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Encyclopedia > Sima Guang

Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Events Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates invade Kyushu. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


He was born in 1019 in present day Yuncheng, Shanxi to a wealthy family, and obtained early success as a scholar and officer. He passed the examination for the quasi-doctoral degree, highest in the state, when he was barely twenty, and he spent the next several years in official positions. Events Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates invade Kyushu. ... Yuncheng (Simplified Chinese: 运城; Traditional Chinese: 运城; pinyin: ) is the southernmost prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, China. ...


In 1064, he presented to the emperor Yingzong a book of five volumes, the Chronicle Chart, a summary of events of China from 403 BC to 959, which may be regarded as a first advertisement and request for sponsorship of his major project. The starting point was chosen from the year that the king of Eastern Zhou acknowledged the division of the ancient hereditary State of Jin (now Shanxi) from the Warring States between three great families, a recognition of usurpers which marked the beginning of the desperate and decisive wars that brought the end of Eastern Zhou and the establishment of the new-style empire of Qin Dynasty. In 1066, he presented a further and more detailed work, the Comprehensive Records, comprising eight volumes chronicling the period from 403 BC to 207 BC, and at this time an edict was issued for the work to be continued. He was granted full access to the imperial libraries, while the emperor undertook to cover all the costs of paper, writing brushes and other equipment required for the compilation. He also allocated funds for research assistants, including the experienced historians Liu Shu and Zhao Junxi. Early in the following year, 1067, Yingzong died, and in November, he attended a seminar at the palace to introduce the work in progress to Shenzong. The new emperor not only confirmed the interest his father had shown, but proclaimed the favour by a preface which changed the title of his work from Comprehensive Records to the more ornamental and impressive Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government, which would be completed in 1084. As several modern scholars have observed, the title Mirror may be understood in this context as indicating a work of reference and guidance; so the emperor accepted he as his mentor in the science of history and its application to government, and for decades of his reign he maintained his support for the work. Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Emperor Yingzong (February 16, 1032 – January 25, 1067) was the fifth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC - 206 BC 205 BC... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Emperor Shenzong (May 25, 1048 – April 1, 1085) was the sixth emperor of Song Dynasty China. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ...


Such loyalty is notable, and he soon became a leader of the conservative faction at court, resolutely opposed to the reforming policies of emperor's minister Wang Anshi. He presented increasingly bitter memorials of criticism, and in 1070, he refused further appointment and withdrew from the court. In 1071, he took up residence in Luoyang, where he remained with an official sinecure, ample leisure and sufficient resources to continue the work. Indeed, though he and his imperial master were in complete disagreement on policies for the present day, the enforced retirement proved essential for the historian to complete the project in full and final form. Wáng Ānshí (王安石) (1021 - 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted some controversial, major socio-economic reforms. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; Pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


He is still remembered for his work Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government and his rivalry with contemporary statesman Wang Anshi. Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ...


See also

Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ... The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ...

External links

  • Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling - Extract from the Zizhi Tongjian Rafe de Crespigny, Internet edition, 1991.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tomb of Sima Guang (296 words)
The Tomb of Sima Guang and his ancestors is located on Mingtiao Hill, 15 kilometers north of Xiaxian County, Shanxi Province.
Sima Guang (1019-1086) was a famous historian and statesman during the Song Dynasty (907-1127).
In front of the memorial hall are five stele pavilions with four divine steles of Sima Guang.
Sima Guang at AllExperts (457 words)
Sima Guang, scholar and statesman of the Northern Song dynasty, was born in 1019 in present-day Shanxi province.
In 1064, Sima Guang presented to Emperor Yingzong a book of five chapters, entitled Linian tu "Chronicle Table," a summary of events from 403 BC to 959 AD, which may be regarded as a first advertisement and request for sponsorship of his major project.
Such loyalty is notable, for Sima Guang soon became a leader of the conservative faction at court, resolutely opposed to the reforming policies of Shenzong's minister Wang Anshi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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