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Encyclopedia > Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40

The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai (Coptic: ⲥⲓⲛⲁ sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا; Arabic, sina'a سيناء; Sinin in most Semitic languages, Hebrew: סיני Si-nai) is a triangle-shaped peninsula in Egypt. It lies between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south), forming a land bridge to Southwest Asia. Its area is about 60,000 km². In this panorama view of the southeastern Mediterranean (28. ... In this panorama view of the southeastern Mediterranean (28. ... The northern end of the Red Sea is bifurcated by the Sinai Peninsula, creating the Gulf of Suez (Arabic: خليج السويس; transliterated: Khalyj as-Suways) in the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... // (total flights to date in parentheses) Bryan D. OConnor (2), Commander Sidney M. Gutierrez (1), Pilot James P. Bagian (2), Mission Specialist 1 Tamara E. Jernigan (1), Mission Specialist 2 M. Rhea Seddon (2), Mission Specialist 3 F. Drew Gaffney (1), Payload Specialist 1 Millie Hughes-Fulford (1), Payload... Sinai is a word derived from the name of the ancient Moon God Sin, and can mean any of the following: Sinai Peninsula, a location in Egypt Sinai Beach, a Christian Metalcore band. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Arabic redirects here. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...

Contents

History

St. Catherine's Monastery is the oldest monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula

The Sinai was inhabited by the Monitu and was called Mafkat or Country of Turquoise. From the time of the First dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Arabic names Wadi Maghareh and Serabit el-Khadim. They were operated on and off on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first known mines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 151 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 151 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai ... St. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Serabit el-Khadim (Arabic, also transliterated Serabit al-Khadim, Serabit el-Khadem) is a locality in the south-west Sinai Peninsula where turquoise was mined extensively in antiquity, mainly by the ancient Egyptians. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...

Topography of Sinai Peninsula
Map of Sinai Peninsula with country borders shown

The Mamluks of Egypt controlled the Sinai from 1260 to 1518, when the Ottoman Sultan, Selim the Grim, destroyed them at the Battles of Marj Dabiq and al-Raydaniyya. From then until the early 20th century, Sinai, as part of the Pashalik of Egypt, was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In 1906 it became part of the British-controlled Egypt, when the Turkish government yielded to British pressure to hand over the peninsula. The border imposed by the British runs in an almost straight line from Rafah on the Mediterranean shore to Taba on the Gulf of Aqaba. This line served as the eastern border of Sinai ever since, and is now the international border between Israel and Egypt. Download high resolution version (417x799, 41 KB)Topography of Sinai Peninsula image description here larger version here Image courtesy: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Sinai Peninsula Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (417x799, 41 KB)Topography of Sinai Peninsula image description here larger version here Image courtesy: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Sinai Peninsula Categories: NASA images ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 479 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (956 × 1,196 pixels, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 479 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (956 × 1,196 pixels, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Taba (Arabic: طابا Hebrew: טאבה ) is a small Egyptian village near the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ...


In 1948, Egyptian forces passed through Sinai on their way to invade the newly-created state of Israel based on a United Nations partition dividing the land between the Jews and the Arabs. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Israeli forces entered the north-eastern corner of Sinai, but withdrew shortly after, following British and American pressure. Under the terms of the 1949 Armistice Agreement, Sinai, together with the Gaza Strip, remained under Egyptian control, although parts of it were demilitarized. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... (Redirected from 1949 Armistice Agreement) The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


In 1956, Egypt used its control of Sinai to impose a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat. Following this, Israeli forces, aided by Britain and France (which sought to regain control over the Suez Canal) invaded Sinai, and took control over the entire peninsula within a few days (see Suez Crisis). Several months later, Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong American and Soviet pressure. Following this, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), was stationed in Sinai to prevent any military occupation of the Sinai. Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal...


In 1967, Egypt reinforced its military presence in Sinai, renewed the blockade on Eilat, and on May 16 ordered the UNEF out of Sinai effective immediately. Secretary-General U Thant eventually complied and ordered the withrawal without Security Council authorization. In response, Israel initiated the Six-Day War in which the Egyptian army was defeated, and Israel took control over the entire peninsula. The Suez Canal, the east bank of which was now controlled by Israel, was closed. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


In the Yom Kippur War of 1973, Egyptian forces built pontoon bridges to cross the Suez Canal, and stormed the supposedly impregnable Bar-Lev Line to gain control of most of the Eastern Bank. With depth reaching 20 km in Sinai, the war ended with some of each side's forces on both sides of the canal. As part of the subsequent Sinai Disengagement Agreements, Israel withdrew from west of the canal and pulled out of an additional strip in the western Sinai - while Egyptians held positions in Sinai - allowing for the later re-opening of the canal eventually under Egyptian control. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Bar Lev Line fortifications The Bar Lev Line was a chain of fortifiations built by Israel along the eastern coast of the Suez Canal after it captured the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt during the 1967 Six-Day War. ...


In 1979 Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty in which Israel agreed to transfer all control over Sinai to Egypt, despite the fact that large oil reserves had recently been found in the region. Subsequently, Israel pulled out of Sinai in several stages, ending in 1982. The Israeli pull-out involved the dismantling of almost all of the Israeli settlements, including the town of Yamit in north-eastern Sinai. The exception was Ofira, which became the resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh. The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Yamit (ימית) was an Israeli settlement in the Sinai Peninsula established during Israels occupation of the peninsula from the end of the 1967 Six Day War until that part of the Sinai was handed over to Egypt in 1982 as part of the terms of the Egypt–Israel peace treaty. ... Ofira (Hebrew: אופירה) was an Israeli settlement in the Sharm el-Sheikh area of the southern Sinai Peninsula, an Egyptian territory that was under Israeli occupation from 1967 to 1982. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ...


Present

Egypt: Site of Sinai (top right).

The Sinai Peninsula is currently divided among several governorates, or provinces, of Egyptian administration. The southern portion of the Sinai is called Ganub Sina in Arabic, literally "South of Sinai"; the northern portion is named Shamal Sina', or "North of Sinai". The other three governates converge on the Suez Canal, including el-Sewais, literally "the Suez"; on its southern end and crosses into Egypt-proper. In the center is el-Isma'ileyyah, and Port Said lies in the north with its capital at Port Said. Image File history File links Egypt-region-map-cities. ... Image File history File links Egypt-region-map-cities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with muhafazah. ... Map of Egypt showing South Sinai Governorate South Sinai Governorate (Arabic: جنوب سيناء) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Shamal Sina is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Suez Governorate (Arabic: محافظة السويس ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Map of Egypt showing Al Ismailiyah Governorate. ... Map of Egypt showing Port Said Governorate. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ...


Approximately 66,500 people live in Ganub Sina and 314,000 live in Shamal Sina'. Port Said itself has a population of roughly 500,000 people. Portions of the populations of el-Isma'ileyyah and el-Suweis live in Sinai, while the rest live on the western side of the Suez Canal in Egypt-proper. The combined population of these two governorates is roughly 1.3 million (only a part of that population live in the Sinai, while the rest live on the western side of the Suez Canal). Map of Egypt showing Al Ismailiyah Governorate. ... Suez Governorate (Arabic: محافظة السويس ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ...


The Sinai has, over the past 30 years, become a tourist destination due to its spectacular natural beauty, rich coral reefs, biblical history, and its proximity to Israel. Large numbers of Egyptians from the Nile Valley and Delta have moved to the area to work in tourism, while at the same time development has robbed native Bedouin of their grazing land and fishing grounds. As a result the Sinai has been the site of several terrorist attacks targeted at Westerners and Israelis, but also Egyptians on holiday. Terrorism in Egypt is often done to protest the governments perceived moderate stance in its relations with Israel, its alliance with the United States, and the repression of political and religious organizations, such as the Muslim Brotherhood. ...


References

  • Gardner, Ann "At Home in South Sinai" Nomadic Peoples 2000. Vol. 4,Iss. 2; pp. 48-67. Detailed account of Bedouin women

Further reading

  • H. J. L. Beadnell (May 1926). "Central Sinai". Geographical Journal 67 (5): 385–398. doi:10.2307/1782203. 
  • C. W. Wilson (1873). "Recent Surveys in Sinai and Palestine". Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 43: 206–240. doi:10.2307/1798627. 
  • J Jacobs (2006 Rowman and Littlefield). "Tourist Places and Negotiating Modernity: European Women and Romance Tourism in the Sinai". Travels in Paradox: Remapping Tourism (eds) C Minca and T Oakes. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

The Desert of Paran or Wilderness of Paran, is quite likely the place where the Israelites spent part of their 40 years of wandering around. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... The Negev Bedouins (Arabic: Badawit an-Naqab) are traditionally pastoral semi-nomadic Arab tribes indigenous to the Negev region, who hold close ties to the Bedouins of the Sinai. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... Moses with the Ten Commandments by Rembrandt (1659) Biblical Mount Sinai refers to the place where, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exod. ... The Mitla Pass is a 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 29°30′N, 33°50′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sinai Peninsula - MSN Encarta (953 words)
Sinai Peninsula, peninsula in northeastern Egypt, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Negev Desert in Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the southeast, the Red Sea to the south, and the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal to the west.
Sinai is roughly triangular in shape, with the tip in the south where the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez meet at the island of Ra’s Muhammad.
Israel invaded the Sinai in October 1956 after Egypt interfered with Israel’s shipping by closing the Strait of Tiran (at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba) in 1951 and nationalized the British- and French-held Suez Canal in July 1956.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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