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Encyclopedia > Simulation
Look up simulation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI.
Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI.

A simulation is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviours of a selected physical or abstract system. Diving (or simulation - the term used by FIFA) in the context of football is an attempt by a player to gain an unfair advantage by diving to the ground and possibly simulating an injury, to appear as if a foul has been committed. ... Image File history File links Information. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Horse_simulator_WWI.jpg Summary Description: British wooden mechanical horse simulator. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Horse_simulator_WWI.jpg Summary Description: British wooden mechanical horse simulator. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Historically, the word had negative connotations:

…for Distinction Sake, a Deceiving by Words, is commonly called a Lye, and a Deceiving by Actions, Gestures, or Behavior, is called Simulation… Robert South (1643–1716)[1]

However, the connection between simulation and dissembling later faded out and is now only of linguistic interest. Robert South (September, 1634 - July 8, 1716), was an English churchman. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into lying. ...


Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. Other contexts include simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training and education. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Scientific modeling is the process of generating abstract or conceptual models. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


Key issues in simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the referent, selection of key characteristics and behaviours, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes.

Contents

Classification and terminology

Historically, simulations used in different fields developed largely independently, but 20th century studies of Systems theory and Cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. ...


There are three levels of simulation fidelity; low, moderate, and high. Low fidelity simulation includes basic/simple task trainers that lack "response" fidelity. Examples may include items as basic as oranges when nursing students learn intramuscular injections to static replicas of human anatomy (i.e. an arm).


Moderate fidelity simulation incorporates technology to offer some level of response fidelity. One example is a chest mannequin that allows an individual to auscultate heart and lung sounds.


High fidelity simulation incorporates even greater technologies to closely mimic both appearance and response. This type of simulation provides closely replicates real world domains and allows the learner to "learn" in a safe and non-threatening environment. Examples may include flight simulators, and Human Patient Simulators.


Physical and interactive simulation

Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing. These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system.


Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation, often referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator or a driving simulator. TUTOR, combined bus and truck simulator, for professional driver training. ...


Computer simulation

Main article: Computer simulation

A computer simulation is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. It has been suggested that simulation software be merged into this article or section. ... A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast. ...


An interesting application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. The related software is called computer architecture simulators, which can be further divided into instruction set simulators or full system simulators. In computer science, a computer architecture simulator, or an architectural simulator, is a piece of software to model computer devices (or components) to predict outputs and performance metrics on a given input. ... An Instruction Set Simulator (ISS) is a simulation model, usually coded in a high-level language, which mimics the behavior of a processor by reading instructions and maintaining internal variables which represent the processors registers. ... A full-system simulator is a computer program that simulates computer systems at such a level of detail that complete software stacks from real systems can run on the simulator without any modification. ...


Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics, chemistry and biology, and human systems in economics and social science (the computational sociology) as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. A good example of the usefulness of using computers to simulate can be found in the field of network traffic simulation. In such simulations the model behaviour will change each simulation according to the set of initial parameters assumed for the environment. Computer simulations are often considered to be human out of the loop simulations. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Computational sociology is a recently developed branch of sociology that uses computation to analyze social phenomena. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ...


Traditionally, the formal modeling of systems has been via a mathematical model, which attempts to find analytical solutions enabling the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions. Computer simulation is often used as an adjunct to, or substitution for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many different types of computer simulation, the common feature they all share is the attempt to generate a sample of representative scenarios for a model in which a complete enumeration of all possible states would be prohibitive or impossible. A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... In mathematics, an equation or system of equations is said to have a closed-form solution just in case a solution can be expressed analytically in terms of a bounded number of well_known operations. ... A scenario (from the Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a brief description of an event or a series of events. ...


Various industries use discrete event simulation to model systems of interest in commerce, health, defence, manufacturing, logistics etc., for example the value-adding business processes. Imagine a business, where each person could do 30 tasks, where thousands of products or services involved dozens of tasks in a sequence, where customer demand varied seasonally and forecasting was inaccurate — this is the domain where such simulation helps with business decisions across all functions. Related topics include Theory of Constraints, bottlenecks, and management consulting. In discrete event simulation, the operation of a system is represented as a chronological sequence of events. ... Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an overall management philosophy that aims to continually achieve more of the goal of a system. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Several software packages exist for running computer-based simulation modeling (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic modeling) that makes the modeling almost effortless. Monte Carlo methods are a widely used class of computational algorithms for simulating the behavior of various physical and mathematical systems, and for other computations. ... Stochastic, from the Greek stochos or goal, means of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural; random. ...


It is increasingly common to hear simulations of many kinds referred to as "synthetic environments". This label has been adopted to broaden the definition of "simulation" to encompass virtually any computer-based representation.


Simulation in computer science

In computer science, simulation has an even more specialized meaning: Alan Turing uses the term "simulation" to refer to what happens when a digital computer runs a state transition table (runs a program) that describes the state transitions, inputs and outputs of a subject discrete-state machine. The computer simulates the subject machine. Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Alan Mathison Turing, FRS,OBE (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...


In computer architecture, a simulator is often used to execute a program that has to run on some inconvenient type of computer, or in a tightly controlled testing environment (see Computer architecture simulator). For example, simulators are usually used to debug a microprogram or sometimes commercial application programs. Since the operation of the computer is simulated, all of the information about the computer's operation is directly available to the programmer, and the speed and execution of the simulation can be varied at will. Simulators may also be used to interpret fault trees, or test VLSI logic designs before they are constructed. Symbolic simulation that uses variables to stand for unknown values. A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... In computer science, a computer architecture simulator, or an architectural simulator, is a piece of software to model computer devices (or components) to predict outputs and performance metrics on a given input. ... A microprogram implements a CPU instruction set. ... Safety engineering is used to assure that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail. ... VLSI may refer to: Very-large-scale integration, a process for the creation of electronic integrated circuits VLSI Technology (1979–1999), a former American integrated circuit manufacturer, now a part of Philips Electronics VLSI Solution, a Finnish integrated circuit manufacturer Category: ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In theoretical computer science the term simulation represents a relation between state transition systems. This is useful in the study of operational semantics. Computer science (informally, CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... In theoretical computer science a simulation preorder is a relation between state transition systems associating systems which behave in the same way in the sense that one system simulates the other. ... In theoretical computer science, a state transition system is an abstract machine used in the study of computation. ... In computer science, operational semantics is a way to give meaning to computer programs in a mathematically rigorous way (See formal semantics of programming languages). ...


In the field of optimization, simulations of physical processes are often used in conjunction with evolutionary computation to optimize control strategies. In mathematics, the term optimization, or mathematical programming, refers to the study of problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. ... In computer science evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems. ...


Simulation in education and training

Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel. This usually occurs when it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment. Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


Training simulations typically come in one of three categories:

  • "live" simulation (where real people use simulated (or "dummy") equipment in the real world);
  • "virtual" simulation (where real people use simulated equipment in a simulated world (or "virtual environment")), or
  • "constructive" simulation (where simulated people use simulated equipment in a simulated environment). Constructive simulation is often referred to as "wargaming" since it bears some resemblance to table-top war games in which players command armies of soldiers and equipment that move around a board.

Simulations in education are somewhat like training simulations. They focus on specific tasks. In the past, video has been used for teachers and education students to observe, problem solve and role play; however, a more recent use of simulations in education include animated narrative vignettes (ANV). ANVs are cartoon-like video narratives of hypothetical and reality-based stories involving classroom teaching and learning. ANVs have been used to assess knowledge, problem solving skills and dispositions of children, and pre-service and in-service teachers. Glory, an American Civil War game by GMT This article is about the civilian hobby. ... An animated narrative vignette (ANV) is an instructional technology used to motivate and facilitate role-playing, problem solving, and discussion. ...


Another form of simulation has been finding favour in business education in recent years. Business simulations that incorporate a dynamic model enables experimentation with business strategies in a risk free environment and provide a useful extension to case study discussions. Case studies involve a particular method of research. ...


Examples in different areas

Truck Simulator

A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator.
A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator.

A truck simulator provides an opportunity to reproduce the characteristics of real vehicles in a virtual environment. It replicates the external factors and conditions with which a vehicle interacts enabling a driver to feel as if they are sitting in the cab of their own vehicle. Scenarios and events are replicated with sufficient reality to ensure that drivers become fully immersed in the experience rather than simply viewing it as an educational programme. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1292, 662 KB) Summary Description: Heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator Source: Department of Defense Author: U.S. Army photo by Spc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1292, 662 KB) Summary Description: Heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator Source: Department of Defense Author: U.S. Army photo by Spc. ...


The simulator provides a constructive experience for the novice driver and enables more complex exercises to be undertaken by the more mature driver. For novice drivers, truck simulators provide an opportunity to begin their career by applying best practice. For mature drivers, simulation provides the ability to enhance good driving or to detect poor practice and to suggest the necessary steps for remedial action. For companies, it provides an opportunity to educate staff in the driving skills that achieve reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and, most importantly, to ensure the safety of their actions in all possible situations.


Healthcare (Clinical) Simulators

Medical simulators are increasingly being developed and deployed to teach therapeutic and diagnostic procedures as well as medical concepts and decision making to personnel in the health professions. Simulators have been developed for training procedures ranging from the basics such as blood draw, to laparoscopic surgery and trauma care. They are also important to help on prototyping new devices for biomedical engineering problems. Currently, simulators are applied to research and development of tools for new therapies, treatments and early diagnosis in medicine. Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ...


Many medical simulators involve a computer connected to a plastic simulation of the relevant anatomy. Sophisticated simulators of this type employ a life size mannequin that responds to injected drugs and can be programmed to create simulations of life-threatening emergencies. In others simulations, visual components of the procedure are reproduced by computer graphics techniques, while touch-based components are reproduced by haptic feedback devices combined with physical simulation routines computed in response to the user's actions. Medical simulations of this sort will often use 3D CT or MRI scans of patient data to enhance realism. Some medical simulations are developed to be widely distributed (such as web-enabled simulations that can be viewed via standard web browsers) and can be interacted with using standard computer interfaces, such as the keyboard and mouse. For the journal by ACM SIGGRAPH, see Computer Graphics (Publication). ... This article is about haptic technology. ... It has been suggested that Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy, X-ray tomography be merged into this article or section. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... It has been suggested that Keystroke be merged into this article or section. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ...


Another important medical application of a simulator — although, perhaps, denoting a slightly different meaning of simulator — is the use of a placebo drug, a formulation that simulates the active drug in trials of drug efficacy (see Placebo (origins of technical term)). “Placebo effect” redirects here. ... The technical term placebo is precisely applied in the specialized medical domains of pharmacology, nosology, and aetiology to denote the pharmacologically inert, dummy simulator of an active drug that serves as a scientific control in clinical trials designed to determine the clinical efficacy of that particular drug. ...


History of Simulation in Healthcare

The first medical simulators were simple models of human patients.


Since antiquity, these representations in clay and stone were used to demonstrate clinical features of disease states and their effects on humans. Models have been found from many cultures and continents. These models have been used in some cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) as a "diagnostic" instrument, allowing women to consult male physicians while maintaining social laws of modesty. Models are used today to help students learn the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and organ systems. Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The human musculoskeletal system is the musculoskeletal system that gives us the ability to move. ...


Active models

Active models that attempt to reproduce living anatomy or physiology are recent developments.


The famous “Harvey” mannikin was developed at the University of Miami and is able to recreate many of the physical findings of the cardiology examination, including palpation, auscultation, and electrocardiography. The University of Miami (also known as UM or just The U) is a private university founded in 1925 with its main campus in the city of Coral Gables in metropolitan Miami, Florida, in the United States. ... A diagram of a heart with an ECG indicator; diagrams like this are used in Cardiology. ... Palpation is a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional). ... Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. ... ECG may also refer to the East Coast Greenway Lead II An Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. ...


Interactive models

More recently, interactive models have been developed that respond to actions taken by a student or physician. Until recently, these simulations were two dimensional computer programs that acted more like a textbook than a patient. Computer simulations have the advantage of allowing a student to make judgements, and also to make errors. The process of iterative learning through assessment, evaluation, decision making, and error correction creates a much stronger learning environment than passive instruction.


Computer simulators

Simulators have been proposed as an ideal tool for assessment of students for clinical skills.


Programmed patients and simulated clinical situations, including mock disaster drills, have been used extensively for education and evaluation. These “lifelike” simulations are expensive, and lack reproducibility. A fully functional "3Pi" simulator would be the most specific tool available for teaching and measurement of clinical skills.


Such a simulator meets the goals of an objective and standardized examination for clinical competence. This system is superior to examinations that use "standard patients" because it permits the quantitative measurement of competence, as well as reproducing the same objective findings.


"THE CLASSROOM OF COMPUTER CLASSES WITH MATH"


The "classroom of the future" will probably contain several kinds of simulators, in addition to textual and visual learning tools. This will allow students to enter the clinical years better prepared, and with a higher skill level. The advanced student or postgraduate will have a more concise and comprehensive method of retraining — or of incorporating new clinical procedures into their skill set — and regulatory bodies and medical institutions will find it easier to assess the proficiency and competency of individuals. Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. ...


The classroom of the future will also form the basis of a clinical skills unit for continuing education of medical personnel; and in the same way that the use of periodic flight training assists airline pilots, this technology will assist practitioners throughout their career.


The simulator will be more than a "living" textbook, it will become an integral a part of the practice of medicine. The simulator environment will also provide a standard platform for curriculum development in institutions of medical education.


Finance

Main article: Mathematical finance

In finance, computer simulations are often used for scenario planning. Risk-adjusted net present value, for example, is computed from well-defined but not always known (or fixed) inputs. By imitating the performance of the project under evaluation, simulation can provide a distribution of NPV over a range of discount rates and other inputs. Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Discounted cash flow. ... In finance, discounting is the process of finding the current value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash from the basis of time value of money calculations. ...


City Simulators / Urban Simulation

A City Simulator can be a game but can also be a tool used by urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. UrbanSim (developed at the University of Washington), ILUTE (developed at the University of Toronto) and Distrimobs (developed at the University of Bologna) are examples of modern, large-scale urban simulators designed for use by urban planners. City simulators are generally agent-based simulations with explicit representations for land use and transportation. A simulation game, or sim game, (also known as a game of status or mixed game) is a mixture of a game of skill, a game of chance and a game of strategy, which results in a simulation of a complex structure (like a stock exchange, or civilization flux). ... In economics, an agent is an element of a model who solves an optimization problem. ...


Flight simulators

Main article: Flight simulator Interior cockpit of a modern flight simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ...


A flight simulator is used to train pilots on the ground. It permits a pilot to crash his simulated "aircraft" without being hurt. Flight simulators are often used to train pilots to operate aircraft in extremely hazardous situations, such as landings with no engines, or complete electrical or hydraulic failures. The most advanced simulators have high-fidelity visual systems and hydraulic motion systems. The simulator is normally cheaper to operate than a real trainer aircraft. For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Trainer may refer to: An aircraft trainer used for training pilots. ...


Home-built Flight Simulators

Main article: Flight simulator, Simulation Game Interior cockpit of a modern flight simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ... This is an alphabetized listing of computer and video game genres with a brief description and examples from each genre. ...


Some people who use simulator software, especially flight simulator software, build their own simulator at home. Some people in order to further the realism of their homemade simulator, buy used cards and racks that still run the exact same software they did before they were disassembled from the actual machine itself. Though this brings along the problem of matching hardware and software, and the fact that hundreds of cards plug into many different racks, still, many find that is it well worth it. Some are very serious in building their simulator by buying real aircraft parts like complete nose sectionals of written off aircraft at aircraft boneyards. This permits people who are unable to perform their hobby in real life to simulate it. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Marine simulators

Bearing resemblance to flight simulators, marine simulators train ships' personnel. The most common marine simulators include:

  • Ship's bridge simulators
  • Engine room simulators
  • Cargo handling simulators
  • Communication / GMDSS simulators

Simulators like these are mostly used within maritime colleges and training institutions. They often consist of a replication of a ships' bridge, with operating desk(s), and a number of screens on which the virtual surroundings are projected. The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally-agreed set of safety procedures and types of equipment used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ...


Engineering (Technology) simulation or Process simulation

Simulation is an important feature in engineering systems or any system that involves many processes. For example in electrical engineering, delay lines may be used to simulate propagation delay and phase shift caused by an actual transmission line. Similarly, dummy loads may be used to simulate impedance without simulating propagation, and is used in situations where propagation is unwanted. A simulator may imitate only a few of the operations and functions of the unit it simulates. Contrast with: emulate. (Source: Federal Standard 1037C) Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... In its general sense, delay refers to a lapse of time. ... In computer science, the propogation delay is the amount of time starting from when the input to a logic gate becomes stable and valid to the time that the output of that logic gate is stable and valid. ... Waves with the same phase Waves with different phases The phase of a wave relates the position of a feature, typically a peak or a trough of the waveform, to that same feature in another part of the waveform (or, which amounts to the same, on a second waveform). ... A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ... A dummy load is a completely ohmic load used mainly in radio frequency electronics. ... Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, is a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current. ... DosBox emulates the familiar command line interface of DOS. An emulator duplicates (provide an emulation of) the functions of one system with a different system, so that the second system behaves like (and appears to be) the first system. ... Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ...


Most engineering simulations entail mathematical modeling and computer assisted investigation. There are many cases, however, where mathematical modeling is not reliable. Simulation of fluid dynamics problems often require both mathematical and physical simulations. In these cases the physical models require dynamic similitude. Physical and chemical simulations have also direct realistic uses, rather than research uses; in chemical engineering, for example, process simulations are used to give the process parameters immediately used for operating chemical plants, such as oil refineries. A full scale X-43 Wind tunnel test. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ...


Simulation and games

Main article: Simulation game A screenshot from The Sims: Deluxe Edition. ...


Strategy games — both traditional and modern — may be viewed as simulations of abstracted decision-making for the purpose of training military and political leaders (see History of Go for an example of such a tradition). In a narrower sense, many video games are also simulators, implemented inexpensively. These are sometimes called "sim games". Such games can simulate various aspects of reality, from economics to piloting vehicles, such as flight simulators (described above). Another type of simulation is a government simulation, which can be used to help the player understand certain aspects of political science — specifically cause and effect. Chess is one of the most well-known and played strategy games of all time. ... Go was considered one of the most important skills a civilized person could learn. ... A simulation game (also known as a game of status or mixed game) is a mixture of a game of skill, a game of chance and a game of strategy, which results in a simulation of a complex structure (like a stock exchange, or civilisation flux). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ... A government simulation or political simulation is an Internet-based nation-simulation game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a single nation. ... Cause and Effect is considered by many fans to be one of the best episodes of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ...


See also

Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Dissimulation is a form of deception in which one conceals the truth. ... DosBox emulates the familiar command line interface of DOS. An emulator duplicates (provide an emulation of) the functions of one system with a different system, so that the second system behaves like (and appears to be) the first system. ... in silico is an expression used to mean performed on computer or via computer simulation. ... Future studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Merger simulation is a commonly used technique when analyzing potential welfare costs and benefits of mergers between firms. ... A ‘’’mining simulator’’’ is a system used to replicate elements of mining operations, for training or efficiency analysis. ... Monte Carlo methods are algorithms for solving various kinds of computational problems by using random numbers (or more often pseudo-random numbers), as opposed to deterministic algorithms. ... Molecular dynamics (MD) is a form of computer simulation wherein atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a period of time under known laws of physics, giving a view of the motion of the atoms. ... We dont have an article called Network Simulator Start this article Search for Network Simulator in. ... “Placebo effect” redirects here. ... The technical term placebo is precisely applied in the specialized medical domains of pharmacology, nosology, and aetiology to denote the pharmacologically inert, dummy simulator of an active drug that serves as a scientific control in clinical trials designed to determine the clinical efficacy of that particular drug. ... A full scale X-43 Wind tunnel test. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A computer simulation language describes the operation of a simulation on a computer. ... Scientific modeling is the process of generating abstract or conceptual models. ...

References

  • R. Frigg and S. Hartmann, Models in Science. Entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • S. Hartmann, The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences, in: R. Hegselmann et al. (eds.), Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View, Theory and Decision Library. Dordrecht: Kluwer 1996, 77–100.
  • P. Humphreys, Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Roger D. Smith: Simulation Article, Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Nature Publishing Group, ISBN 0-333-77879-0.
  • Roger D. Smith: "Simulation: The Engine Behind the Virtual World", eMatter, December, 1999.
  • Aldrich, C. (2003). Learning by Doing : A Comprehensive Guide to Simulations, Computer Games, and Pedagogy in e-Learning and Other Educational Experiences. San Francisco: Pfeifer — John Wiley & Sons.
  • Aldrich, C. (2004). Simulations and the future of learning: an innovative (and perhaps revolutionary) approach to e-learning. San Francisco: Pfeifer — John Wiley & Sons.
  • Percival, F., Lodge, S., Saunders, D. (1993). The Simulation and Gaming Yearbook: Developing Transferable Skills in Education and Training. London: Kogan Page.
  • South, R., "A Sermon Delivered at Christ-Church, Oxon., Before the University, Octob. 14. 1688: Prov. XII.22 Lying Lips are abomination to the Lord", pp.519–657 in South, R., Twelve Sermons Preached Upon Several Occasions (Second Edition), Volume I, Printed by S.D. for Thomas Bennet, (London), 1697.
  • Of Simulation and Dissimulation An essay by Francis Bacon.

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ...

Notes

  1. ^ South, 1697, p.525.
    South was speaking of the differences between a falsehood and an honestly mistaken statement; the difference being that in order for the statement to be a lie the truth must be known, and the opposite of the truth must have been knowingly uttered.
    And, from this, to the extent to which a lie involves deceptive words, a simulation involves deceptive actions, deceptive gestures, or deceptive behavior.
    Thus, it would seem, if a simulation is false, then the truth must be known (in order for something other than the truth to be presented in its stead); and, for the simulation to simulate.
    Because, otherwise, one would not know what to offer up in simulation.
    Bacon’s essay Of Simulation and Dissimulation expresses somewhat similar views; it is also significant that Samuel Johnson thought so highly of South's definition, that he used it in the entry for simulation in his Dictionary of the English Language.

A lie is a statement made by someone who believes or suspects it to be false, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. ... Look up lie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A common dictionary definition of truth is agreement with fact or reality.[1] There is no single definition of truth about which the majority of philosophers agree. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A Dictionary of the English Language, one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language, was prepared by Samuel Johnson and published on April 15, 1755. ...

External links

Organizations

INFORMS is The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences. ...

Education

  • Nuclear Reactor Simulation - Includes the PC-based Boiling Water Reactor Simulator Program.
  • IMTEK Mathematica Supplement (IMS) for open source simulation lectures and packages.
  • Simulation — An Enabling Technology in Software Engineering
  • Simulation Education
  • Worldwide Simulation Course List
  • Clinical Training and Education Centre, University of Western Australia

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Simulation

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Simulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2378 words)
Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning.
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Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel.
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