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Encyclopedia > Simeon I of Bulgaria
Simeon I
Tsar of Bulgaria
"Anonymous" seal of Simeon I
Reign 893–27 May 927
Born 864/865
Died 27 May 927
Predecessor Boris I
Successor Peter I
Consort two, names unknown
Issue see below
Father Boris I
Mother Maria

Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: /si.mɛ.ˈɔn ˈpɤr.vi vɛ.ˈli.ki/) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantines, Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever,[4] making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe.[5] His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural prosperity and enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... // The first ruler who is known for certain to have used the great is the Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


During Simeon's rule, Bulgaria spread over a territory between the Aegean, the Adriatic and the Black Sea,[7][8] and the new Bulgarian capital Preslav was said to rival Constantinople.[8][9] The newly-independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church became the first new patriarchate besides the Pentarchy and Bulgarian Glagolitic translations of Christian texts spread all over the Slavic world of the time.[10] Halfway through his reign, Simeon assumed the title of Emperor (Tsar),[11] having prior to that been styled Prince (Knyaz).[12] Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... The Pentarchy, a Greek word meaning government of five, designates the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, which were the five major centres of the Christian church in the early Middle Ages: Rome (Sts. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ...

Contents

Biography

Background and early life

Simeon was born in 864 or 865 as the third son of Knyaz Boris I[12] of Krum's dynasty.[13] As Boris was the ruler who Christianized Bulgaria in 865, Simeon was a Christian all his life.[12][14] As his eldest brother Vladimir was designated heir to the Bulgarian throne, Boris intended Simeon to become a high-ranking cleric,[15] possibly Bulgarian archbishop, and sent him to the leading University of Constantinople to receive theological education when he was thirteen or fourteen.[14] He took the Hebrew name Simeon[16] as a novice in a monastery in Constantinople.[14] During the decade (ca. 878–888) he spent in the Byzantine capital, he received excellent education and studied the rhetoric of Demosthenes and Aristotle.[17] He also learned fluent Greek, to the extent that he was referred to as "the half-Greek" in Byzantine chronicles.[18] He is speculated to have been tutored by Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople,[19] but this is not supported by any source.[14] Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... The Christianization of Bulgaria is the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. ... Vladimir-Rasatte (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria from 889 to 893. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Simeon, Symeon, or Shimon is a Hebrew name (שִׁמְעוֹן) meaning hearkening; listening, pronounced in Biblical Hebrew Å imÊ¿on, Tiberian Hebrew Å imʿôn. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Icon of Photius Photios I or Photius I (in Greek: Φώτιος, Phōtios), (Constantinople c. ...

For who could have anticipated that Simeon, who for his great wisdom, for the favour shown him by heaven, has led the Bulgarian nation to a height of glory, who more than any man detests knavery, who honours justice, who abominates injustice, who is above all sensual pleasures…

—from Nicholas Mystikos' letters to Simeon[20] Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Greek: Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos), (852–May 15, 925) was the Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 906 and from May 912 to his death in 925. ...

Around 888, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and settled at the newly-established royal monastery of Preslav "at the mouth of the Tiča",[21] where, under the guidance of Naum of Preslav, he engaged in active translation of important religious works from Greek to Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian), aided by other students from Constantinople.[14] Meanwhile, Vladimir had succeeded Boris, who had retreated to a monastery, as ruler of Bulgaria. Vladimir attempted to reintroduce paganism in the empire and possibly signed an anti-Byzantine pact with Arnulf of Carinthia,[22] forcing Boris to assume the throne for a second time only to depose and punish Vladimir and promptly appoint Simeon as the new ruler.[23][24] This was done at an assembly in Preslav which also proclaimed Bulgarian as the only language of state and church[25] and decided to move the Bulgarian capital from Pliska to Preslav.[26] It is not known why Boris did not place his second son, Gavril, on the throne, but instead preferred Simeon.[12] Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... The Kamchiya (also Kamchia and Kamčija, Bulgarian: Камчия) is a 244. ... Saint Naum Saint Naum of Preslav (Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The History of the Bulgarian language can be divided into four major periods: prehistoric period (from the time of the settlement of the Bulgarian Slavs on the Balkans until the late 9th century); Old Bulgarian (from the late 9th until the 11th century); Middle Bulgarian (from the 12th century to... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ...


Trade War with Byzantium and Magyar invasions

See also: Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars

With Simeon on the throne, the long-lasting peace with the Byzantine Empire established by his father was not to last much longer. A conflict arose when Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise, acting under pressure from his wife Zoe Karbonopsina and her father, moved the marketplace for Bulgarian goods from Constantinople to Thessaloniki,[15] where the Bulgarian merchants were heavily taxed. The Bulgarians sought protection by Simeon, who in turn complained to Leo. However, the Byzantine emperor ignored his embassy.[27][28] The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911). ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This follis by Leo VI bears the Byzantine Emperors official title, BASILEOS ROMAION, Emperor of the Romans. ... Zoe and her son, emperor Constantine VII. Zoe Karbonopsina, also Karvounopsina or Carbonopsina, i. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ...

Map of Bulgaria's greatest territorial extent during the reign of Simeon I
Map of Bulgaria's greatest territorial extent during the reign of Simeon I

Forced to take action, in the autumn of 894 Simeon invaded the Byzantine Empire from the north, meeting with little opposition[29] due to the concentration of most Byzantine forces in eastern Anatolia to counter Arab invasions.[30] Informed of the Bulgarian offensive, the surprised Leo sent an army consisting of guardsmen and other military units from the capital to halt Simeon, but his troops were routed[15][31] somewhere in the theme of Macedonia.[8] The Bulgarians took most of the Khazar mercenary guardsmen prisoners and killed many archons, including the army's commander. However, instead of continuing his advance to the Byzantine capital, Simeon quickly withdrew his troops to face a Magyar invasion from the north.[32] These events were later called "the first trade war in medieval Europe" by Bulgarian historians.[31] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Macedonia was a theme (or province), organised by Empress Irene, about 800, out of the Theme of Strymon. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Unable to effectively respond to the Bulgarian campaign due to the engagement of their forces against the Arabs, the Byzantines convinced the Magyars to attack Bulgaria,[15] promising to transport them across the Danube using the Byzantine navy.[31][33] Leo VI may have also concluded an agreement with Arnulf to make sure that the Franks did not support Simeon against the Magyars.[34] In addition, the talented commander Nikephoros Phokas was called back from Italy to lead a separate army against Bulgaria in 895 with the mere intention to overawe the Bulgarians.[35] Simeon, unaware of the threat from the north, rushed to meet Phokas' forces, but the two armies did not engage in a fight.[36] Instead, the Byzantines offered peace, informing him of both the Byzantine foot and maritime campaign, but intentionally did not notify him of the planned Magyar attack. Simeon did not trust the envoy and, after sending him to prison, ordered the Byzantine navy's route into the Danube closed off with ropes and chains, intending to hold it until he had dealt with Phokas.[37] The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Byzantine Dromon, the heaviest ship in the Byzantine fleet, capable of carrying up to 300 men. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


Despite the problems they encountered because of the fencing, the Byzantines ultimately managed to ferry the Magyar forces led by Árpád's son Liüntika across the Danube,[38] possibly near modern Galaţi,[39] and assisted them in pillaging the nearby Bulgarian lands. Once notified of the surprise invasion, Simeon headed north to stop the Magyars, leaving some of his troops at the southern border to prevent a possible attack by Phokas.[40] Simeon's two encounters with the enemy in Northern Dobruja resulted in Magyar victories,[15] forcing him to retreat to Drǎstǎr.[40][41] After pillaging much of Bulgaria and reaching Preslav, the Magyars returned to their lands,[42] but not before Simeon had concluded an armistice with Byzantium towards the summer of 895.[43] A complete peace was delayed, as Leo VI required the release of the Byzantine captives from the Trade War.[44] Árpád (c. ... County GalaÅ£i County Status County capital Mayor Dumitru Nicolae, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 246. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ...


Anti-Magyar campaign and further wars with Byzantium

Having dealt with the pressure from the Magyars and the Byzantines, Simeon was free to plan a campaign against the Magyars looking for retribution. He negotiated a joint force with the Magyars' eastern neighbours, the Pechenegs, and imprisoned the Byzantine envoy Leo Magister in order to delay the release of the captives until after the campaign against the Magyars.[45] This would allow him to renegotiate the peace conditions in his favour. In an exchange of letters with the envoy, Simeon refused to release the captives and ridiculed Leo VI's astrological abilities.[15][46] Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ...


Using a Magyar invasion in the lands of the neighbouring Slavs in 896 as a casus belli, Simeon headed against the Magyars together with his Pecheneg allies, defeating them completely[47] in the Battle of Southern Buh and making them leave Etelköz forever and settle in Pannonia.[8][15] Following the defeat of the Magyars, Simeon finally released the Byzantine prisoners in exchange for Bulgarians captured in 895.[15] Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire the Magyars Commanders Boris I, Simeon I Unknown Strength Very large army Very large army Casualties 20,000 more than 40,000 The battle of Southern Buh occurred near the banks of the so called river, in modern Ukraine. ... The Etelköz or Atelkuzu was an area settled by the Magyars from the mid-9th century to circa 895 CE when they were driven west by the Pechenegs and occupied the Carpathian Basin. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ...

The Bulgarians routing the Byzantine forces at Bulgarophygon in 896. From the Madrid Skylitzes.
The Bulgarians routing the Byzantine forces at Bulgarophygon in 896. From the Madrid Skylitzes.

Claiming that not all prisoners had been released,[48] Simeon once again invaded Byzantium in the summer of 896, heading directly to Constantinople.[49] He was met in Thrace by a hastily-assembled Byzantine army, but annihilated the Byzantine forces in the Battle of Bulgarophygon (at modern Babaeski, Turkey).[15][50] Arming Arab captives and sending them to fight with the Bulgarians as a desperate measure, Leo VI managed to repel the Bulgarians from Constantinople, which they had besieged.[15][51] The war ended with a peace treaty which formally lasted until around Leo VI's death in 912[8] and under which Byzantium was obliged to pay Bulgaria an annual tribute.[52] Under the treaty, the Byzantines also ceded an area between the Black Sea and Strandža to the Bulgarian Empire.[53] Meanwhile, Simeon had also imposed his authority over Serbia in return for recognizing Petar Gojniković as their ruler.[54] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Unknown Simeon I of Bulgaria Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Almost the whole army Unknown The battle of Bulgarophygon occurred in the summer of 896 near the town of Babaeski in modern Turkey. ... Depiction of Greek fire in the Madrid Skylitzes The Madrid Skylitzes is a heavily illustrated illuminated manuscript of the Synopsis of Histories (), by John Skylitzes, which covers the reigns of the Byzantine emperors from the death of Nicephorus I in 811 to the deposition of Michael IV in 1057. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Unknown Simeon I of Bulgaria Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Almost the whole army Unknown The battle of Bulgarophygon occurred in the summer of 896 near the town of Babaeski in modern Turkey. ... Babaeski is a city in the Kırklareli Province in Turkey. ... View from Papiya Peak (502 m) in Bulgarian Strandzha A landscape from the Bulgarian part of Strandzha Strandzha (Bulgarian: , also transliterated as Strandja and Stranja; Turkish: Yıldız DaÄŸları or Istranca) is a mountain massif in southeastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey, in the southeastern part... Lead stamp of Archont Petar (9th century), The Holy Virgin Mary with the Christ Child (left) and inscription in Greek + Petar archont of Dioklia AMIN (right). ...


Simeon often violated the peace treaty with Byzantium, attacking and conquering Byzantine territory on several occasions,[55] such as in 904, when the Bulgarian raids were used by Arabs led by the Byzantine renegade Leo of Tripoli to undertake a maritime campaign and seize Thessaloniki.[56] After the Arabs plundered the city, it was an easy target for Bulgaria and the nearby Slavic tribes. In order to dissuade Simeon from capturing the city and populating it with Slavs,[15][57] Leo VI was forced to make further territorial concessions to the Bulgarians in the modern region of Macedonia. With the treaty of 904, all Slavic-inhabited lands in modern southern Macedonia and southern Albania were ceded to the Bulgarian Empire,[8][58] with the border line running some 20 kilometres north of Thessaloniki.[59] Leo of Tripoli was a Greek pirate serving Saracen interests in the early tenth century. ...


Recognition as Emperor

The death of Leo VI on 11 May 912 and the accession of his infant son Constantine VII under the guidance of Leo's brother Alexander, who expelled Leo's wife Zoe from the palace, constituted a great opportunity for Simeon to attempt another campaign against Constantinople, the conquest of which remained a dream of his all his life. In the spring of 913, Simeon's envoys, which had arrived in Constantinople to renew the peace of 896, were sent away by Alexander, who refused to pay the annual tribute, urging Simeon to prepare for war.[60] May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... A Byzantine Mosaic portrait of Emperor Alexander (870 - 913) which was completed in the Emperors short reign. ...

Simeon was the Bulgarian Charlemagne, but he was better educated than our Charles the Great and much greater than him, for he laid down the foundations of literature that belonged to the people.[61]

Alfred Nicolas Rambaud, French historian A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Alfred Nicolas Rambaud (2 July 1842 - 10 November 1905) was a French historian. ...

Before Simeon could attack, Alexander died on 6 June 912, leaving the empire in the hands of a regency council headed by Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos.[62] Many of the residents of Constantinople did not recognize the young emperor and supported the pretender Constantine Doukas,[63] which, exacerbated by revolts in southern Italy and the planned Arab invasion in eastern Anatolia, was all to Simeon's advantage.[64] Constantine Nicholas tried to discourage Simeon from invading Byzantium in a long series of pleading letters, but the Bulgarian ruler nevertheless attacked in full force in late July or August 913 and reached Constantinople without any serious resistance.[65] However, the anarchy in Constantinople had ceased after the murder of the pretender Constantine Doukas and a government had promptly been formed with Patriarch Nicholas at the helm.[66] This urged Simeon to raise his siege and enter peace negotiations, to the joy of the Byzantines.[66] The protracted negotiations resulted in the payment of the Byzantine tribute's arrears,[67] the promise that Constantine VII should marry one of Simeon's daughters[15][65] and, most importantly, Simeon's official recognition as Emperor of the Bulgarians by Patriarch Nicholas[68][69] in the Blachernai Palace. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining in the year. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Greek: Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos), (852–May 15, 925) was the Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 906 and from May 912 to his death in 925. ... Arrears, or arrearages is a legal term for the type of debt accrued after missing an expected payment. ... Blachernae (Greek: ) is a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople. ...


Shortly after Simeon's visit to Constantinople, Constantine's mother Zoe returned to the palace on the insistence of the young emperor and immediately proceeded to eliminate the regents. Through a plot, she managed to assume power in February 914, practically removing Patriarch Nicholas from the government, disowning and obscuring his recognition of Simeon's imperial title[70] and rejecting the planned marriage of her son to one of Simeon's daughters.[71] Simeon had to resort to war to achieve his goals. He invaded Thrace in the summer of 914 and captured Adrianople. Zoe was quick to send Simeon numerous presents in order to conciliate him and managed to convince him to cede back Adrianople and withdraw his army. In the following years, Simeon's forces were engaged in the northwestern Byzantine provinces, around Drač (Durrës) and Thessaloniki, but did not make a move against Constantinople.[72] Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... View of Durrës Durrës (historical names: Δυρράχιον,Durazzo, Epidamnos, Драч, Dyrrhachium) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ...


Victories at Anchialos and Katasyrtai

The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos. Madrid Skylitzes.
The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos. Madrid Skylitzes.

By 917, Simeon was preparing for yet another war against Byzantium. He attempted to conclude an anti-Byzantine union with the Pechenegs, but his envoys could not match the financial resources of the Byzantines, who succeeded in outbidding them.[73] The Byzantines hatched a large-scale campaign against Bulgaria and also tried to persuade the Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković to attack the Bulgarians with Magyar support.[74] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


In 917, a particularly strong Byzantine army led by Leo Phokas, son of Nikephoros Phokas, invaded Bulgaria accompanied by the Byzantine navy under the command of Romanos Lekapenos, which sailed to the Bulgarian Black Sea ports. En route to Mesembria (Nesebǎr), where they were supposed to be reinforced by troops transported by the navy, Phokas' forces stopped to rest near the river of Achelaos, not far from the port of Anchialos (Pomorie).[75][76] Once informed of the invasion, Simeon rushed to intercept the Byzantines, and attacked them from the nearby hills while they were resting disorganized. In the Battle of Anchialos of 20 August 917, one of the largest in medieval history,[77] the Bulgarians completely routed the Byzantines and killed many of their commanders, although Phokas managed to escape to Mesembria.[78] Decades later, Leo the Deacon would write that "piles of bones can still be seen today at the river Achelaos, where the fleeing army of the Byzantines was then infamously slain".[79] Contemporary coin of Romanus I. Romanos I Lekapenos or Romanus I Lecapenus (Greek: Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπήνος, Rōmanos I LakapÄ“nos) (c. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... This article refers to the Battle of Anchialus fought in 917. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 20 - Battle of Anchialus: Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria invades Thrace and drives the Byzantines out. ... Leo the Deacon was a Byzantine historian and chronicler. ...

Map of the progress of the Battle of Anchialos
Map of the progress of the Battle of Anchialos[80]

The planned Pecheneg attack from the north also failed, as the Pechenegs quarrelled with admiral Lekapenos, who refused to transport them across the Danube to aid the main Byzantine army.[75] The Byzantines were not aided by Serbs and Magyars either: the Magyars were engaged in Western Europe as Frankish allies, and the Serbs under Petar Gojniković were reluctant to attack Bulgaria because the Bulgarian ally Mihailo Višević of Zahumlje had notified Simeon of their plans.[81] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article refers to the Battle of Anchialus fought in 917. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval South Slavic principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ...


Simeon's army quickly followed up the victory of Anchialos with another success.[65] The Bulgarians sent to pursuit the remnants of the Byzantine army approached Constantinople and encountered Byzantine forces under Leo Phokas, who had returned to the capital, at the village of Katasyrtai in the immediate proximity of Constantinople.[82] The Bulgarian regiments attacked and again defeated the Byzantines, destroying some of their last units before returning to Bulgaria.[83] Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Simeon I of Bulgaria Leo Phokas Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Heavy The battle of Katasyrtai occurred in the fall of 917, shortly after the striking Bulgarian triumph at Anchialus near the village of the same names close to the Byzantine capital Constantinople, now Istambul. ...


Suppression of Serbian unrest and late campaigns against Byzantium

Immediately after that campaign, Simeon sought to punish the Serbian ruler Petar Gojniković who had attempted to betray him by concluding an alliance with the Byzantines.[8] Simeon sent an army led by two of his commanders, Theodore Sigrica and Marmais, to Serbia. The two managed to persuade Petar to attend a personal meeting, during which he was enchained and carried off to Bulgaria, where he died in a dungeon. Simeon put Pavle Branović, prior to that an exile in Bulgaria, on the Serbian throne, thus restoring the Bulgarian influence in Serbia for a while.[84] Theodore Sigritsa (Bulgarian: Теодор Сигрица), d. ...


Meanwhile, the Byzantine military failures forced another change of government in Constantinople: the admiral Romanos Lekapenos replaced Zoe as regent of the young Constantine VII in 919, forcing her back into a convent. Romanos betrothed his daughter Helena to Constantine and advanced to the rank of co-emperor in December 920, effectively assuming the government of the empire,[85][86] which was largely what Simeon had planned to do.[87]


No longer able to climb to the Byzantine throne by diplomatic means, the infuriated Simeon once again had to wage war to impose his will. Between 920 and 922, Bulgaria increased its pressure on Byzantium, campaigning in the west through Thessaly and in the east in Thrace, reaching the Dardanelles and the Isthmus of Corinth.[15][88] Simeon's forces appeared before Constantinople in 921, when they demanded the deposition of Romanos and captured Adrianople, and 922, when they were victorious at Pigae, burned much of the Golden Horn and seized Bizye.[89][90] In the meantime, the Byzantines attempted to ignite Serbia against Simeon, but he substituted Pavle with Zaharije Pribisavljević, a former refugee at Constantinople that he had captured.[15][89] Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Theodore Sigritsa Potas Argirus Alexios Musele † Strength Large army Unknown Casualties Unknown Heavy The battle of Pigae occurred between 11 and 18 March 922 in the outskirts of present-day Istambul. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Vize Vize is a district of Kırklareli Province of Turkey. ...

Simeon sending envoys to the Fatimids. Madrid Skylitzes.
Simeon sending envoys to the Fatimids. Madrid Skylitzes.

Desperate to conquer Constantinople, Simeon planned a large campaign in 924 and sent envoys to the Fatimid caliph Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, who possessed a powerful navy which Simeon needed. The caliph agreed and sent his own representatives back with the Bulgarians to arrange the alliance. However, the envoys were captured by the Byzantines at Calabria. Romanos offered peace to the Arabs, supplementing this offer with generous gifts, and ruined their union with Bulgaria.[15][91] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah a. ... View in Calabria. ...


In Serbia, Zaharije was persuaded by the Byzantines to revolt against Simeon. Zaharije was supported by many Bulgarians exhausted from Simeon's endless campaigns against Byzantium.[92] The Bulgarian emperor sent his troops under Sigrica and Marmais, but they were routed and the two commanders beheaded, which forced Simeon to conclude an armistice with Byzantium in order to concentrate on the suppression of the uprising. The suppression was successful, as Zaharije fled to neighbouring Croatia and Serbia was put under direct Bulgarian control.[15][93] Marmais (Bulgarian: Мармаис), d. ...


In the summer of 924, Simeon nevertheless arrived at Constantinople and demanded to see the patriarch and the emperor. He conversed with Romanos on the Golden Horn on 9 September 924 and arranged a truce, according to which Byzantium would pay Bulgaria an annual tax, but would be ceded back some cities on the Black Sea coast.[94] During the interview of the two monarchs, two eagles are said to have met in the skies above and then to have parted, one of them flying over Constantinople and the other heading to Thrace, as a sign of the irreconcilability of the two rulers.[95] In his description of this meeting, Theophanes Continuatus mentions that "the two emperors… conversed", which may indicate renewed Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial claims.[96] September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ...


War with Croatia and death

Most likely after (or possibly at the time of) Patriarch Nicholas' death in 925, Simeon raised the status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church to a patriarchate.[97] This may be linked to Simeon's diplomatic relations with the Papacy between 924 and 926, during which he demanded and received Pope John X's recognition of his title as "Emperor of the Romans", truly equal to the Byzantine emperor, and possibly the confirmation of a patriarchal dignity for the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.[98] The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... John X, pope from 914 to 928, was deacon at Bologna when he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, the most powerful noble in Rome, through whose influence he was elevated first to the see of Bologna and then to the archbishopric of Ravenna. ...


In 926, Simeon's troops invaded Croatia, at the time a Byzantine ally, but were completely defeated by the army of King Tomislav in the Battle of the Bosnian Highlands.[8] Fearing a Bulgarian retribution, Tomislav accepted to abandon his union with Byzantium and make peace on the basis of the status quo, negotiated by the papal legate Madalbert.[99][100] In the last months of his life, Simeon prepared for another siege of Constantinople[88] despite Romanos' desperate pleas for peace.[101] King Tomislav by Josip Horvat - Međimurec Tomislav (died in 928), was one of the greatest rulers of Croatia in Middle Ages. ... Combatants Kingdom of Croatia Bulgarian Empire Commanders King Tomislav of Croatia Duke (Dux) Alogobotur Strength 60. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


On 27 May 927, Simeon died of heart failure in his palace in Preslav. Byzantine chroniclers tie his death to a legend, according to which Romanos decapitated a statue which was Simeon's inanimate double, and he died at that very hour.[102][103] May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ...


He was succeeded by his son Peter I, with George Sursuvul, the new emperor's maternal uncle, initially acting as a regent.[88] As part of the peace treaty which Bulgaria and Byzantium signed in October 927 and Peter's marriage to Maria (Eirene), Romanos' granddaughter, the existing borders were confirmed, as were the Bulgarian ruler's imperial dignity and the head of the Bulgarian Church's patriarchal status.[104] Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ...


Culture and religion

A new Ptolemy as he presented himself to them,

but not in faith — in desire mostly,
and due to his collection of all
divine and most precious books,
with which his palaces he'd filled,
he earned himself eternal memory.[105] Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ...

Praise to Tsar Simeon by an anonymous contemporary of the tsar

During Simeon's reign, Bulgaria reached its cultural apogee, becoming the literary and spiritual centre of Slavic Europe.[3][106] In this respect, Simeon continued his father Boris' policy of establishing and spreading Slavic culture and attracting noted scholars and writers within Bulgaria's borders. It was in the Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School, founded under Boris, that the main literary work in Bulgaria was concentrated during the reign of Simeon.[107]  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language Slavic Europe is a region of Europe where Slavic languages are spoken. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ...

Ceramic icon of Saint Theodore dating to Simeon's reign
Ceramic icon of Saint Theodore dating to Simeon's reign

The late 9th and early 10th century constitute the earliest and most productive period of medieval Bulgarian literature.[107] Having spent his early years in Constantinople, Simeon introduced Byzantine culture to the Bulgarian court, but eliminated its assimilative effect by means of military power and religious autonomy.[107] The disciples of Cyril and Methodius, among whom Clement of Ohrid, Naum and Constantine of Preslav, continued their educational work in Bulgaria, actively translating Christian texts, such as the Bible and the works of John Chrysostom, Basil of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory of Nazianzus, Athanasius of Alexandria, as well as historic chronicles such as these of John Malalas and George Hamartolus, to Bulgarian.[107] The reign of Simeon also witnessed the production of a number of original theological and secular works, such as John Exarch's Six Days (Šestodnev), Constantine of Preslav's Alphabetical Prayer and Proclamation of the Holy Gospels, and Černorizec Hrabǎr's An Account of Letters.[107] Simeon's own contribution to this literary blossoming was praised by his contemporaries, for example in the Praise to Tsar Simeon preserved in the Zlatostruj collection and Simeon's Collection,[106] to which the tsar personally wrote an addendum.[108] St. ... St. ... Bulgarian literature is literature written by Bulgarians or residents of Bulgaria, or written in the Bulgarian language; usually the latter is the defining feature. ... Cyril and Methodius were two Eastern Orthodox missionaries; for the separate articles, see: Saint Cyril Saint Methodius This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian: , IPA: ) (ca. ... Saint Naum Saint Naum of Preslav (or Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... Constantine of Preslav (Konstantin Preslavski) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... John Chrysostom (349–407, Greek: , Ioannes Chrysostomos) was the archbishop of Constantinople. ... Basil (ca. ... St. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... John Malalas (or Malelas) (Syriac for orator ) (c. ... George Hamartolus (Greek ) was a monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some importance. ... John Exarch (John the Exarch, also transcribed Joan Exarch, Joan Ekzarh) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... Chernorizetz Hrabar (Chernorizetz the Brave) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar and writer working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ...


Simeon turned the new Bulgarian capital Preslav into a magnificent religious and cultural centre, intended more as a display of his realm's heyday and as a royal residence than as a military fortress.[106] With its more than twenty cross-domed churches and numerous monasteries, its impressive royal palace and the royal Golden (or Round) Basilica, Preslav was a true imperial capital.[106] The development of Bulgarian art in the period is demonstrated by a ceramic icon of Theodore of Amasea and the Preslav-style illustrated ceramics.[109] Saint Theodore of Amasea (Amasenus, now Amasya, Turkey) is one of the Greek military saints of the 4th century, the earlier patron saint of Venice, now outshone there by Saint Mark, but still represented atop one of the two Byzantine columns standing in the Piazzetta of the Piazza San Marco...


Family

Simeon was married twice. By his first wife, whose identity is unknown, Simeon had a son called Michael,[110] who was born before 913. He was excluded from the succession in 927 and sent to a monastery. He died in 931, shortly after organizing a revolt.[88] Mihail (Bulgarian: ) or Michael was the eldest son of Emperor Simeon I The Great. ...


By his second wife, the daughter of the influential noble George Sursuvul, he had three sons: Peter, who succeeded as Emperor of Bulgaria in 927 and ruled until 969; Ivan, who rebelled against Peter in 928 and then fled to Byzantium;[88] and Benjamin (Bajan), who, according to Lombard historian Liutprand of Cremona, "possessed the power to transform himself suddenly into a wolf or other strange animal".[111] Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Liutprand (Liudprand, Luitprand) (c. ...


Simeon also had several daughters, including one who was arranged to marry Constantine VII in 913, and was thus born before that date.[88] The marriage was annulled by Constantine's mother Zoe once she had returned to the court.[112]

Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Vladimir-Rasatte (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria from 889 to 893. ... Mihail (Bulgarian: ) or Michael was the eldest son of Emperor Simeon I The Great. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ...

Legacy and popular culture

Tsar Simeon I has remained among the most highly valued Bulgarian historical figures, as indicated by popular vote in the Velikite Bǎlgari (a spin-off of 100 Greatest Britons) television programme, which in February 2007 placed him fourth among the greatest Bulgarians ever.[114] The last Bulgarian monarch, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was named after Simeon I.[115] A brand of high-quality grape rakija, Car Simeon Veliki, also bears his name,[116] and an Antarctic peak on Livingston Island of the South Shetland Islands was named Simeon Peak in his honour by the Antarctic Place-names Commission.[117] Velikite Balgari (Bulgarian: , The Great Bulgarians) was the Bulgarian spin-off of the 2002 Greatest Britons program produced by the BBC. Aired on the Bulgarian National Televisions Kanal 1, its first stage began on 9 June 2006 and finished on 10 December, with a show on 23 December announcing... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 greatest Britons of all time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of... Simeon Peak Simeon Peak (Vrah Simeon vr&h si-me-on) rises to 1,576 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Topographic marker approved by the Commission Field work for the Commission A map published by the Commission The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria. ...


Simeon the Great has also been regularly featured in fiction. Bulgarian national writer Ivan Vazov dedicated a children's patriotic poem to him, "Car Simeon", and it was later arranged as a song, "Kraj Bosfora šum se vdiga" ("Noise Is Being Made Near the Bosphorus").[118] An eleven-episode drama series filmed in 1984, Zlatnijat vek (Golden Age), retells the story of Simeon's reign. In the series, the tsar is played by Marius Donkin.[119] A historical drama play called Car Simeon — Zlatnijat vek and produced by Stefan Stajčev, director of the Silistra Theatre, debuted in December 2006. Ivan Samokovliev stars in the part of Simeon.[120] This article is in need of attention. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Timeline

Footnotes

  1. ^ For example in Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
  2. ^ This article uses the United Nations-authorized scientific transliteration system to romanize Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.
  3. ^ a b Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp. 23-25.
  4. ^ (1988) Enciklopedija Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Akademično izdatelstvo "Marin Drinov". OCLC 75865504. 
  5. ^ The First Bulgarian Empire. Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  6. ^ Hart, Nancy. Bulgarian Art and Culture: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (PDF), University of Texas at Austin, p. 21. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. 
  7. ^ Weigand, Gustav (1924). "1 Istoriko-geografski obzor: 4 Srednovekovie", Etnografija na Makedonija, trans. Elena Pipiševa (in Bulgarian), Leipzig: Friedrich Brandstetter. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
  9. ^ About Bulgaria (PDF). U.S. Embassy Sofia, Bulgaria. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  10. ^ Castellan, Georges (1999). Istorija na Balkanite XIV–XX vek, trans. Liljana Caneva (in Bulgarian), Plovdiv: Hermes, p. 37. ISBN 954-459-901-0. 
  11. ^ "Цѣсарь Блъгарѡмъ". Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 367.
  12. ^ a b c d Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 280.
  13. ^ Dimitrov, Božidar. Hramǎt “Sveti Četirideset mǎčenici” (Bulgarian). National Historical Museum. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  14. ^ a b c d e Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
  16. ^ "From the Greek form of the Hebrew name שִׁמְעוֹן (Shim'on) which meant "hearkening" or "listening"." Campbell, Mike. Biblical Names. Behind the Name. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  17. ^ "Hunc etenim Simeonem emiargon, id est semigrecum, esse aiebant, eo quod a puericia Bizantii Demostenis rhetoricam Aristotelisque sillogismos didicerit". Liutprand of Cremona. Antapodosis, cap. 29, p. 66. Cited in Drinov, Marin (1876). Južnye slavjane i Vizantija v X veke (in Russian), p. 374. 
  18. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 282.
  19. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 281.
  20. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 133.
  21. ^ This is not to be understood literally, as the mouth of the Tiča lies to the east, on the Black Sea coast. Researchers link the word ustie ("river mouth") in the sources to a narrow section of the river or to the Ustie pass near the city. Nikolova, Bistra (2002). "Veliki Preslav", Pravoslavnite cǎrkvi prez Bǎlgarskoto srednovekovie (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, p. 88. ISBN 954-430-762-1. 
  22. ^ Annales Fuldenses, p. 408. Cited in Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 133.
  23. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 283.
  24. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
  25. ^ Crampton, R.J. (2005). "The Reign of Simeon the Great (893–927)", A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press, pp. 16-17. ISBN 0521850851. 
  26. ^ Kalojanov, Ančo (2005-05-11). Slavjanskata pravoslavna civilizacija (Bulgarian). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  27. ^ John Skylitzes. Skylitzes–Kedrenos, II, p. 254.4–16
  28. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 144-145.
  29. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 289.
  30. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, p. 312., cited in Vasil'ev, A. (1902). Vizantija i araby, II (in Russian), p. 88, p. 104, pp. 108-111. 
  31. ^ a b c Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 198.
  32. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 289-291.
  33. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 145.
  34. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 294-295.
  35. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 146.
  36. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 295.
  37. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 296-297.
  38. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 297.
  39. ^ According to toponymic evidence. Kuun, Géza (1895). Relationum Hungarorum cum oriente gentibusque originis historia antiquissima (in Latin), p. 23. 
  40. ^ a b Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 298-299.
  41. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  42. ^ Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  43. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 146.
  44. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 301-304.
  45. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 304.
  46. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 304-311.
  47. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 147.
  48. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 147.
  49. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 315.
  50. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 316.
  51. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 317.
  52. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 148.
  53. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 318-321.
  54. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 141.
  55. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 321.
  56. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 324.
  57. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 152.
  58. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 334-337.
  59. ^ "In the year 6412 since the creation of the world, indict 7 (904). Border between Byzantines and Bulgarians. In the time of Simeon, by the grace of God Prince of the Bulgarians, under Olgu Tarkan Theodore and under Komit Drista." Border marking inscription from Narǎš (modern Greece). Uspenskij, F.I. (1898). "Pograničnyj stolb meždu Vizantiej i Bolgariej pri Simeone" (in Russian). Izvestija russkogo arheologičeskogo instituta v Konstantinopole: pp. 184-194. 
  60. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 352.
    * Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  61. ^ Cited in Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  62. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 212.
  63. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 156.
  64. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 353.
  65. ^ a b c Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  66. ^ a b Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 359.
  67. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 157.
  68. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, pp. 144-148.
  69. ^ Ostrogorsky, George (1935). "Avtokrator i samodržac" (in Serbian). Glas Srpske kraljevske akademije (CLXIV): pp. 95-187. 
  70. ^ Loud, G.A. (1978). "A re-examination of the ‘coronation’ of Symeon of Bulgaria in 913". The Journal of Theological Studies (XXIX): pp. 109-120. 
  71. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 367-368.
  72. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 158-159.
  73. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 159.
  74. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 375-376.
  75. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 160-161.
  76. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 376-377.
  77. ^ Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  78. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, trans. Paul Stephenson. Symeon of Bulgaria wins the Battle of Acheloos, 917. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  79. ^ Leo the Deacon, History, p. 12410-12. Cited in Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 216.
  80. ^ According to Čolpanov, Boris (1988). Slavata na Bǎlgarija: istoriko-hudožestven očerk (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Voenno izdatelstvo. OCLC 22276650. 
  81. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 370.
  82. ^ De Boor, Сarl Gothard (1888). Vita Euthymii. Berlin: Reimer, p. 214. 
  83. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 382.
  84. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 385-386.
  85. ^ (1991) in Alexander Kazhdan: Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. 
  86. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 163.
  87. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 217.
  88. ^ a b c d e f Cawley, Charles (2006–2007). "Bulgaria: Symeon I 893–927", Medieval Lands. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. 
  89. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 164-165.
  90. ^ Vita S. Mariae Junioris.
  91. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 168-169.
  92. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 446-447.
  93. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 459.
  94. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 169-172.
  95. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 405-407.
  96. ^ "tôn basileôn omilountôn". Discussed in Stephenson, Paul. The peace agreed between Romanos Lekapenos and Symeon of Bulgaria, AD 924 (translation of Theophanes Continuatus). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  97. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 156.
  98. ^ Mladjov, Ian (1999). "Between Byzantium and Rome: Bulgaria and the West in the Aftermath of the Photian Schism". Byzantine Studies/Études Byzantines: pp. 173-181. 
  99. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 225.
  100. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 176.
  101. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 489-491.
  102. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 176-77.
  103. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 226-227.
  104. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
  105. ^ Ivanova, "Pohvala za car Simeon", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  106. ^ a b c d Delev, Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata kultura.
  107. ^ a b c d e Ivanova, "Introduction", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  108. ^ Ivanova, "Pribavka ot samija hristoljubiv car Simeon", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  109. ^ Risuvana keramika. Muzej Preslav. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  110. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 160.
  111. ^ Antapodosis, p. 309.
  112. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 148.
  113. ^ Cawley, Medieval Lands.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 280, p. 495.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 133, p. 177.
  114. ^ Vasil Levski beše izbran za naj-velikija bǎlgarin na vsički vremena (Bulgarian). Velikite Bǎlgari (2007-02-18). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  115. ^ Simeon Sakskoburggotski (Car Simeon Vtori) (Bulgarian). OMDA.bg. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  116. ^ Grozdova rakija: Car Simeon Veliki (Bulgarian). Vinex. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  117. ^ Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer: Simeon Peak. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Republic of Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  118. ^ Večnite pesni na Bǎlgarija (Bulgarian). Novoto vreme. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  119. ^ "Zlatniyat vek" (1984). IMDb. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  120. ^ "Tazi večer v Silistra e premierata na grandioznija istoričeski spektakǎl "Zlatnijat vek — Car Simeon Veliki"", bTV Novinite, 2006-12-07. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. (in Bulgarian) 

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References

  • Bakalov, Georgi; Milen Kumanov (2003). Elektronno izdanie – Istorija na Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Trud, Sirma. ISBN 9844830679. 
  • Bogdanov, Ivan (1973). Simeon Veliki — epoha i ličnost (in Bulgarian). OCLC 71590049. 
  • Božilov, Ivan (1983). Car Simeon Veliki (893–927) — zlatnijat vek na srednovekovna Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Otečestvenija front. OCLC 1323835. 
  • Canev, Stefan (2006). "10 (889–912) Zlatnijat vek. Knjaz Rasate-Vladimir, car Simeon Veliki; 11 (912–927) Kǎrvavijat vek. Simeon — car na bǎlgari i romei", Bǎlgarski hroniki (in Bulgarian). Sofia, Plovdiv: Trud, Žanet 45. ISBN 954-528-610-5. 
  • Delev, Petǎr; Valeri Kacunov, Plamen Mitev, Evgenija Kalinova, Iskra Baeva, Bojan Dobrev (2006). "9 Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri Car Simeon; 10 Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata kultura", Istorija i civilizacija za 11. klas (in Bulgarian). Trud, Sirma. ISBN 9549926729. 
  • Dimitrov, Božidar (1994). "Bulgaria — a predominant power in the European East 893–967 AD", Bulgaria: illustrated history. Sofia: Borina. ISBN 9545000449. 
  • Fine, Jr., John V.A. (1991). "5 Bulgaria under Symeon, 893–927", The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472081493. 
  • Ivanova, Klimentina; Svetlina Nikolova (1995). Tǎržestvo na slovoto. Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata knižnina (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Agata-A. ISBN 9789545400056. 
  • Lalkov, Milčo (1997). "Tsar Simeon the Great (893–927)", Rulers of Bulgaria. Kibea. ISBN 954-474-098-8. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1930). "Emperor of the Bulgars and the Romans", A history of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 832687. 
  • Todt, Klaus-Peter (1996). "Symeon, Zar und bedeutendster Herrscher des ersten bulgarischen Reiches", Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (in German). Traugott Bautz. ISBN 3-88309-064-6. 
  • Zlatarski, Vasil [1927] (1971). "2 Ot slavjanizacijata na dǎržavata do padaneto na Pǎrvoto carstvo (852–1018): 4 Borba s Vizantija za političesko nadmoštie", Istorija na bǎlgarskata dǎržava prez srednite vekove. Tom I. Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, 2 (in Bulgarian), Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. OCLC 67080314. 
  • (2005) "1.2 Bǎlgarite stavat hristijani. Izborǎt na knjaz Boris I", Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, Trud, Sirma. 

Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... Stefan Nedelchev Tsanev (Bulgarian: ) (born August 9, 1936) is a contemporary Bulgarian writer, known for his essays, plays and poems, as well as historical novels. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (ot Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Bozhidar Dimitrov (Bulgarian: ) (born 3 December 1945) is a well-known Bulgarian historian working in the sphere of Medieval Bulgarian history, the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria and the Macedonian Question. ... For the railroad company, see Ann Arbor Railroad. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... George Bell & Sons was a book publishing house located in London, England, from 1839 to 1986. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... Vasil Zlatarski is a famous Bulgarian historian. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ...

External links

Bulgarian monarchs
Great Bulgaria (632–681)

Kubrat | Batbayan Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Batbayan (d. ...


First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018) The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ...


Asparukh | Tervel | Kormesiy | Sevar | Kormisosh | Vinekh | Telets | Sabin | Umor | Toktu | Pagan | Telerig | Kardam | Krum | Omurtag | Malamir | Presian | Boris I | Vladimir | Simeon I | Peter I | Boris II | Roman | Samuil | Gavril Radomir | Ivan Vladislav | Presian II Asparukh or Isperikh (Bulgarian: Аспарух, Asparuh or Исперих, Isperih) was ruler of the Bulgarians in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681. ... Tervel (Bulgarian: Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the ruler of the Bulgars at the beginning of the 8th century. ... Kormesiy or better Kormesij was a ruler of Danubian Bulgaria in the first half of the 8th century. ... Sevar (Bulgarian: ) was a ruler of Bulgaria in the 8th century. ... Kormisosh was Khan of Bulgaria between 753 and 756. ... Vinekh or better Vineh was ruler of Bulgaria in the mid-8th century. ... Telets or better Telec, was the ruler of Bulgaria 762–765. ... Sabin was the ruler of Bulgaria 765–766. ... Umor was the ruler of Bulgaria in 766. ... Toktu (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 766–767. ... Pagan was the ruler of Bulgaria 767–768. ... Telerig was the ruler of Bulgaria 768–777. ... Kardam (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 777–after 796/before 803. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... Omurtag or Omortag (Bulgarian: ) was ruler of Bulgaria from 814 to 831. ... Malamir (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 831–836. ... Presian I was the ruler of Bulgaria 836–852. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Vladimir-Rasatte (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria from 889 to 893. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Peter I of Bulgaria ruled for three years (969-972). ... Roman (Bulgarian: Роман) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 977 and 997 (in Byzantine captivity from 991). ... Samuil (also Samuel)[1] (Bulgarian: ; IPA: ) ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Macedonia from 997 to 6 October 1014, having prior to that co-ruled with Roman between 976 and 997. ... Gavril Radomir was the ruler of Bulgaria from October 1014 to August or September 1015. ... Ivan Vladislav was the ruler of Bulgaria from August or September 1015 to August or September 1018. ... Presian II (or also Prusian), was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria for a short time in 1018. ...


Second Bulgarian Empire (1186–1396) The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ...


Ivan Asen I | Peter IV | Ivanko | Kaloyan | Boril | Ivan Asen II | Kaliman I Asen | Michael Asen I | Kaliman II Asen | Mitso Asen | Constantine I Tikh | Ivailo | Ivan Asen III | George Terter I | Smilets | Chaka | Theodore Svetoslav | George Terter II | Michael Shishman | Ivan Stephen | Ivan Alexander | Ivan Shishman | Ivan Sratsimir Ivan Asen I (also Ioan Asen I, in English John Asen I), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria 1189-1196. ... Peter IV (in Bulgarian Petăr IV, or commonly but less accurately Petăr II) (Bulgarian: ) ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria 1185-1197. ... Ivanko (Bulgarian: ) killed Ivan Asen I, ruler of the renascent Second Bulgarian Empire, in 1196. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Boril was the son of a sister of Tsar Kaloyan. ... Portrait of Ivan Asen II from the Zograf Monastery on Mount Athos, 1817 Ivan Asen II (Bulgarian: Иван Асен II, and also Йоан Асен II, Ioan Asen II, in English sometimes John Asen II), emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241. ... Kaliman I of Bulgaria was the son of Tsar Ivan Asen II and Anna Maria of Hungary. ... Michael Asen I of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Михаил Асен I, Mihail Asen I; often inconsistently styled Michael II Asen), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1246 to 1256. ... Kaliman II of Bulgaria was the son of Alexander. ... Mitso Asen (Bulgarian: ) emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1256 until 1257. ... Tsar Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria (ruled 1257-1277) took the throne of Bulgaria after the assasination of Michael II Asen of Bulgaria in 1256. ... Ivailo (Bulgarian: Ивайло ), nicknamed Bărdokva (radish or lettuce) or Lakhanas (cabbage) was a rebel leader in Bulgaria in 1277 and reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1278 to 1279. ... Tsar Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria was the son of Tsar Mico Asen and his wife Princess Maria of Bulgaria. ... Tsar George I of Bulgaria was married twice. ... Tsar Smilets of Bulgaria was married to Princess Maria of Byzantine. ... Tsar Chaka was tsar of Bulgaria from 1298-1300. ... Theodore Svetoslav (Bulgarian: Тодор Светослав, Todor Svetoslav and also Теодор Светослав, Teodor Svetoslav), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1300 to 1322. ... Tsar George II of Bulgaria was monarch of Bulgaria from 1322 to 1323. ... Michael Asen III (Bulgarian: Михаил Асен III, Mihail Asen III, commonly called Michael Shishman (Михаил Шишман, Mihail Å iÅ¡man) or Michael III Shishman), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1323 to 1330. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ivan Alexander (Bulgarian: , transliterated Ivan AleksandÇŽr;[1] IPA: ), also known as John Alexander,[2] ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371,[3] during the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Tsar Ivan Shishman of Bulgarian was the son of Tsar Ivan Alexander and his second wife Theodora. ... Ivan Sratsimir or Ivan Stratsimir (Bulgarian: ) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria in Vidin from 1356 to 1397. ...


Kingdom of Bulgaria (1878–1946) The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ...


Alexander I | Ferdinand I | Boris III | Simeon II Alexander Joseph of Battenberg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Preceded by
Vladimir
Tsar of Bulgaria
893–927
Succeeded by
Peter I
Persondata
NAME Simeon I the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Symeon I the Great; Симеон I Велики (Bulgarian); Simeon I Veliki (transliteration)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Tsar of Bulgaria
DATE OF BIRTH 860s
PLACE OF BIRTH Bulgaria, possibly Pliska
DATE OF DEATH 27 May 927
PLACE OF DEATH Bulgaria, most likely Preslav

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bulgarian Royal Family: Collection of Materials (705 words)
Son of King Boris III (House of Saxe-Coburg) and Queen Joanna (House of Savoy), King Simeon II was born in Sofia on June 16th, 1937.
King Simeon II visited Bulgaria for the first time since his childhood in 1996 and was greeted by multitude enthusiastic Bulgarians.
In April 2001 H.M. Simeon II returned to Bulgaria and formed a new political party, the National Movement for Simeon II (NMSII), dedicated to "reforms and political integrity." Shortly thereafter, the party won 120 of the 240 seats in the Bulgarian parliament and Simeon of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha served as a Prime Minister until 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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