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Encyclopedia > Similarities between Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies

Roman mythology was strongly influenced by Greek mythology and Etruscan mythology. The following is a list of most credited cult equivalences between the respective systems. Note however that many mythographers dismiss both the equivalences made in ancient times and those proposed by modern scholars. The written form of the names are in their original form, e.g. Greek or Latin one, not in the modern English form. Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa. ... The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... In religion and sociology, a cult is a cohesive group of people (often a relatively small and recently founded religious movement) devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture or society considers to be far outside the mainstream. ... A mythographer, according to a strict dictionary definition, is a compiler of myths. ...

The Greek deities are listed by both their Greek alphabet forms and their common modern English names, and an additional Latinization is provided in parentheses where there is a significant difference between the common English name and the original Greek. Likewise, where the modern Anglicization of a Roman god differs significantly from the original Latin spelling, the modern English form will be provided in an additional column (in italics if translated into English). Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Equivalent Deities
Greek Greek (Anglicized) Roman Roman (Anglicized) Etruscan
'Aδωνις Adonis     Atunis
Αμφιτριτη Amphitrite Salacia    
Ἀνάγκη Ananke Necessitas    
Άνεμοι Anemoi Venti Winds  
Ἀφροδίτη Aphrodite Venus   Turan
Απόλλων (Apollōn) /
Φοίβος (Phoibos)
Apollo / Phoebus Apollo / Phoebus   Aplu
Ἀρης Ares Mars   Maris
Ἀρτεμις Artemis Diana   Artume
Ἀσκλήπιος (Asklēpios) Asclepius Aesculapius / Veiovis    
Ἀθηνᾶ Athena Minerva   Menrva
Ἄτροπος Atropos Morta    
Βορέας Boreas Aquilo / Aquilon    
Χάριτες (Kharites) Charites Gratiae Graces  
Χάρων (Kharōn) Charon Charon   Charun
χλωρις (Khlōris) Chloris Flora    
Κλωθώ (Klōthō) Clotho Nona    
Κρόνος (Kronos) Cronus Saturnus Saturn  
Κυβέλη (Kubelē) Cybele Magna Mater    
Δημητηρ Demeter Ceres    
Διώνυσος (Diōnusos) /
Βαχχος (Bakkhos)
Dionysus / Bacchus Liber / Bacchus   Fufluns
Ενυω Enyo Bellona    
Έως Eos Aurora / Matuta   Thesan
̓Ερινύες Erinyes Dirae / Furiae Furies  
Ἒρις Eris Discordia    
Έρος Eros Cupido / Amor Cupid  
Εύρος (Euros) Eurus Vulturnus    
Γαία Gaia / Gaea Terra / Tellus    
  Galanthis / Galinthias Galinthis    
Ἅιδης (Haidēs) /
Πλουτον (Plouton)
Hades / Pluto Dis Pater / Pluto / Orcus   Aita
Ἥβη Hebe Iuventas Juventas  
'Εκατη (Hekatē) Hecate Trivia    
'Ηλιος Helios Sol    
Ἡφαιστος (Hēphaistos) Hephaestus Vulcanus Vulcan Sethlans
Ἥρα Hera Iuno Juno Uni
Ἡρακλης (Hēraklēs) Heracles Hercules   Hercle
ʽἙρμῆς Hermes Mercurius Mercury Turms
Ἓσπερος (Hesperos) Hesperus Vesper    
Εστία Hestia Vesta    
Υγιεία Hygieia Salus    
Ύπνος Hypnos Somnus    
Ειρήνη (Eirēnē) Irene Pax    
    Ianus Janus Ani
Λάχεσις (Lakhesis) Lachesis Decima    
Λητώ Leto Latona    
Μοίραι (Moirai) Moirae / Moerae Parcae / Fatae Fates  
Μουσαι (Mousai) Musae Camenae Muses  
Νίκη Nike Victoria    
Νότος (Notos) Notus Auster    
Νυξ (Nuks) Nyx Nox    
Ὀδυσσεὺς Odysseus Ulixes / Ulysses    
Παλαίμων (Palaimōn) Palaemon Portunes    
Πάν Pan Faunus (See Satyr, below)  
Περσεφόνη Persephone Proserpina    
Φημη Pheme Fama    
Φώσφορος (Phōsphoros) Phosphorus Lucifer    
Πλούτος (Ploutos) Plutus (See Hades, above)  
Ποσειδῶν Poseidon Neptunus Neptune Nethuns
Πρίαπος (Priapos) Priapus Mutinus Mutunus    
Ρέα Rhea Magna Mater / Ops
(See Cybele, above)
Σάτυροι (Saturoi) / Πάνες Satyrs / Panes
(See Pan, above)
Fauni Fauns  
Σελήνη Selene Luna    
Σεμελη Semele Stimula    
Σιληνος (Silenos) Silenus Silvanus    
θάνατος Thanatos Mors    
Θέμις Themis Iustitia Justitia  
Τύχη (Tukhe) Tyche Fortuna    
Ουρανός (Ouranos) Uranus Caelus    
    Vertumnus   Voltumna
Ζέφυρος (Zephuros) Zephyrus / Zephyr Favonius    
Ζεύς Zeus Iuppiter / Iovis Jupiter / Jove Tinia

A 19th-century reproduction of a Greek bronze of Adonis found at Pompeii Adonis, a Roman torso, restored and completed by François Duquesnoy, (Louvre Museum) Adonis, an annual vegetation life-death-rebirth deity, imported from Syrian into Greek mythology, always retained aspects of his Semitic Near Eastern origins and... Mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Neptune and Amphitrite Amphitrite, in ancient Greek mythology, was a sea-goddess, and wife of Poseidon, identified with Salacia the wife of Neptune in Roman mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Ananke (Greek ) was the personification of destiny, unalterable necessity and fate. ... In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (Άνεμοι; Greek: Winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. ... Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty,and the patroness of physical love. ... Statue of Venus in the British Museum. ... In Etruscan mythology, Turan was the goddess of love and vitality and patroness of Vulci (cur: Volci). ... Statue of Apollo at the British Museum. ... Phoebus is the Latin form of Greek Phoibos Shining-one, a by-name used in classical mythology for the god Apollo. ... Etruscan mythology, Aplu was a thunder and lightning god. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (battle strife; in Greek, Ἀρης), is the god of war and son of Zeus(king of the gods) and Hera . ... A miniature early 2nd-century Roman bronze figurine of Mars. ... Maris was the Etruscan god of agriculture later associated with the Roman war/agricultual god Mars. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Statue of Diana by Augustus Saint-Gaudens Diana, often referred to as Diana The Huntress, was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ... In Etruscan mythology, Artume or Aritimi was the goddess of night, the moon and death, as well as nature, forests and fertility. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... In Roman mythology Veiovis, or Vediovis, was an old Italian or Etruscan deity. ... Drawing from a sculpture of Athena at the Louvre. ... Minerva and the Muses, by Hans Rottenhammer (1603). ... In Etruscan mythology, Menrva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. ... In Greek mythology, Atropos was the third of the Moirae. ... The presumable banner of Lithuania Morta (baptized ca 1252 by the bishop of Kulm) was the Queen of Lithuania 1254 - 1258 (or 1253 - 1262), and the Grand Princess of Lithuania 1246 - 1254. ... In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (Άνεμοι; Greek: Winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. ... The Three Graces, from Sandro Botticellis painting Primavera Uffizi Gallery In Greek mythology, the Charites were the graces. ... In Greek mythology, Charon (Greek Χάρων, fierce brightness) was the ferryman of Hades. ... In Etruscan mythology, Charun was a demon who tortured dead souls in the Underworld, as well as the guardian of the entrance to the underworld. ... Chloris is also a genus of grasses in the Poaceae family. ... In Roman mythology, Flora was a goddess of flowers and the season of spring. ... In Greek mythology, Clotho, the Greek word Κλωθώ for spinner, was the youngest of the Moirae. ... In Greek mythology, Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος—of obscure etymology, perhaps related to horned), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. ... Saturn devours his children (Francisco de Goya, c. ... A fountain depicting Cybele in a chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles, Madrid . Originally a Phrygian goddess, insofar as the Hellenes were concerned, Cybele (Greek Κυβέλη) was a manifestation of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea (great Idaean mother of the gods) was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter; for other uses, see Demeter (disambiguation). ... Ceres, in Roman mythology, equivalent to the Greek Demeter (see which for more details), daughter of Saturn and Rhea, wife-sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter, sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Pluto, and patron of Sicily. ... Dionysus with a panther and satyr, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (Ancient Greek: Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος; also known as Bacchus in both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its... In very ancient Etruscan mythology, Fufluns (or Puphluns) was a god of plant life, happiness and health and growth in all things. ... In Greek mythology, Enyo (horror) was an ancient goddess known by the epithet Waster of Cities and frequently depicted as being covered in blood and carrying weapons of war. ... Eos, by Evelyn de Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek mythology, the Titan Goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... In Greek mythology, Eos is the goddess of dawn. ... In Etruscan mythology, Thesan was the goddess of the dawn and was associated with the generation of life. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes or Eumenides (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ... Eris is also a genus of jumping spiders. ... Eros 1st c. ... Cupidon (French for Cupid), by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875. ... In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (Άνεμοι; Greek: Winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. ... Gaia (pronounced //, sometimes also // or //) (land or earth, from the Greek ; variant spelling Gaea—see also Ge from ) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... Terra or Tellus was a primeval Roman goddess, mother of Fama. ... In Greek mythology, Galanthis (or Galinthias) was Alcmenes servant. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure vase made in the 4th century BC. Hades (From , HadÄ“s, or , HáidÄ“s, Greek for unseen) refers to both the ancient Greek abode of the dead and the god of that underworld. ... Pluto was the god of the underworld in Roman mythology. ... For the French nuclear ballistic missile system, see Hades (missile). ... In Roman mythology, Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths, more equivalent to Pluto than to the Greek Hades. ... In Greek mythology, Hêbê (Greek: Ἥβη) was the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas). ... Hecate, Hekate (HekátÄ“), or Hekat was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth originating from Thrace, or among the Carians of Anatolia [1]. Popular cults venerating her as a mother goddess integrated her persona into Greek culture as Εκατη. In Ptolemaic Alexandria she ultimately achieved her connotations as a... In Roman mythology, Trivia was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, goddess of the hunt, or possibly of Hecate. ... Helios in Greek In earlier Greek mythology, the sun was personified as a deity called Hêlios (Greek for the sun), whom Homer equates with the sun titan Hyperion. ... Standards Of Learning SOL stands for The Standards Of Learning. ... Hephaestus, Greek god of forging, riding an ass; Greek drinking cup (skyphos) made in the 5th century B.C. Hephaestus (World Book «hih FEHS tuhs») (Greek: Ἡφαιστος Hêphaistos) is the Greek god whose approximate Roman equivalent is Vulcan; he is the god of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy... The Forge of Vulcan, by Diego Velázquez. ... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hêra (World Book «HIHR uh») (Greek or ) was the wife and sister of Zeus. ... Juno was a Roman goddess, the rough equivalent of the Greek Hera, queen of the gods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum In Greek mythology, Heracles, or Heraklês (glory of Hera, Ἡρα + κλέος, ) was a divine hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, stepson of Amphitryon and great-grandson of Perseus. ... Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 - 1534. ... Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermes (Greek IPA ), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general, of liars, and of... This article treats Mercury in cult practice and in archaic Rome. ... Henry Longfellow wrote an epic poem called The Wreck of the Hesperus. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household, but had no public cult. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology, analogous to Hestia in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ... In Greek mythology, Hypnos was the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. ... In Greek mythology, the Horae (Latin) or Horai (Greek; both words mean the hours) were the three goddesses controlling orderly life. ... In Roman mythology, Pax (Latin for peace) (she had the greek equivalent Eirine) was recognized as a goddess during the rule of Augustus. ... Roman bust of Janus, Vatican Museum In Roman mythology, Janus was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings, and endings. ... In Etruscan mythology, Ani was the sky god, perhaps equivalent to the Roman Janus. ... In Greek mythology, Lachesis was the second of the Three Fates, or Moirae. ... In Greek mythology LÄ“tṓ (Greek: Λητώ, Lato in Dorian Greek, the hidden one) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, and in the Olympian scheme of things, Zeus is the father of her twins, Apollo and Artemis. ... In Greek mythology, the white-robed Moirae or Moerae (Greek Μοίραι — the Apportioners, often called the Fates) were the personifications of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, sparing ones, or Fatae; also equivalent to the Germanic Norns). ... In Roman mythology, the Camenae were originally goddesses of springs, wells and fountains, or water nymphs of Venus . ... MuSE is an acronym that stands for Multiple Streaming Engine. ... In Greek mythology, Nike (Greek Νίκη, pronounced /nike/ NEE-keh, meaning Victory) (Roman equivalent: Victoria), was a goddess who personified triumph and victory. ... Victoria on the reverse of this coin by Constantine II. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the goddess of victory. ... In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (Άνεμοι; Greek: Winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. ... This article is about the comic book series. ... Odysseus and the Sirens. ... Palaemon 1 This was the birth name given to the Greek hero Herakles and the name he used until the Pythoness at Delphi first addressed him as Herakles when he sought a cure for his madness. ... In Roman mythology, Portunes (alternatively spelled Portumnes or Portunus) was a god of keys and doors and livestock. ... It has been suggested that Pane (mythology) be merged into this article or section. ... Persephone, the Maiden: the late Archaic Kore of Antenor from the Acropolis, Athens In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Classical Greek PersephónÄ“, Modern Greek Persefóni) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter. ... Proserpina is an ancient goddess whose story is the basis of a myth of Springtime. ... In Greek mythology, Pheme (Φημη) (Roman equivalent: Fama) was the personification of fame and renown. ... Henry Longfellow wrote an epic poem called The Wreck of the Hesperus. ... Lucifer as depicted in Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire Infernal (1863) Lucifer is a Latin word made up of two words, lux (light; genitive lucis) and ferre (to bear, to bring), meaning light-bearer. ... In Greek mythology, Plutus (wealth) was a son of Demeter and Iasion and was the personification of wealth. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... In Etruscan mythology, Nethuns was the god of wells, later expanded to all water, including the sea. ... Bronze sculpture, House of the Vettii, Pompeii In Greek mythology, Priapus was a fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea (great Idaean mother of the gods) was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea. ... A Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Satyrs (Σάτυροι - Satyri) are mythological half-man and half-goat nature entities that roamed the woods and mountains, and were the companions of Pan and Dionysus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pan (mythology). ... A faun, as painted by Hungarian painter Pál Szinyei Merse In Roman mythology, fauns were place-spirits (genii) of untamed woodland. ... Roman statue of the moon goddess Luna, who was equated with the Greek Selene. ... In Greek mythology, Semele, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, was the mother of Dionysus (the god and his votaries were both identified as Bacchus) by Zeus. ... In Greek mythology, Ipotanes were a race of half-horse, half-humans, unlike the satyrs, who were half-goat. ... Silvanus (of the woods) was a Roman tutelary spirit of woods, a genius loci that was apparently inherited from the Etruscan Selvans. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (θάνατος, death) was the personification of death (Roman equivalent: Mors). ... In Roman mythology, Mors is the personification of death, equivalent to the Greek Thanatos. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Lady Justice Lady Justice (or the Goddess of Justice) is a personification of the legal system. ... Tyche on the reverse of tis coin by Gordian III. In Greek mythology, Tyche (luck) (Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions... Uranus is the Latinized form of Ouranos, Greek name of the sky. ... Caelus was the Latin name that the Romans used for the Greek sky god Uranus. ... In Roman mythology, Vertumnus (Vortumnus, Vertimnus) was the god of seasons, change and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. ... In Etruscan mythology, Voltumna was the chthonic (earth) god, later to become the supreme god. ... In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (Άνεμοι; Greek: Winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. ... The term Zephyr, when used by itself, can refer to: a wind, usually the west wind the Greek god of the west wind Zephyr protocol for instant messaging a rock band called Zephyr (there is also another rock band called Ben Zephyr) a song called The Zephyr Song by the... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... In Etruscan mythology, Tinia was the highest god of the skies, husband to Thalna or Uni. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Greek mythology (3341 words)
Greek mythology consists of a large collection of narratives detailing the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, and heroines, which were first envisioned and disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition.
A Greek deity's epithet may reflect a particular aspect of that god's role, as Apollo Musagetes is "Apollo, [as] leader of the Muses." Alternatively the epithet may identify a particular and localized aspect of the god, sometimes thought to be already ancient during the classical epoch of Greece.
The span of stories and characters in Greek mythology ranges from the atrocities of the early gods to the brutal wars of Troy and Thebes, from the youthful pranks of Hermes to the heartfelt grief of Demeter for Persephone, all depicted in minute detail.
Greek mythology (2694 words)
The generation of the gods most current (and relevant) to ancient Greek religion are described in epic poems as having appeared in person to the Greeks during the "age of heroes," understood to be a reference to the archaic dark age (ca.
The Roman poets Hyginus, Ovid, Statius, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil.
Greek mythology continues to be an important cultural reference long after the Greek religion with which it was entwined ceased to be practiced.
  More results at FactBites »



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