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Encyclopedia > Simón Bolívar
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Simón Bolívar

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (July 24, 1783December 17, 1830) was a South American revolutionary leader. Credited with leading the fight for independence in what are now the nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, today's Panama and Bolivia, he is revered as a hero in those countries and throughout the rest of Latin America. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Contents

Early life

Bolívar was born in Caracas, New Granada (in modern-day Venezuela) into an aristocratic family, and was educated by different tutors after his parents died. Among his tutors was Simón Rodríguez, from whose ideas and educational style he received great influence. Cerro Avila, Caracas. ... New Grenada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... The Ancient Greek term Aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... Simón Rodríguez (Caracas, Venezuela, October 28, 1769 - Amotape (Perú) February 28, 1854), known during his exile from Spanish America as Samuel Robinson, was a South American philosopher and educator, notably Simón Bolívars tutor and mentor. ...


Following the death of his parents, he went to Spain in 1799 to complete his education. In Spain he married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa in 1802 but, on a brief return visit to Venezuela in 1803, she succumbed to yellow fever. Bolívar returned to Europe in 1804 and for a time was part of Napoleon's retinue. 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


El Libertador

Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807 and, when Napoleon made Joseph King of Spain and its colonies in 1808, he participated in the resistance juntas in America. The Caracas junta declared its independence in 1810, and Bolívar was sent to England on a diplomatic mission. 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the elder brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs - that is, rulers of united Spain. ... In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distant state (or city, in ancient times). ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. ... There are a number of things that junta (hUn-tah) could refer to: The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines a junta as a body of persons acting towards a common aim, especially political clique or faction after revolution or coupe détat. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ...


Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1811. But in July 1812, junta leader Francisco de Miranda surrendered, and Bolívar had to flee to Cartagena de Indias. From there, Bolívar wrote his Cartagena Manifesto. 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Revolutionary: Francisco de Miranda Francisco de Miranda (March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed but who is regarded as a forerunner of Bolívar and other more effective American fighters for independence. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Bocagrande Cartagena San Pedro Square,Old City Cartagena Cartagena, Colombia, also known as Cartagena de Indias, is a large seaport on the north coast of Colombia. ... Simon Bolivar wrote his own encyclopedia but instead of researching topics, he asked Indians what their opinions were on topics they knew nothing about. ...


In 1813, after acquiring a military command in New Granada under the direction of the Congress of Tunja, he led the invasion of Venezuela. This was the beginning of the famous Campaña Admirable, the Admirable Campaign. He entered Merida on May 23 and was proclaimed El Libertador ("The Liberator"). Caracas was recaptured on August 6, 1813, and the second Venezuelan republic was proclaimed. After the fall of the second republic, he returned to New Granada, where he then commanded a Colombian nationalist force and entered Bogotá in 1814, retaking the city from the dissenting republican forces of Cundinamarca. He intented to march to Cartagena and enlist the aid of local forces in order to capture Royalist Santa Marta. However, after a number of political and military disputes with the government of Cartagena, Bolívar fled in 1815 to Jamaica, where he petitioned the Haitian leader Alexandre Pétion for aid. 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... New Grenada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... Tunja is a city in Colombia. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... New Grenada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Downtown Bogotá The Atlantis shopping mall in the zona rosa Plaza de toros la Santamaría, a famous venue for bullfighting Bogotá (known officially in Spanish as Bogotá D.C., formerly Santafé de Bogotá D.C., is the capital and largest city in Colombia, with a population of roughly 7. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Cundinamarca is a department of Colombia, one of the original nine states of the United States of Colombia. Most of Cundinamarca is in the Eastern Cordillera, just south of Boyacá, bordered by the Magdalena River on the west, reaching down into the Amazon River basin on the east, and bordering... Cartagena is the name of two cities: Cartagena, Spain Cartagena, Colombia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The city of Santa Marta. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 - March 29, 1818) was President of the southern Republic of Haiti from 1806 until his death. ...


In 1816, with Haitian help, Bolívar returned to the fight, landing in Venezuela and capturing Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar). 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sketch of Ciudad Bolívar, 1867 Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela (2004) Ciudad Bolívar is the capital of the Venezuelan state of Bolívar. ...


A victory at Boyacá in 1819 added Colombia to the territories free of Spanish control, and in September 7, 1821 Gran Colombia (a federation covering much of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) was created, with Bolívar as president and Francisco de Paula Santander as vice president. Colombia, then known as New Granada, acquired its definitive independence from Spain at the Battle of Boyacá. A combined republican army of Colombians and Venezuelans was led during the campaign by the strategy of General Simón Bolívar. ... 1819 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Republic of Gran Colombia, or Greater Colombia, was a short-lived republic in South America consisting of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. ... Francisco de Paula Santander (1792-1840), was a Colombian Revolutionist. ...


Further victories at Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha in 1822 consolidated his rule over Venezuela and Ecuador, respectively. After a meeting in Guayaquil on July 26 and 27 1822 with Argentine General José de San Martín, who had received the title of Protector of Peruvian Freedom in August 1821 after having partially liberated Peru from the Spanish, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. The Peruvian congress named him dictator of Peru on February 10, 1824, which allowed Bolívar to completely reorganize the political and military administration. Bolívar, assisted by Antonio José de Sucre, decisively defeated the Spanish cavalry on August 6 1824 at Junín. Sucre destroyed the still numerically superior remnants of the Spanish forces at Ayacucho on December 9. The Battle of Carabobo was fought between South American patriots, led by Simon Bolívar, and the forces from Spain. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Pichincha is an active volcano in the country of Ecuador whos capital Quito wraps around its eastern slopes. ... 1822 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Santiago de Guayaquil, or just Guayaquil, is the most populous and largest city in Ecuador, as well as that nations main sea port city. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1822 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... José de San Martín ( 25 February 1778 - 17 August 1850) was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Antonio José de Sucre Antonio José de Sucre ( 1795- 1830) was a South American independence leader, and one of Simón Bolívars closest friends, generals and statesmen. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Junín may refer to: Argentina Junín, Buenos Aires Junín Partido Junín de los Andes (Neuquén Province) Peru Junín Region Junín Province Junín, Peru This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ayacucho is the capital of the department of Ayacucho in Peru. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 6 1825, at the Congress of Upper Peru the Republic of Bolivia was created in honour of Bolívar, who drafted a new constitution for the new nation. But at home, Bolívar had great difficulties maintaining control of the vast Gran Colombia. During 1826, internal divisions had sparked dissent throughout the nation and regional uprisings erupted in Venezuela, thus the fragile South American coalition appeared to be on the verge of collapse. An amnesty was declared and an arrangement was reached with the Venezuelan rebels, but political dissent in New Granada grew as a consequence of this. August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In an attempt to keep the republic together as a single entity, Bolívar called for a constitutional convention at Ocaña during April 1828. Bolivar had wanted to implement in Gran Colombia some or all of the elements of the Bolivian constitution he had written (which included a lifetime presidency with the ability to select a successor, though this was theoretically held in check by an intricate system of balances). This move was considered controversial and was one of the reasons why the deliberations met with strong opposition. Unhappy with what would be the ensuing result, Bolívar's delegates left the convention. April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Map showing Gran Colombia The Republic of Gran Colombia, or Greater Colombia, was a short-lived republic in South America consisting of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. ...


After the failure of the convention due to grave political differences, Bolívar proclaimed himself dictator on August 27, 1828 through the "Organic Decree of Dictatorship". He considered this as a temporary measure, as a means to reestablish his authority and save the republic, though it increased dissatisfaction and anger among his political opponents. An assassination attempt in September 1828 failed, as he emerged physically intact, but nevertheless greatly affected Bolívar. Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September is the ninth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Dissident feelings continued, and uprisings would later occur in New Granada, Venezuela and Ecuador during the next two years. Bolívar finally resigned his presidency on April 27, 1830, intending to leave the country for exile in Europe or the Caribbean, and died from tuberculosis on December 17, 1830, in "La Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino", (http://www.simon-bolivar.org/bolivar/san_pedro_alejandrino.htm) in Santa Marta, Colombia. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The city of Santa Marta. ...




Preceded by:
None
President of Gran Colombia
1821–1830
Succeeded by:
Andres de Santa Cruz
Preceded by:
José Bernardo de Tagle
Liberator of Peru
1824–1826
Succeeded by:
Andres de Santa Cruz
Preceded by:
None
President of Bolivia
1825–1826
Succeeded by:
Antonio José de Sucre


Map showing Gran Colombia The Republic of Gran Colombia, or Greater Colombia, was a short-lived republic in South America consisting of present-day Colombia , Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. ... Categories: People stubs | 1792 births | 1865 deaths | Bolivian presidents ... ... The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Perú . See also History of Peru Politics of Peru Categories: Lists of office-holders | Presidents of Peru | Government of Peru ... Categories: People stubs | 1792 births | 1865 deaths | Bolivian presidents ... The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Bolivia. ... Antonio José de Sucre Antonio José de Sucre ( 1795- 1830) was a South American independence leader, and one of Simón Bolívars closest friends, generals and statesmen. ...


See also

Bolívars War refers to a series of independence wars in South America from 1811 to 1825 led by the famous South American nationalist and general Simón Bolívar. ... Countries Bolivia, South America Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, South America States and Provinces Bolívar, Venezuela Bolívar, Colombia Cities La Puebla de Bolibar, Basque Country, Spain, is not named after Bolívar. ... Bolívar is derived from Simón Bolívar, one of the principal figures of the Latin American civil wars so called of independence; the Republic of Bolivia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela are named after him, as are a number of other things, mainly in the Western Hemisphere. ... The Boliviano is the currency of Bolivia. ... The boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. ... The Venezuelan Bolívar (ISO currency code: VEB) is the currency of Venezuela. ... The Bolivarian Circles are a 2. ... The Bolivarian Revolution is the social and political movement founded by Hugo Chávez that is based on the ideals of Simón Bolívar, an early 19th century Latin American Independence hero. ... Gabriel Garcia Marquez Gabriel García Márquez (born March 6, 1928) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, publisher, and political activist. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1989 books | Novels | Colombian literature ... Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabe (October 26, 1790 - June 7, 1863), born in the city of Fajardo, Puerto Rico, was a military leader who wanted the independence of Puerto Rico and who believed in the formation of a confederation of Latin American nations. ... The Universidad Simón Bolívar (Simón Bolívar University) in Caracas, Venezuela is a public institution with scientific and technological orientation. ... USS Simon Bolivar (SSBN-641), a Benjamin Franklin-class submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Simón Bolívar, a hero of the independence movements of the former Spanish colonies in South America. ... ΦΙΑ (Phi Iota Alpha), The Oldest Latino Fraternity in Existence orig. ... Wikiquote has quotations related to United States. ... Doña Manuela Sáenz de Thorne (*27 December 1797 in Quito (Ecuador) †23 November 1856 in Paita, Peru), Libertadora del Libertador, was the lover of the South American revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar (1783-1830). ...

External links

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Simón Bolívar

 
 

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