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Encyclopedia > Sin Nombre virus
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Sin Nombre virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Hantavirus
Species: Sin Nombre virus

The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for "virus without name") (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). It was first isolated from rodents collected on the premises of one of the initial Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) patients in the Four Corners region. Isolation was achieved through blind passage in Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) and subsequent adaptation to growth in Vero E6 cells. Additional viral strains have also been isolated from P. maniculatus associated with a fatal case in California and P. leucopus from the vicinity of probable infection of a New York case. Black Creek Canal virus was isolated from S. hispidus collected near the residence of a human case in Dade County, Florida. SNV occurs wherever its reservoir rodent carrier, (Peromyscus maniculatus) is found, which includes essentially the entire United States except for the far southeastern region from eastern Texas through Florida. SNV and HCPS are especially common in western states; peak incidences for HCPS has been reported in regions in which there is a lot of contact between humans and mice (New Mexico, Arizona) and in states with exceptionally large rural populations such as California. All of the western provinces of Canada have also reported cases. SNV can be contracted through the inhalation of virus-contaminated deer mouse excreta. Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Hantavirus Nairovirus Orthobunyavirus Phlebovirus Tospovirus Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect... Families See Classification Section The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Official language(s) None. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Official language(s) None, English and Spanish de facto Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 5th 315,194 km² 550 km 595 km 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 6th 295,254 km² 500 km 645 km 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ...


Virus Sequencing

The entire genomic sequence of SNV has subsequently been determined by using RNA extracted from autopsy material as well as RNA extracted from cell culture-adapted virus. The L RNA is 6562 nucleotides (nt) in length; the M RNA is 3696 nt long; and the S RNA is 2059 to 2060 nt long. Interestingly, when the prototype sequence (NMH10) of SNV detected in tissues from an HPS case was compared with the sequence of the SNV isolate (NMR11; isolated in Vero E6 cells from P. maniculatus trapped in the residence of the same case), only 16 nucleotide changes were found, and none of these changes resulted in alterations in amino acid sequences of viral proteins. It had been assumed that in the process of adaptation to cell culture, selection of SNV variants which grow optimally in cell culture would occur, and selected variants would differ genetically from the parental virus. Though NMH10 and NMR11 are identical in protein sequence, nucleotide substitutions in nontranslated regions of the genome could be responsible for altered viral phenotypes, as could changes in protein glycosylation or virus membrane components.


The nested RT-PCR assay developed during the initial HPS outbreak provided a rapid method for the genetic characterization of novel hantaviruses that did not require a virus isolate. Numerous new hantaviruses have been detected by RT-PCR in rodent tissues but have yet to be associated with human disease. These include El Moro Canyon virus associated with the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis), Tula virus with Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis, Rio Segundo virus with the Mexican harvest mouse (R. mexicanus), Isla Vista virus with the California vole (M. californicus), and Prospect Hill-like viruses in Microtus species.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossary: Virus | CDC Hantaviruses (268 words)
A virus does not have any other structures (called organelles) that living cells have, like a nucleus or mitochondria.
Because a virus lacks organelles, it cannot reproduce by itself.
Sin Nombre virus is one of the hantaviruses associated with HPS
Hantavirus: Description, Vector, Mechanisms, Symptoms, etc. (1957 words)
In spite of the antibody presence in the rodent's serum, infectious virus is shed in the rodent's saliva, urine, and feces possibly throughout the rest of its life.
Baltimore rat virus is characterized by acute onset of nausea, vomiting, fever, upper abdominal pain, protein in the urine, and hypertension.
Puumala virus is characterized by sudden onset of acute fever with renal impairment or failure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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