dates, until recently this was supposed to be between 1540 and 1540, but now it is generally accepted to be between 1562 and 1565. Sinan, concerned with grandeur, built a mosque in one of his most imaginative designs, using new support systems and lateral spaces to increase the area available for windows. He built a central dome of 37 m high and 20 m wide, supported by pendentives, on a square base with two lateral galleries, each with three cupolas. At each corner of this square stands a gigantic pier, connected with immense arches each with 15 large windows and four circular ones, flooding the interior with light. The style of this revolutionary building was as close to the Gothic style as Ottoman structure permits. The Rüstem Pasha Mosque is an Ottoman mosque located in Hasircilar Carsisi (Strawmat Weavers Market) in Eminonu, Istanbul. ... Mihrimah Sultan Princess Mihrimah Sultana (1522 – 1578) was a daughter of Sultan Suleiman I, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, and his fourth wife, Aleksandra Lisowska, a Ukrainian woman better known as Roxelana or Karima, the name she was given upon her marriage. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... Detail of a 7th century icon of Saints Sergius and Bacchus “Saint Sergius” redirects here. ... The Åžehzade Mosque (Turkish: Åžehzade Camii) is a mosque in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... The pendentive (painted yellow) Pendentive in the Hagia Sophia A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Between 1560 and 1566 Sinan built a mosque in Istanbul for Zal Mahmut Pasha on a hillside beyond Ayvansaray. Sinan certainly conceived the plans and partly supervised the construction, but left the building of lesser areas to less than competent hands, since Sinan and his most able assistants were about to begin his masterpiece, the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. On the outside, the mosque rises high, with its east wall pierced by four tiers of windows. This gives the mosque an aspect of a palace or even a block of apartments. Inside, there are three broad galleries making the interior look compact. The heaviness of this structure makes the dome look unexpectedly lofty. These galleries look like a preliminary try-out for the galleries of the Selimiye Mosque.


The period from 1570 to his death : master stage

In this late stage of his life, Sinan tried to create unified and sublimely elegant interiors. To achieve this, he eliminated all the unnecessary subsidiary spaces beyond the supporting piers of the central dome. This can be seen in the Sokollu Mehmet Paşa mosque in Istanbul (1571-1572) and in the Selimiye mosque in Edirne. In other buildings of his final period, Sinan experimented with spatial and mural treatments that were new in the classical Ottoman architecture. Mehmed-paÅ¡a Sokolović (Turkish: Sokollu Mehmet PaÅŸa) (born 1506, Sokolovići1 – died 1579, Istanbul) was an important 16th century Ottoman statesman of Bosnian origins. ...

Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. Edirne, Turkey
Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. Edirne, Turkey

According to him from his autobiography “Tezkiretü’l Bünyan”, his masterpiece is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. Breaking free of the handicaps of traditional Ottoman architecture, this mosque marks the climax of Sinan's work and of all classical Ottoman architecture. While it was being built, the Christian architects saying of "You can never build a dome larger than the dome of Hagia Sophia and specially as Muslims" was his main motivation. When it was completed, Sinan claimed that it had the largest dome in the world, leaving Hagia Sophia behind. In fact, the dome height from the ground level was lower and the diameter barely larger (0.5 meters, approximately 2 feet) than the millennium-older Hagia Sophia. However, measured from its base the dome of Selimiye is higher, though statically seen, this makes it more stable and easier to build. Sinan was more than 80 years old when the building was finished. In this mosque he finally realized his aim of creating the optimum, completely unified, domed interior : a triumph of space that dominates the interior. He used this time an octagonal central dome (31.28 m wide and 42 m high), supported by eight elephantine piers of marble and granite. These supports lack any capitals but have squinches or consoles at their summit, leading to the optical effect that the arches seem to grow integrally out of the piers. By placing the lateral galleries far away, he increased the three-dimensional effect. The many windows in the screen walls flood the interior with light. The buttressing semi-domes are set in the four corners of the square under the dome. The weight and the internal tensions are hidden, producing an airy and elegant effect rarely seen under a central dome. The four minarets (83 m high) at the corners of the prayer hall are the tallest in the Moslim world, accentuating the vertical posture of this mosque that already dominates the city. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ...


Conclusion

At the start of his career as an architect, Sinan had to deal with an established, traditional domed architecture. His training as an army engineer led him to approach architecture rather from an empirical point of view, instead of a theoretical one. He started to experiment with the design and engineering of single-domed and multiple-domed structures. He tried to obtain a new geometrical purity, a rationality and a spatial integrity in his structures and designs of mosques. Through all this, he demonstrated his creativity and his wish to create a clear, unified space. He started to develop a series of variations on the domes, surrounding them in different ways with semi-domes, piers, screen walls and different sets of galleries. His domes and arches are curved, but he avoided curvilinear elements in the rest of his design, transforming the circle of the dome into an rectangular, hexagonal or octagonal system. He tried to obtain a rational harmony between the exterior pyramidal composition of semi-domes, culminating in a single drumless dome, and the interior space where this central dome vertically integrates the space into a unified whole. His genius lies in the organization of this space and in the resolution of the tensions created by the design. He was also an innovator in the use of decoration and motifs, merging them into the architectural forms as a whole. He accentuated the centre underneath the central dome by flooding it with light from the many windows. He incorporated his mosques in an efficient way into a complex (külliye), serving the needs of the community as an intellectual centre, a community centre and serving the social needs and the health problems of the faithful.


When Sinan died, the classical Ottoman architecture had reached its climax. No successor was gifted enough to better the design of the Selimiye mosque and to develop it any further. His students retreated to earlier models, such as the Şehzade mosque. Invention faded away and a decline set in.


Constructions

During his tenure during 50 years of the post of imperial architect, Sinan is said to have constructed or supervised 476 buildings (196 of which still survive), according to the official list of his works, the Tazkirat-al-Abniya. He couldn't possibly have designed them all, but he relied on the skills of his office. He took credit and the responsibility for their work. For, as a janissary , and thus a slave of the sultan, his primary responsibility was to the sultan. In his spare time, he also designed buildings for the chief officials. He delegated to his assistants the construction of less important buildings in the provinces. The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...

  • 94 large mosques (camii),
  • 57 colleges,
  • 52 smaller mosques (mescit),
  • 48 bath-houses (hamam).
  • 35 palaces (saray),
  • 22 mausoleums (türbe),
  • 20 caravanserai (kervansaray; han),
  • 17 public kitchens (imaret),
  • 8 bridges,
  • 8 store houses or granaries
  • 7 Koranic schools (medrese),
  • 6 aqueducts,
  • 3 hospitals (darüşşifa)

Some of his works: This article is about hammam, the Turkish bath. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...

Mimar Sinan on the old Turkish Lira banknote
Mimar Sinan on the old Turkish Lira banknote

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ISO 4217 Code TRL User(s) Turkey and the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Subunit 1/100 kuruÅŸ 1/4000 para Symbol TL Coins 5000, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 250,000 lira Banknotes 250,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000, 10... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... Kilic Ali Pasha Complex is a group of buildings designed by Mimar Sinan. ... The Mehmed PaÅ¡a Sokolović Bridge in ViÅ¡egrad across the Drina River in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina was built at the end of the 16th century on the order of the Grand Vizier Mehmed PaÅ¡a Sokolović. The design is traditionally attributed to the Ottoman court architect... The bridge on the Drina (around 1890) ViÅ¡egrad (Cyrillic: Вишеград) is a town and municipality in the eastern part of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Rüstem Pasha Mosque is an Ottoman mosque located in Hasircilar Carsisi (Strawmat Weavers Market) in Eminonu, Istanbul. ... The Kadirga Sokullu Mosque is in Istanbul. ... For other uses, see Trikala (disambiguation). ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...

Death

He died in 1588 and is buried in a tomb, a türbe of his own design, in the cemetery just outside the walls of the Süleymaniye Mosque to the north, across a street named Mimar Sinan Caddesi in his honour. He was buried near the tombs of his greatest patrons sultan Süleyman and his wife Haseki Hürrem. 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ...


He is also honored by giving his name to :

This is a list of named craters on Mercury. ... Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts (Turkish: ) is a Turkish state university dedicated to the higher education of fine arts. ...

See Also

Sinan-i Atik also known as Azadli Sinan and Atik Sinan (Old Sinan to distinguish him from Koca Mimar Sinan Agha), born in Byzance (Byzantine) was an Ottoman architect for Mehmed II and Mustafa III during the 15th Century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of Painters, Sculptors and Architects, book IV, page 122; ed. Gaunt, London and New York, 1963
  2. ^ Sinan. Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  3. ^ Byzantium and the Magyars, Gyula Moravcsik, Samuel R. Rosenbaum p. 28
  4. ^ Talbot Hamlin, Architecture Through the Ages, University of Michigan, p 208
  5. ^ [1]

Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Goodwin Godfrey, "A History of Ottoman Architecture"; Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, reprinted 2003; ISBN 0-500-27429-0
  • Turner, J. - Grove Dictionary of Art - Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7
  • Guler, Ara; Burelli, Augusto Romano; Freely, John (1992). Sinan: Architect of Suleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Golden Age. WW Norton&Co. Inc. ISBN 0-500-34120-6
  • Çelebi, Sai Mustafa (2004). Book Of Buildings : Tezkiretü'l Bünyan Ve Tezkiretü'l-Ebniye (Memoirs Of Sinan The Architect). Koç Kültür Sanat Tanıtım ISBN 975-296-017-0
  • Aptullah Kuran, Ara Güler (Illustrator), Mustafa Niksarli (Illustrator): Mimar Sinan, Istanbul 1986. ISBN 3-89122-007-3 (in Turkish)
  • Aptullah Kuran: Sinan: The grand old master of Ottoman architecture, Ada Press Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-941469-00-X (in English)
  • Gülru Necipoglu The Age of Sinan, 2005
  • J.M. Rogers. Sinan. 2005. I.B. Tauris ISBN 1-84511-096-X.
  • Egli Ernst, Sinan, der Baumeister osmanischer Glanzzeit, Erlenbach-Zürich, Verlag für Architektur, 1954; ISBN 1 904772 26 9 (in German)
  • Van Vynckt (ed.), Randall J.. International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture - Tome 1 : Architects; article on Sinan written by David G. Wilkins. Detroit, London, Washington: St. James Press.  ISBN 1-55862-089-3

The Grove Dictionary of Art (1996) is a 34-volume encyclopedia of art. ... Ara Güler (born August 16, 1928,Istanbul Turkey) is a Turkish photojournalist and photographer of Armenian descent, nicknamed the Eye of Istanbul or the Photographer of Istanbul. // Early life Güler was born into a family of Armenian ethnicity. ... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mimar Sinan - All About Turkey (511 words)
Sinan, who held the position of chief architect of the palace, which meant being the top manager of construction works of the Ottoman Empire, for nearly 50 years, worked with a large team of assistants consisting of architects and master builders.
The diameter of the dome which exceeds 31 meters at Selimiye Mosque which Sinan completed when he was 80, is the most significant example of the level of achievement Sinan reached in architecture.
Sinan's own mausoleum which is located at the north-east part of the Süleymaniye complex on the other hand, is a very plain structure.
Sinan - definition of Sinan in Encyclopedia (411 words)
Koca Mimar Sinan Ağa (1490-1588) was the Ottoman chief architect for sultans Selim I, Suleiman I, Selim II and Murad III.
The son of Greek Orthodox Christian parents (baptised Joseph), Sinan was born in 1490 in a small village in Caesaria in Anatolia (today Kayseri, possibly related to the ancient city of Caesarea Mazaca).
Sinan is said to have constructed 84 great mosques (cami), 52 smaller mosques (mescit), 57 universities, 7 Quran schools (medrese), 22 mausoleums (türbe), 17 public kitchens (imaret), 3 hospitals (darüşşifa), 6 aqueducts, 8 bridges, 20 caravanserais (kervansaray; han), 35 palaces (saray), 8 store houses and 41 bath-houses (hamam).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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