NEWYORK, one of the Middle Atlantic states of the U.S., bordered on the N by the Canadian provinces of Ontario and QuÉbec; on the E by Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut; on the SE by the Atlantic Ocean; on the S by New Jersey and Pennsylvania; and on the W by Pennsylvania and Ontario.
NewYork was the preeminent U.S. state in commerce and manufacturing from the early 19th century until the late 1960s, when it began to be surpassed by California; in the 1990s it continued to be a leading component of the U.S. economy and remained first in many branches of economic activity.
NewYork’s determination to increase its use of the harbor area and the Hudson River shipping lanes led to friction with New Jersey, and its claim to Vermont caused a conflict with the residents of that area until Vermont became a state in 1790.
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