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Encyclopedia > Silla
Silla
Seokguram Buddha.
Seokguram Buddha.
Korean name
Hangul 신라
Hanja 新羅
Revised Romanization Silla
McCune-Reischauer Silla
History of Korea

Prehistory
 Jeulmun period
 Mumun period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
  Sui wars
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
North-South States:
 Unified Silla
 Balhae
Later Three Kingdoms:
 Taebong, Hubaekje
Goryeo
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Japanese invasions
 Manchu invasions
 French campaign
Korean Empire
Japanese rule
 Provisional Gov't
Division of Korea
North, South Korea
 Korean War Silla can refer to: Lucio Silla, a Mozart opera Silap Inua, a deity in Inuit mythology The biblical Tselah or Zillah (‎), one of Lamechs wives. ... Download high resolution version (1091x1488, 548 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the prehistory of the Korean Peninsula, from circa 500,000 BCE through 300 BCE. See History of Korea, History of North Korea and History of South Korea for more contemporary accounts of the Korean past. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Jinhan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... North South States Period(남북국시대, 南北國時代) refers to the period from the 7th century to the 10th century when Unified Silla and Balhae coexited at the south and the north[1], [2]. Hitherto, this period had been called the period of Unified Silla. ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... Hubaekje, or Later Baekje, was one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Hugoguryeo and Silla. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea France Commanders Korea: King Gojong Daewon-gun France: Pierre-Gustave Roze Strength Korea: unknown France: 800 Casualties Korea: Unknown France: 40+ The French campaign against Korea of 1866 is also known as Byeonginyangyo (Western disturbance of the byeong-in year [1866]). It refers to the French... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...

Korea Portal
Silla jewelry, 5th century.
Silla jewelry, 5th century.
Monarchs of Korea
Silla (Pre-Unification)
  1. Hyeokgeose 57 BCE-4 CE
  2. Namhae 4-24
  3. Yuri 24-57
  4. Talhae 57-80
  5. Pasa 80-112
  6. Jima 112-134
  7. Ilseong 134-154
  8. Adalla 154-184
  9. Beolhyu 184-196
  10. Naehae 196-230
  11. Jobun 230-247
  12. Cheomhae 247-261
  13. Michu 262-284
  14. Yurye 284-298
  15. Girim 298-310
  16. Heulhae 310-356
  17. Naemul 356-402
  18. Silseong 402-417
  19. Nulji 417-458
  20. Jabi 458-479
  21. Soji 479-500
  22. Jijeung 500-514
  23. Beopheung 514-540
  24. Jinheung 540-576
  25. Jinji 576-579
  26. Jinpyeong 579-632
  27. Seondeok 632-647
  28. Jindeok 647-654
  29. Muyeol 654-661
Sword hilt decoration, Silla Kingdom, 4th-6th century CE.
Sword hilt decoration, Silla Kingdom, 4th-6th century CE.
Monarchs of Korea
Silla (Post-Unification)
  1. Munmu 661-681
  2. Sinmun 681-691
  3. Hyoso 692-702
  4. Seongdeok 702-737
  5. Hyoseong 737-742
  6. Gyeongdeok 742-765
  7. Hyegong 765-780
  8. Seondeok 780-785
  9. Wonseong 785-798
  10. Soseong 798-800
  11. Aejang 800-809
  12. Heondeok 809-826
  13. Heungdeok 826-836
  14. Huigang 836-838
  15. Minae 838-839
  16. Sinmu 839
  17. Munseong 839-857
  18. Heonan 857-861
  19. Gyeongmun 861-875
  20. Heongang 875-886
  21. Jeonggang 886-887
  22. Jinseong 887-897
  23. Hyogong 897-912
  24. Sindeok 913-917
  25. Gyeongmyeong 917-924
  26. Gyeongae 924-927
  27. Gyeongsun 927-935

Silla (57 BCE – 935 CE), occasionally spelled Shilla, was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It began as a chiefdom in the Samhan confederacies. Allied with China, Silla eventually conquered the other two kingdoms, Baekje "Paekje" in 660 and Goguryeo "Koguryo" in 668. Thereafter, it is sometimes called Unified Silla or Later Silla, occupying most of the Korean Peninsula, while the northern part re-emerged as Balhae, which was a successor-state of Goguryeo. After nearly a millennium, Silla fragmented into the brief Later Three Kingdoms, and submitted to its successor dynasty Goryeo in 935. Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 733 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,378 × 1,127 pixels, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 733 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,378 × 1,127 pixels, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... Hyeokgeose of Silla (69 BCE - 4 CE, r. ... Namhae Chachaung Geoseogan (reigned 4–24) was the second king of Silla. ... Yuri of Silla (d. ... Talhae of Silla (?-80, r. ... Pasa Isageum (80-112, d. ... Jima of Silla (d. ... Ilseong of Silla (d. ... Adalla of Silla (r. ... Beolhyu of Silla (184-196, d. ... Naehae of Silla was the leader of Korea from (196–230) Categories: Korean rulers | Korea-related stubs ... Jobun of Silla (r. ... Cheomhae of Silla (r. ... Michu of Silla was the thirteenth ruler of the Korean state of Silla. ... Yurye of Silla (284-298, d. ... Girim of Silla (r. ... Heulhae of Silla (r. ... Naemul of Silla (d. ... Silseong of Silla (d. ... Nulji of Silla (reigned 417–458) was the nineteenth ruler of the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Jabi of Silla (r. ... Soji of Silla was King of Silla (479-500). ... Jijeung of Silla (r. ... Beopheung was King of Silla (514-540) in Korea. ... Jinheung was king of Silla (540-576). ... Geomryun Kim, whose name as king was Jinji, was the twenty-fifty monarch of the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... Jinpyeong of Silla (r. ... Seondeok reigned as Queen of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, from 632 to 647. ... We dont have an article called Jindeok of Silla Start this article Search for Jindeok of Silla in. ... King Taejong Muyeol 602 – 661 born Kim Chun Chu, was the 29th monarch of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla and ruled from 654 to 661. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 466 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (718 × 924 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 466 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (718 × 924 pixels, file size: 1. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... Munmu (reigned 661–681)was the thirtieth king of the Korean kingdom of Silla. ... Sinmun of Silla (r. ... Hyoso (r. ... Seongdeok Daewang (reigned 702–737) was the thirty-third king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... Hyoseong of Silla (r. ... King Gyeongdeok of Silla was a Korean king who reigned from (742-­765). ... Hyegong of Silla (756-780, r. ... Seondeok of Silla (r. ... Wonseong of Silla (r. ... Soseong of Silla (r. ... Aejang of Silla (788-809, r. ... Heondeok of Silla (r. ... Heungdeok of Silla (r. ... Huigang of Silla (r. ... Minae of Silla (d. ... Sinmu of Silla (r. ... Munseong of Silla (d. ... Heonan of Silla (d. ... Gyeongmun of Silla (d. ... Heongang of Silla (d. ... Jeonggang of Silla (d. ... Jinseong of Silla (d. ... Hyogong of Silla (d. ... Sindeok of Silla (d. ... Gyeongmyeong of Silla (d. ... Gyeongae of Silla (d. ... Gyeongsun of Silla (d. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...

Contents

Name

From its founding until its growth into a full-fledged kingdom, Silla was recorded with various Hanja (Chinese characters) phonetically approximating its native Korean name: 斯盧 (사로, saro), 斯羅 (사라, sara), 徐那(伐) (서나(벌), seora(beol)), 徐耶(伐) (서야(벌), seoya(beol)), 徐羅(伐) (서라(벌), seora(beol)), 徐伐 (서벌, seobeol). In 503, King Jijeung standardized on the characters 新羅(신라), which in Modern Korean are read together as Silla; however, Korean /s/ is often palatalized before /i/, so that the actual phonetic result tends to sound more like "Shilla" to the mouth of an English speaker. The original meaning of the native word may have been "capital city," although there are various other speculations. Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Events Start of the Persian-Roman wars that would last until 557. ... Jijeung of Silla (r. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


The direct descendant of the word "Seora-beol," the name of the Silla capital, can be seen in the Late Middle Korean form Syeobeul (셔블) meaning "royal capital city," which soon changed into Syeo'ul (셔울), and finally resulted in Seo'ul (서울) in the Modern Korean language. Today, "Seoul" is the name of the present capital of South Korea, a city which was previously known as Hanseong or Hanyang. Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...


The name of either Silla or its capital Seora-beol was also widely known throughout Northeast Asia as the ethnonym for the ancestors of the medieval and modern Korean nation, appearing as "Shiragi" (新羅、しらぎ) or "Shiragi-bito" (新羅人, literally "Silla-people") in the language of the Yamato Japanese and as "Solgo" or "Solho" in the language of the medieval Jurchens and their later descendants, the Manchus. The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ...


Silla was also referred to as Gyerim (鷄林, 계림), literally "chicken forest", a name that has its origins in the forest near the Silla capital where by legend the state's founder was hatched from an egg. The Gyerim is a small woodland in Gyeongju National Park, Gyeongju, South Korea. ...


History

Scholars have traditionally divided Silla history into three distinct periods: Early (trad. 57 BCE–654), Middle (654–780), and Late (780–935).


Shifting of Power

Silla was ruled by three clans, which were the Bak, Seok, and the Kim. Historical records do not mention any bloodshed in these shiftings of power, but historians have come to the conclusion that bloodless power shifts could not have happened. The Bak clan held power for three generations before being faced with a coup by the Seok clan. During the reign of the first Seok ruler, Talhae of Silla, the Kim clan's presence in Silla is mentioned in the form of Kim Alji being born from an egg. The Bak and Seok clans constantly fight each other for power and both are eventually overthrown by the Kim clan. The Kim clan solely rules over Silla for many generations with the Bak and Seok clans as nobility, and the Bak eventually come back to power and ruled for four generations. However, the final ruler of Later Silla, King Gyeongsun, was a member of the Kim Clan. The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, a member of the Kyphchak group of languages. ... Seok is a Korean family name, held by about 56,500 South Koreans and many others in North Korea and around the world. ... Look up Kim in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, a member of the Kyphchak group of languages. ... Talhae of Silla (?-80, r. ... Kim Alji (김알지、金閼智) was the credited founder of the Gyeongju Kim clan and also the Kim Royal Family of Silla. ... Look up Kim in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, a member of the Kyphchak group of languages. ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Gyeongsun of Silla (d. ...


Founding

During the Proto-Three Kingdoms period, the city-states of central and southern Korea were grouped into three confederacies called Samhan. Silla began as Saro-guk, a statelet within the 12-member confederacy called Jinhan. Saro-guk consisted of six villages and six clans. Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Jinhan was one of the three tribal confederations which dominated southern Korea during the Samhan period, around the beginning of the Common Era. ...


According to Korean records, Silla was founded by King Bak Hyeokgeose in 57 BC, around present-day Gyeongju. Hyeokgeose is said to have been hatched from an egg laid from a white horse, and when he turned 13, six clans submitted to him as king and established Saro (or Seona). He is also the progenitor of the Park (박) clan, now one of the most common family names in Korea. Categories: 1st century deaths | 4 deaths | Korean rulers ... Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ...


The earliest recording of this date is found in the Samguk Sagi, a 12th century Korean history. Current archeological evidence indicates that while a polity may have been established even earlier than this in the Gyeongju region, it is too early to call it a kingdom. The author of the Samguk Sagi, Kim Bu-sik, probably attempted to legitimize Silla rule by giving it historical seniority over its rival kingdoms Baekje and Goguryeo. We dont have an article called Samguk sagi Start this article Search for Samguk sagi in. ... Kim Busik (1075-1151) was an official and a scholar during Koreas Goryeo period. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ...


Early period

In the early years, leadership rotated among the three strongest clans, Bak, Seok, and Kim. Park or Pak is one of the more numerous family names of the Korean people in Korea. ... Seok is a Korean family name, held by about 56,500 South Koreans and many others in North Korea and around the world. ... Kim is the most common family name in Korea. ...


By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a distinct state in the southeastern area of the Korean peninsula. It expanded its influence over neighboring Jinhan chiefdoms, but through the 3rd century, it was probably no more than the strongest city-state in a loose federation. The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ...


To the west, Baekje had centralized into a kingdom by about 250, by overtaking the Mahan confederacy. To the southwest, Byeonhan was being replaced by the Gaya confederacy. In northern Korea, Goguryeo, a kingdom by about 50 CE, destroyed the last Chinese commandery in 313, and had grown into a threatening regional power. Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ...


Growth into a kingdom

Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century
Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century

King Naemul (356–402) of the Kim clan established a hereditary monarchy, eliminating the rotating power-sharing scheme, and the leader's now truly royal title became Maripgan (from the native Korean root Han or Gan, "leader" or "great", which was previously used for ruling princes in southern Korea, and which may have some relationship with the Mongol/Turkic title Khan). In 377, it sent emissaries to China and established relations with Goguryeo. Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ... Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ... Naemul of Silla (d. ... This article is about the title. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ...


Facing pressure from Baekje in the west and Japan in the south[1], in the later part of the 4th century, Silla allied with Goguryeo. However, when Goguryeo began to expand its territory southward, moving its capital to Pyongyang in 427, Nulji was forced to ally with Baekje. Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Nulji of Silla (reigned 417–458) was the nineteenth ruler of the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ...


By the time of King Beopheung (514–540), Silla was a full-fledged kingdom, with Buddhism as state religion, and its own era name systems. Silla absorbed the Gaya confederacy during the Gaya–Silla Wars, annexing Geumgwan Gaya in 532 and conquering Daegaya in 562, thereby expanding its borders to the Nakdong River basin. Beopheung was King of Silla (514-540) in Korea. ... Korean era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. ... The Gaya-Silla Wars were a series of conflicts between the ancient Korean Kingdom of Silla and the Gaya confederacy. ... Geumgwan Gaya [Kumgwan Kaya](43 - 532), also known as Bon-gaya [Pon-Kaya](본가야, 本伽倻, original Kaya) or Karakguk (가락국, Karak State), was a major chiefdom of the Kaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. ... Daegaya was a major chiefdom of the Gaya confederacy during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ... The Nakdong River (Rakdong in North Korean) is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ...


King Jinheung (540–576) established a strong military force. Silla helped Baekje drive Goguryeo out of the Han River (Seoul) territory, and then wrested control of the entire strategic region from Baekje in 553, breaching the 120-year Baekje-Silla alliance. also King Jinheung was establishment Hwarang. Jinheung was king of Silla (540-576). ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... The Hwarang were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. ...


The early period ended with the demise of the “hallowed bone” (seonggol) rank with the death of Queen Jindeok. Relationship of Bone-Rank Gradations in Silla to Office Rank and Post [1] The bone rank system was the system of aristocratic rank used in the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... We dont have an article called Jindeok of Silla Start this article Search for Jindeok of Silla in. ...


Later Silla

Main article: Unified Silla
Silla crown
Silla crown
Royal burial mounds at Gyeongju
Royal burial mounds at Gyeongju

In the 7th century Silla allied itself with the Chinese Tang dynasty. In 660, under King Muyeol (654-661), Silla subjugated Baekje. In 668, under King Munmu (King Muyeol's successor) and the General Kim Yu-shin, Silla conquered Goguryeo to its north. Silla then fought for nearly a decade to expel Chinese forces on the peninsula intent on creating Tang colonies there to finally establish a unified kingdom as far north as modern Pyongyang. The northern region of the defunct Goguryeo state later reemerged as Balhae. Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (569 × 761 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Silla Crown... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (569 × 761 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Silla Crown... http://www. ... http://www. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... King Taejong Muyeol 602 – 661 born Kim Chun Chu, was the 29th monarch of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla and ruled from 654 to 661. ... King Munmu (?-681, r. ... Kim Yu-shin (595-673) was a general in 7th-century Silla. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ...


Silla's middle period is characterized by the rising power of the monarchy at the expense of the jingol nobility. This was made possible by the new wealth and prestige garnered as a result of Silla's unification of the peninsula, as well as the monarchy's successful suppression of several armed aristocratic revolts following early upon unification, which afforded the king the opportunity of purging the most powerful families and rivals to central authority. Further, for a brief period of about a century from the late 7th to late 8th centuries the monarchy made an attempt to divest aristocratic officialdom of their landed base by instituting a system of salary payments, or office land (jikjeon 직전, 職田), in lieu of the former system whereby aristocratic officials were given grants of land to exploit as salary (the so–called tax villages, or nogeup 녹읍, 祿邑). Relationship of Bone-Rank Gradations in Silla to Office Rank and Post [1] The bone rank system was the system of aristocratic rank used in the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ...


By the late 8th century, however, these royal initiatives had failed to check the power of the entrenched aristocracy. The mid to late 8th century saw renewed revolts led by branches of the Kim clan which effectively limited royal authority. Most prominent of these was a revolt led by Kim Daegong that persisted for three years. One key evidence of the erosion of kingly authority was the rescinding of the office land system and the reinstitution of the former tax village system as salary land for aristocratic officialdom in 757.


The middle period of Silla came to an end with the assassination of King Hyegong in 780, terminating the kingly line of succession of King Muyeol, the architect of Silla's unification of the peninsula. Hyegong‘s demise was a bloody one, the culmination of an extended civil war involving most of the kingdom‘s high–ranking noble families. With Hyegong‘s death, during the remaining years of Silla the king was reduced to little more than a figurehead as powerful aristocratic families became increasingly independent of central control. Hyegong of Silla (756-780, r. ... King Taejong Muyeol 602 – 661 born Kim Chun Chu, was the 29th monarch of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla and ruled from 654 to 661. ...


Thereafter the Silla kingship was fixed in the house of King Wonseong (785–798), though the office itself was continually contested among various branches of the Kim lineage. Wonseong of Silla (r. ...


Nevertheless, the middle period of Silla witnessed the state at its zenith, the brief consolidation of royal power, and the attempt to institute a Chinese style bureaucratic system.


Decline and fall

The final century and a half of the Silla state was one of nearly constant upheaval and civil war as the king was reduced to little more than figurehead and powerful aristocratic families rose to dominance in the countryside.


The tail end of this period, called the Later Three Kingdoms, saw the emergence of the kingdoms of Later Baekje and Later Goguryeo and Silla's submission to the Goryeo dynasty. The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Hubaekje, or Later Baekje, was one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...


Silla Society and Politics

clay jar
clay jar

From at least the 6th century, when Silla acquired a detailed system of law and governance, social status and official advancement were dictated by the bone rank system. This rigid lineage-based system also dictated clothing, house size and the permitted range of marriage. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 791 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 신라시대 토우장식항아리. 대한민국보 제195호로 경주국립박물관이 소장하고 있다, File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 791 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 신라시대 토우장식항아리. 대한민국보 제195호로 경주국립박물관이 소장하고 있다, File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Relationship of Bone-Rank Gradations in Silla to Office Rank and Post [1] The bone rank system was the system of aristocratic rank used in the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ...


Since its emergence as a centralized polity Silla society had been characterized by its strict aristocratic makeup. Silla had two royal classes: "sacred bone" (seonggol 성골 聖骨) and "true bone" (jingol 진골 眞骨). Up until the reign of King Muyeol this aristocracy had been divided into "sacred bone" and "true bone" aristocrats, with the former differentiated by their eligibility to attain the kingship. This duality had ended when Queen Jindeok, the last ruler from the "sacred bone" class, died in 654.[1] The numbers of "sacred bone" aristocrats had been decreasing, as the title was only conferred to those whose parents were both "sacred bones", whereas children of a "sacred" and a "true bone" parent were considered as "true bones".


Following unification Silla began to rely more upon Chinese models of bureaucracy to administer its greatly expanded territory. This was a marked change from pre-unification days when the Silla monarchy stressed Buddhism, and the Silla monarch's role as a "Buddha-king". Another salient factor in post-unification politics were the increasing tensions between the Korean monarchy and aristocracy.

Cheomsongdae is one of the oldest surviving observatories in East Asia
Cheomsongdae is one of the oldest surviving observatories in East Asia

Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Cheomseongdae is an astronomical observatory in Gyeongju, South Korea. ...

Culture

The capital of the Silla kingdom was Gyeongju. A great number of Silla tombs can still be found in the centre of Gyeongju. Silla tombs took the form of a stone chamber which was surrounded by a soil mound. A great number of remains from the Silla period can be found all over Gyeongju. The historic area around Gyeongju was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2000. Much of it is also protected as part of Gyeongju National Park. Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Gyeongju National Park is one of 20 national parks in South Korea. ...


The Bronze Bell of King Seongdeok the Great attracts a large number of tourists. The bell produces a distinctive sound, about which there is a legend. Cheomseongdae near Gyeongju is the oldest extant astronomical observatory in East Asia, while some disagree on its exact functions. It was built during the reign of Queen Seondeok (623-647). Seongdeok of Silla (?-737, r. ... Cheomseongdae is a stone tower that seems to have been built in the middle 7th century in Gyeongju by Silla. ... Categories: Stub | Astronomical observatories ... Seondeok reigned as Queen of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, from 632 to 647. ...


Muslim traders brought the name "Silla" to the world outside the traditional East Asian sphere through the Silk Road. Geographers of the Arab and Persian world, including ibn Khurdadhbih, al-Masudi, Dimashiki, al-Nuwairi, and al-Maqrizi, left records about Silla. The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... Ibn Khurdadhbih (died 912) was a Muslim Arab explorer and geographer. ... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ...


Buddhism

Decorated brick, 8th century, Silla kingdom.
Decorated brick, 8th century, Silla kingdom.
Decorated slab, 8th century, Silla kingdom.

Buddhist was formally adopted by Silla in 527 under King Beopheung, though it had been exposed to the religion for over a century during which the faith had certainly made inroads into the native populace. It was the Buddhist monk Ado who first exposed Silla to Buddhism when he arrived to proselytize from Goguryeo in the mid 5th century. However, according to legend, the Silla monarchy was convinced to adopt the faith by the martyrdom of the Silla court noble Ichadon, who was executed for his Buddhist faith by the Silla king in 527 only to have his blood flow the color of milk. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 329 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,603 × 659 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 329 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,603 × 659 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 730 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,460 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 730 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,460 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 2. ... This article is about the year. ... Beopheung was King of Silla (514-540) in Korea. ... Jikjisa is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


The importance of Buddhism in Silla society of the late early period is difficult to exaggerate. From King Beopheung and for the following six reigns Silla kings adopted Buddhist names and came to portray themselves as Buddha–kings. Buddhism in Silla was, more so than in the case of Baekje and Goguryeo, an officially sponsored faith. Its state–protection aspects were emphasized. The Hwarang corps, an elite corps of youthful warriors that would play a central role in Silla unification of the peninsula, had strong connections to Buddhism, particularly the worship of the Maitreya Buddha. The late early period of Silla saw Buddhism‘s apogee there. A great number of temples were built, often financed and sponsored by high ranking nobility, the most notable being Hwangyongsa, Bulguksa and Seokguram. Hwangyongsa (Imperial Dragon) temple in particular emphasized the power of the monarchy and Buddhism‘s role in state protection and aggrandizement. The nine stories of its wooden pagoda, perhaps the tallest manmade structure in East Asia of the period, were said to symbolize the nine nations destined to submit to Silla rule. Silla attached great importance to the pagoda, building them of stone as well as wood. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Hwarang were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... Bulguksa is a Buddhist temple in the North Gyeongsang province in South Korea. ... The Seokguram Grotto is a hermitage and part of the Bulguksa temple complex. ...


With Silla unification Buddhism came to play a less perceptible role in politics as the monarchy attempted to adopt Chinese Confucian institutions of statecraft to govern an enlarged state and to curb the power of the aristocratic families. Nevertheless, Buddhism still enjoyed a central place in larger Silla society. Hundreds of Silla monks traveled to Tang China in search of education and for the procurement of much needed Buddhism sutras.


Silla‘s strong Buddhist nature is also reflected by the thousands of remnant Buddhist stone figures and carvings, mostly importantly on Namsan. Namsan (남산, South Mountain) is a 494-meter peak in the heart of Gyeongju National Park, just south of Gyeongju, South Korea. ...


Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ 성골 [聖骨]. Empas Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Korea has been ruled by a number of kingdoms/empires and republics over the last several millennia. ... The Hwarang were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... There are and were a very large number of monarchies in the world. ... The Silla language was spoken in the ancient kingdom of Silla (57 BCE - 935 CE), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ...

External links

  • Gyeongju National Museum

 
 

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