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Encyclopedia > Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

A model of a typical ANZAC soldier and his horse during the campaign
Date January 28, 1915 -October 28, 1918
Location Sinai, Palestine, and Syria
Result British Victory
Territorial
changes
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Combatants
United Kingdom
Australia
New Zealand
Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Sir John Maxwell
Archibald Murray
Henry George Chauvel
Philip Chetwode
Charles Dobell
Edmund Allenby
Djemal Pasha
Kress von Kressenstein
Jadir Bey
Tala Bey
Erich von Falkenhayn
Otto Liman von Sanders
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
SuezRomaniMagdhabaRafa1st Gaza2nd Gaza3rd GazaBeershebaMughar RidgeJerusalemMegiddo

The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of World War I was a series of battles which took place on the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine, and Syria between January 28, 1915 to October 28, 1918 was fought between the British, Australian, and New Zealander forces against the German and Turkish forces. Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1741 KB) Summary A model of a typical ANZAC soldier with his horse during the Sinai and Palestine campaign, on display at the Auckland War Memorial Museum, photographed by DONeil. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Sir Archibald James Murray (1860-1945) was a British military officer during World War I, most famous for his commanding the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from 1916-7. ... General Sir Henry George Harry Chauvel GCMG KCB (April 16, 1865 - March 4, 1945) was a general officer of the First Australian Imperial Force that fought during World War I. He is less well known than a contemporary, General John Monash, because he served in the Middle East theatre and... Philip Walhouse Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode (21 September 1869–1950) was a British cavalry officer during World War I. He served on the Western Front in smaller cavalry commands receiving little distinction. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal PaÅŸa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Midilli. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870 - 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who directed the Ottoman Army during World War I. Von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... Battle of Romani Conflict First World War Date 3– 5 August 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Egypt Result Allied victory The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. ... Battle of Magdhaba Conflict First World War Date 23 December 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Gen. ... Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... Combatants Australia, United Kingdom New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Kress von Kressenstein The Battle of El Mughar Ridge on 13 November 1917 took place at Junction Station, where the Haifa-Jerusalem line branches to Beersheba. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn Strength Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army Casualties 18,000 (for entire campaign) 25,000 (for entire cmpaign) {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. ... Battle of Megiddo Conflict First World War Date September 19-21, 1918 Place Megiddo, Palestine Result British victory The Battle of Megiddo of September 19-21, 1918, was an important milestone in British General Edmund Allenbys conquest of Palestine during World War I. His forces made a massive push... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ FilastÄ«n, FalastÄ«n) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Sinai campaign

The Ottoman Empire, at the urging of their German ally, chose to attack British forces in Egypt and shut the Suez Canal in the First Suez Offensive. The Ottoman army, under the command of the Turkish Minister of Marine, Djemal Pasha, was based in Damascus (now Syria) some 225 miles north east of the Suez Canal. At this time, the Sinai was an empty desert and very hard for an army to cross (no roads, no water). The chief of staff for Ottoman army was a German, Colonel Kress von Kressenstein, who organized the attack and managed to get supplies for the army as it crossed the desert. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: ‎, translit: , French: ), west of the Sinai Peninsula, is a 163-km-long (101 miles) and, at its narrowest point, 300-m-wide (984 ft) maritime canal in Egypt between Port Said (Būr Saīd) on the Mediterranean Sea... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal Paşa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Midilli. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870 - 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who directed the Ottoman Army during World War I. Von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. ...

Main article: First Suez Offensive

The Ottoman Suez Expeditionary Force arrived at the canal on February 2, 1915. The attack failed to achieve surprise as the British were aware of the Ottoman army's approach. In fighting that lasted for two days the Ottomans were beaten, losing some 2000 men. British losses were minimal. The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Because the Suez Canal was vital to the British war effort, this failed attack caused the British to leave far more soldiers protecting the canal than they had planned on, resulting in a smaller force for the Gallipoli Campaign. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula...

Main article: Battle of Romani

More than a year passed with the British troops content to guard the Suez Canal and the Turks busy fighting the Russians in the Caucusus and the British at Gallipoli and in Mesopotamia. Then in July, the Ottoman army tried another offensive against the Suez. Again, the Turks advanced with an over-sized division. Again they ran into a well prepared British force, this time at Romani. Again, they retreated after two days of fighting August 3 - August 5, 1916. Battle of Romani Conflict First World War Date 3– 5 August 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Egypt Result Allied victory The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


This attack convinced the British to push their defence of the Canal further out, into the Sinai, and so starting in October, the British under Lieutenant General Sir Charles Dobell began operations into the Sinai desert and on to the border of Palestine. Initial efforts were limited to building a railway and a waterline across the Sinai. After several months building up supplies and troops, the British were ready for an attack. The first battle was the capture of Magdhaba on December 23 1916. This was a success, the fort was captured. Battle of Magdhaba Conflict First World War Date 23 December 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Gen. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ...


On January 8, 1917 the Anzac Mounted Division attacked the fort-town of Rafa. The attack was successful and the majority of the Turkish garrison was captured. The British had accomplished their objective of protecting the Suez Canal from Turkish attacks but the new government of David Lloyd George wanted more. January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Anzac Mounted Division was a mounted infantry (light horse) division formed in March Egypt during World War I following the Battle of Gallipoli when the Australian and New Zealand mounted regiments returned from fighting as infantry. ... Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ...


Palestine campaign

The British army in Egypt was ordered to go on the offensive against the Ottoman Turks in Palestine. In part this was to support the Arab revolt which had started early in 1916, in part this was to try and accomplish something positive after the years of fruitless battles on the Western Front. The British commander in Egypt, Sir Archibald Murray, suggested that he needed more troops and ships, but this request was refused. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Flag of the Arab Revolt This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Sir Archibald James Murray (1860-1945) was a British military officer during World War I, most famous for his commanding the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from 1916-7. ...

Assault on Gaza, 1917
Enlarge
Assault on Gaza, 1917

The Ottoman forces were holding a rough line from the fort at Gaza, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, to the town of Beersheba, which was the terminus of the Ottoman railway that extended north to Damascus. The British commander in the field, Dobell, choose to attack Gaza, using a short hook move on March 26, 1917. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x732, 83 KB) Summary Assault on Gaza, 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x732, 83 KB) Summary Assault on Gaza, 1917. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Soroka Hospital, Beersheba Beersheba or Beer-sheva (Hebrew: (help· info), Standard Hebrew Bəʼer Šévaʻ, Tiberian Hebrew Bəʼer Šéḇaʻ or בְּאֶר שָׁבַע Bəʼer Šāḇaʻ; Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ (help· info)) is a city in Israel. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ...

Main article: First Battle of Gaza

The British attack was essentially a failure. Due to mis-communication, some units retreated when they should have held onto their gains and so the fortress was not taken. First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ...


The government in London believed the reports from the field which indicated a substantial victory had been won and ordered General Murray to move on and capture Jerusalem. The British were in no position to attack Jerusalem as they first needed to break through the Ottoman defensive positions. These positions were rapidly improved and credit for the Turkish defence is given to the German chief-of-staff Kress von Kressenstein. Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870 - 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who directed the Ottoman Army during World War I. Von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. ...

Main article: Second Battle of Gaza

A second attack on the fort of Gaza was launched one month later on April 17, 1917. This attack, supported by naval gunfire and even a few early tanks was also a failure. It was essentially a frontal assault on a fortified position, and it didn't work at the cost of some 6,000 British casualties. As a result both General Dobell and General Murray were removed from command. The new man put in charge was General Sir Edmund Allenby and his orders were clear: take Jerusalem by Christmas. Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2...


Allenby - after personally reviewing the Turkish defensive positions - asked for more forces: three more infantry divisions, aircraft, and artillery. This request was granted and by October, 1917, the British were ready for their next attack.


The Ottoman army had three active fronts at this time: Mesopotamia, Arabia, and the Gaza front. They also had substantial forces deployed around Constantinople and in the (now quiet) Caucasus front. Given all these demands, the army in Gaza was only about 35,000 strong, lead by the German General Falkenhayn and concentrated in three main defensive locations: Gaza, Tell Esh Sheria, and Beersheba. Allenby's army was now much larger, some 88,000 troops in good condition and well equipped. Most of these British soldiers were from Australia and New Zealand. The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ...

Main article: Battle of Beersheba

A key feature to the British attack was to convince the Turks (and their German leaders) that once again, Gaza was to be attacked. This deception campaign was extremely thorough and convincing. When the British in fact launched their attack on Beersheba, the Turks were caught by surprise. The attack on Beersheba has been called the last successful cavalry charge in history. The victory on October 31, 1917 did not end the campaign because the Turks redeployed some forces and largely held their position. The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ...

Allenby's Offensive, November-December 1917
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Allenby's Offensive, November-December 1917

The British then attacked the Ottoman position at Tal Esh Sheria on November 6 and they forced the Turks to abandon this position after a short battle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1142x924, 171 KB) Summary Allenbys offensive, November-December 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1142x924, 171 KB) Summary Allenbys offensive, November-December 1917. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ...

Main article: Third Battle of Gaza

On the 7th, the British attacked Gaza for the 3rd time and this time, the Turks, worried about being cut off, retreated in the face of the British assault. Gaza had finally been captured. Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke...


The Turkish defensive position was shattered, the Ottoman army was retreating in some disarray, General Allenby ordered his army to pursue the enemy. The British followed closely on the heels of the retreating Ottoman forces. An attempt by the Turks to form a defence of a place called Junction Station (Wadi Sarar) was foiled by a British attack November 13, 1917. General Falkenhayn next tried to form a new defensive line from Bethlehem to Jerusalem to Jaffa. The first British attack on Jerusalem failed but with a short rest and the gathering of more infantry divisions, Allenby tried again and on December 9, 1917 Jerusalem was captured. This was a major political event for the British government of David Lloyd George, one of the few real successes the British could point to after three long bloody years of war. November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism industries. ... Jaffa port Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters, Yapu), is an ancient port city located in Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


On the Turkish side, this defeat marked the exit of Djemal Pasha back to Istanbul. Djemal had given real command to German officers like von Kressenstein and von Falkenhayn more than a year earlier but now, defeated like Enver Pasha was at the Battle of Sarikamis, he gave up even nominal command and returned the capital. Less than a year remained before he was forced out of the government. General Falkenhayn was also replaced, in March of 1918. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ...


The Final Year: Palestine and Syria

Allenby's Final Attack, September 1918
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Allenby's Final Attack, September 1918

The British government had hopes that the Ottoman Empire could be defeated early in the coming year with successful campaigns in Palestine and Mesopotamia but the Spring Offensive by the Germans on the Western Front delayed the expected attack on Syria for nine full months. General Allenby's army was largely redeployed to France and he was given brand new divisions recruited from India. These divisions spent the spring and summer of 1918 training. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x848, 103 KB) Summary Allenbys final attack, September 1918. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x848, 103 KB) Summary Allenbys final attack, September 1918. ... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ...


Because the British achieved complete control of the air with their new fighter planes, the Turks, and their new German commander General Liman von Sanders, had no clear idea where the British were going to attack. Compounding the problems, the Turks, at the direction of their War Minister Enver Pasha withdrew their best troops during the summer for the creation of Enver's Army of Islam, leaving behind poor quality, dispirited soldiers. T. E. Lawrence and his Arab fighters were of significant use during this time. His forces staged many hit-and-run attacks on Turkish supply lines and tied down thousands of soldiers in garrisons throughout Palestine, Jordan, and Syria. A Sopwith Camel at the Imperial War Museum in London. ... Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... T.E. Lawrence. ...

General Allenby finally launched his long-delayed attack on September 19, 1918. The campaign has been called the Battle of Megiddo (which is the correct spelling of the name of an ancient town known in the west as Armageddon). Again, the British spent a great deal of effort to deceive the Turks as to their actual intended target of operations. This effort was, again, successful and the Turks were taken by surprise when the British attacked Meggido in a sudden storm. The Turkish troops started a full scale retreat, the British bombed the fleeing columns of men from the air and within a week, the Turkish army had ceased to exist as a military force. Battle of Megiddo Conflict First World War Date September 19-21, 1918 Place Megiddo, Palestine Result British victory The Battle of Megiddo of September 19-21, 1918, was an important milestone in British General Edmund Allenbys conquest of Palestine during World War I. His forces made a massive push... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Look up Armageddon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Australian Lighthorse troops marched unopposed into Damascus on September 30, 1918. T.E. Lawrence and his Arab troops entered Damascus the next day to receive an "Official" surrender. The war in Palestine was over. The Turkish government signed an armistice on October 28, 1918 and outright surrendered two days later. 600 years of Ottoman rule over the Middle East had come to an end. September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In popular media

This campaign has been depicted in several films. The most famous by far is Lawrence of Arabia (1962), though it focused primarily on T.E. Lawrence and the Arab Revolt. Other films dealing with this topic include Forty Thousand Horsemen (1941), and The Lighthorsemen (1987), with Peter Phelps and Nick Waters, both of which focused on the role of the ANZAC cavalry forces during the campaign. Lawrence of Arabia is an Academy Award-winning film based, with some licence, on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Peter Phelps (born September 20, 1960 in Sydney) is an Australian actor. ... Nick Waters on ATV World Main News at 7:30 Nick Waters is a Hong Kong television newsreader and journalist working for ATV news. ...


Summary

The British lost a total of 550,000 casualties - more than 90% of these were not due to battle but instead due to disease, heat, etc. Total Turkish losses are unknown but almost certainly larger. They lost an entire army in the fighting and the Turks poured a vast number of troops into the front over the three years of combat. Military historians argue if this campaign by the British was worth the effort. In the opinion of General Esposito (the editor of the West Point Atlas of American Wars) "This considerable subsidiary effort might have been put to better use on the more decisive Western front."


Even so, the historical consequences of this campaign are hard to overestimate. The British conquest of Palestine led directly to the British mandate over Palestine and Trans-Jordan which, in turn, paved the way for the creation of the states of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. The British Mandate of Palestine was a swathe of territory in the Middle East, formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire, which the League of Nations entrusted to the United Kingdom to administer in the aftermath of World War I as a Mandate Territory. ... Corresponding geographically to todays Kingdom of Jordan, the Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political subdivision of the British Mandate of Palestine, split off in April 1921. ...


Sources

  • Bruce, Anthony (2002). The Last Crusade: The Palestinian Campaign in the First World War. John Murray.
  • Esposito, Vincent (ed.) (1959). The West Point Atlas of American Wars - Vol. 2. Frederick Praeger Press.
  • First World War.com. Defence of the Suez Canal, 1915. Retrieved December 19, 2005.
  • Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace. Avon Books.
  • Keegan, John (1998). The First World War. Random House Press.
  • Woodward, David R (2006). Forgotten Soldiers of the First World War - Lost Voices from the Middle Eastern Front. Tempus Publishing.

See also


World War I
European Theatre
Balkans | Western Front | Eastern Front | Italian Front
Middle Eastern
Caucasus | Mesopotamia | Sinai and Palestine | Gallipoli | Aden | Persia
Africa
South-West Africa | West Africa | East Africa
Asian and Pacific Theatres
German Samoa and German New Guinea | Tsingtao
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Mediterranean Sea | Naval battles
Air battles
Contemporary conflicts
Maritz Rebellion | North-West Frontier, India | Easter Rising | Russian Revolution
World War I
Theatres Main events Specific articles Participants See also

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Sarajevo assassination
The July Ultimatum Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire, First Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha, Vehip Pasha, Kerim Pasha, Mustafa Kemal Nikolai Yudenich The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the Caucasus during World War I between the Russian Empire a member of the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany The African Theatre of World War I was a set of unrelated wars for control over German colonies in Africa: the German colonies of Kamerun, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britian, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I was a two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togo and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Japan, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia Germany The Asian and Pacific Theatre of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 Aerial warfare was introduced alongside many other innovations in World War I. Previously wars had been fought on land and at sea, but the advent of aircraft technology allowed a third dimension: a war in the air. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Dublin Metropolitan Police Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... European military alliances in 1915. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Main theatres:
Western Front
Eastern Front
Italian Front
Middle Eastern Theatre
Balkan Theatre
Atlantic Theatre Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Other theatres:
African Theatre
Pacific Theatre Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany The African Theatre of World War I was a set of unrelated wars for control over German colonies in Africa: the German colonies of Kamerun, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... Combatants Japan, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia Germany The Asian and Pacific Theatre of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


General timeline:
WWI timeline The following tables list the main events happened during World War I. // 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 Post-1920 Categories: | ...

1914:
Battle of Liège
Battle of Tannenberg
Invasion of Serbia
First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of Arras
Battle of Sarikamis
1915:
Mesopotamian Campaign
Battle of Gallipoli
Italian Campaign
Conquest of Serbia
1916:
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Brusilov Offensive
Conquest of Romania
Great Arab Revolt
1917:
Second Battle of Arras (Vimy Ridge)
Battle of Passchendaele
Capture of Baghdad
Conquest of Palestine
1918:
Spring Offensive
Hundred Days Offensive
• Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Armistice with Germany
Armistice with Ottoman Empire
The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. // The plan In 1870, soon after the German military defeated the French in the Franco-Prussian War, German military leader Helmuth von Moltke began formulating a plan... Combatants Imperial Russia German Empire Commanders General Alexander Samsonov General Paul von Rennenkampf General Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg General Erich Ludendorff Strength 150,000 210,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive conflict between the... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bulow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total The... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Louis Maudhuy Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army Three corps of the German First, Second and Seventh Armies The Battle of Arras (also known as the First Battle of Arras), which began on October 1, 1914, was an attempt by the French Army... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France Germany Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 dead 337,000; of whom 100,000 dead The Battle of Verdun was a major battle... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Combatants Royal Navy (Grand Fleet) Kaiserliche Marine (High Seas Fleet) Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... Combatants Russian Empire Austro-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties ~500,000 men killed and wounded 975... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Flag of the Arab Revolt This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants Allies Central Powers Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from August 8, 1918 to November 11, 1918. ... The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a major battle of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in woods near Compiègne on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ...

Military engagements
Naval warfare
Air warfare
Cryptography
People
Poison gas
Railways
Technology
Trench warfare A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 Aerial warfare was introduced alongside many other innovations in World War I. Previously wars had been fought on land and at sea, but the advent of aircraft technology allowed a third dimension: a war in the air. ... In cryptography, trench codes were codes used for secrecy by field armies in World War I. A reasonably-designed code is generally more difficult to crack than a classical cipher, but of course suffers from the difficulty of preparing, distributing, and protecting codebooks. ... A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Armenian Genocide
Assyrian Genocide Armenian Genocide photo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Aftermath:
Aftermath
Casualties
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of St. Germain
• Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Lausanne
League of Nations Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement imposed on Hungary after World War I by the victorious powers. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ...

Entente Powers
Russian Empire
France
British Empire
  » United Kingdom
  » Australia
  » Canada
  » India
  » New Zealand
  » Newfoundland
  » South Africa
Italy
Romania
United States
Serbia
Portugal
China
Japan
Belgium
Montenegro
Greece
Armenia
more… European military alliances in 1915. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire_1914_17. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland. ... National motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Download high resolution version (2250x1500, 14 KB)Flag of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flaf_of_Serbia_(1882-1918). ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_of_Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... European military alliances in 1915. ...


Central Powers
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I   Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official) Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871-1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... The flag of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. ...

• Category: World War I
A war to end all wars
Female roles
Literature
Total war
Spanish flu
Veterans
World War I (then known as The Great War) was at the time and in the years just after described as the war to end all wars (or, in the jargon of the French Poilus: la der des der, i. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... The Spanish Flu Pandemic (less misleadingly called the 1918 flu pandemic) was a pandemic in 1918 and 1919 caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus (which apparently killed via cytokine storm, explaining the severe nature and unusual age distribution). ... The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the First World War (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918). ...


Contemporaneous conflicts:
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
Maritz Rebellion
Easter Rising
Russian Revolution
Russian Civil War
Finnish Civil War
North Russia Campaign
• Wielkopolska Uprising
Polish–Soviet War
Turkish War of Independence also known as the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

// Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... The Second Balkan War was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and Greece and Serbia on the other side. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Dublin Metropolitan Police Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Combatants Whites: White Guards German Empire Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards Bolshevist Russia Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen Eero Haapalainen Eino Rahja Kullervo Manner Strength 50,000 - 90,000 50,000 - 90,000 Casualties 3,450 killed in action 1, 400-1,650 executed 46 missing 5,200... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Soldiers of the Great Polish Army Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal, Fevzi Cakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more vollunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The Greco–Turkish...

More information on World War I:

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