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Encyclopedia > Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Central Asian and East Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik grottoes (57km Northeast of Turpan), Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image...
Central Asian and East Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik grottoes (57km Northeast of Turpan), Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image... Enlarge
Blue-eyed Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining... Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century.

The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism to China started in the (Redirected from 1st century CE) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. Events Beginning of Christianity Spread of the Roman Empire Masoretes adds vowel pointings to the text of the Tanakh Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed by... 1st century CE with a semi-legendary account of an embassy sent to the West by the Chinese Emperor Emperor Ming of Han China, ch. 漢明帝, py. hàn míng dì, wg. Han Ming-ti, (AD 28 - AD 75) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. One night, he is said to have dreamed of a deity flying over his palace. The next day he... Ming (58-75 CE).


Extensive contacts however started in the (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. The kingdom of Aksum emerges. Significant persons Cai Lun, Chinese inventor Galen, medical writer Saint Irenaeus Pliny the Younger Plutarch Ptolemy Trajan... 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan empire into the Chinese territory of the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin, with the missionnary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist monks to Chinese lands. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. The... Parthian, Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan, Sogdiana () was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. 16), corresponding to the modern districts of Samarkand and Bokhara (in modern day Uzbekistan). It lays north of Bactria between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr... Sogdian or Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. The two languages -- Tocharian A (Turfanian or East Tocharian) and Tocharian B (Kuchean or West Tocharian) -- that made up this group have both been long extinct. The languages themselves bear... Kuchean.


From the 3rd century onward, Chinese pilgrims also started to travel to India by themselves in order to get improved access to the original scriptures, with Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as . On Faxians return to China he landed at Laoshan in modern Shandong province, 30km east of the city of Qingdao. After landing, he proceeded to Shandongs then-capital, Qingzhou, where he remained for a year translating and editing the... Fa-hsien's pilgrimage to India (395-414), and later Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuán zàng;, Wade-Giles: (唯識). The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school (法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself... Xuan Zang (629-644).


The The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other... Silk Road transmission of Buddhism essentially ended around the 7th century with the rise of Islam in Central Asia.

Contents

First contacts

The first contacts between China and Central Asia occurred with the opening of the The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other... Silk Road in the (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... 2nd century BCE. The (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... 1st century BCE "Records of the Great Historian" (Ch:史記, The is a modern Western name; The original Chinese title is 史記 (pinyin: shi ji), which means Historical Records. As the first systematic Chinese historical text, it tremendously influenced Chinese historiography and prose, and is comparable to Herodotus and his New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, ISBN 0231081650 Various... Shiji) describe the travels of the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BC) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han Dynasty. He was the first official diplomat to bring back reliable information about Central Asia to the Chinese imperial court, then under Emperor Wu... Zhang Qian to Central Asia, who reports about a country named Shendu (India). The peaceful Buddhist ways of Shendu are mentionned in the (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. Events Beginning of Christianity Spread of the Roman Empire Masoretes adds vowel pointings to the text of the Tanakh Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed by eruption of Mount Vesuvius in... 1st century CE Han can refer to: Han Chinese, the dominant majority ethnic group of mainland China The Chinese written language (漢文) The Han Dynasty (202 BCE - 220 CE) of China The state of Han, a state during the Chinese Warring States Period Han, one of the Chinese Sixteen Kingdoms, founded by... Han history, the Hanshu.


The first direct encounter of China with Buddhism is described in a (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... 6th century CE semi-legendary account by Yang Xuanzhi, as occurring around Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s _ 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). Pliny the Elder served as procurator in and... 70 CE:

"The establishment of the Baima Temple (Temple of the White Horse) by Emperor Ming of Han China, ch. 漢明帝, py. hàn míng dì, wg. Han Ming-ti, (AD 28 - AD 75) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. One night, he is said to have dreamed of a deity flying over his palace. The next day he... Emperor Ming (58-75 CE) of the Han marked the introduction of Buddhism into China. The temple was located on the south side of the Imperial Drive, three leagues (li) outside the Xiyang Gate. The Emperor dreamt of the golden man sixteen Chinese feet tall, with the aureole of sun and moon radiating from his head and his neck. A "golden god", he was known as Buddha. The emperor dispatched envoys to the Western Regions ("遣使向西域求之") in search of the god, and, as a result, acquired Buddhist scriptures and images. At the time, because the scriptures were carried into China on the backs of white horses, White Horse was adopted as the name of the temple." (Translation: Ulrich Theobald).

The military expansion of China into Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining... Central Asia under the rule of Emperor Ming at that time was very real however, in particular with the campaign of the general Ban Chao, who managed to repell the (月氏) Ālánliáo (阿蘭聊) i.e Alans of Yāncài (奄蔡 ?Vast Steppes?) Kāngjü; (康居) After the Xion lost political control in the 4thC, there was a brief period of confusion until many of these former serf tribes... Xiongnu from the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin and control most of the area by around 75 CE. These contacts necessarily prompted some level of cultural exchange, and may indeed correspond to the first time Buddhist ideas were transmited to China.


The first documented transmission of Buddhist scriptures to China occurs in Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois An Shih Kao arrives in China. Births Deaths Categories: 148 ... 148 CE, with the arrival of the Parthian missionary An Shih-kao (?-~170) (安世高; pinyin Ān Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia that renounced his throne in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. In 148, he arrived in China at the Han Dynasty capital of Loyang, where he set up a... An Shih Kao in China, probably on the heels of the Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan expansion into the Tarim Basin. An Shi Kao established Buddhist temples in Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. Its GDP per capita was ¥13845 (ca. US$1670) in 2003, ranked no. 152 among 659 Chinese cities. History Located on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of... Loyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselitism that was to last several centuries.


Central-Asian missionaries

In the middle of the (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. The kingdom of Aksum emerges. Significant persons Cai Lun, Chinese inventor Galen, medical writer Saint Irenaeus Pliny the Younger Plutarch Ptolemy Trajan... 2nd century CE, the Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan empire under king Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c.120 AD). Obv: RAONANAO RAOKA NHRKI KORANO (Kanishka the Kushan, King of Kings) in Greek script. Rev: BODDO (The Buddha) in Greek script. Kanishka was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, in the 2nd century... Kanishka expanded into Central Asia and went as far as taking control of Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat., 76°6’47” E. long.). It is 1... Kashgar, Khotan is an oasis town and a prefecture in the Taklamakan desert that was part of the southern silk road. Two strong rivers provided the water that made this town inhabitable in the midst of the second largest desert. Presently located in the southern Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, this... Khotan and Yarkand (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin (History of the Later Han). They contain some rare insights into the complex political situations China faced in attempting to open up the Silk Routes to the West in the 1st century CE. So, it may be of interest here to include some... Yarkand, which were Chinese dependencies in the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan ( Professional sports teams in... Xinjiang.


As a consequence, cultural exhanges greatly increased, and Central-Asian Buddhist missionaries became active shortly after in the Chinese capital cities of Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. Its GDP per capita was ¥13845 (ca. US$1670) in 2003, ranked no. 152 among 659 Chinese cities. History Located on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of... Loyang and sometimes Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. It is the capital city of Jiangsu... Nanjing, where they particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They promoted both Hinayana and Mahayana scriptures. Thirty-seven of these early translators of Buddhist texts are known.

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Peoples of the Silk Road, Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌) is a city located in an oasis in the Gansu province, China. Its population is 100,000. It is located near the historic junction of the northern and southern Silk Roads, and was therefore a town of military importance. For centuries Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected... Dunhuang, 9th century.
  • An Shih-kao (?-~170) (安世高; pinyin Ān Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia that renounced his throne in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. In 148, he arrived in China at the Han Dynasty capital of Loyang, where he set up a... An Shih Kao, a Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. The... Parthian prince who made the first known translations of Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. In... Hinayana Buddhist texts into Chinese (148-170).
  • Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). Lokaksema (Ch: 支娄迦谶 (Ch:支), abbreviation of ). See also History of Buddhism Buddhist texts Silk Road transmission of Buddhism References: Religions of the Silk Road Richard C.Foltz ISBN 0312233388 ... Lokaksema, a Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan and the first to translate Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. Jiuhua in Chinas Anhui province. The images many arms represent the bodhisattvas limitless capacity and commitment to helping other beings. Mahāyāna (literally , and therefore it was not the consequence of a schism ( (Mathura Museum... Mahayana scriptures into Chinese (167-186).
  • An Hsuan, a Parthian merchant who became a monk in China 181
  • Zhi Yao (c. 185), a Kushan monk, second generation of translators after Lokaksema.
  • Kang Meng-hsiang (194-207), first translator from Sogdiana () was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. 16), corresponding to the modern districts of Samarkand and Bokhara (in modern day Uzbekistan). It lays north of Bactria between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr... Sogdiana (Kangju).
  • Zhi Qian (220-252), a Kushan monk whose grandfather had settled in China during 168-190.
  • Zhi Yueh (c.230), a Kushan monk who worked at Nanjing.
  • Kang Sengkai (247-280), born in Chiao-chih in the extreme south of the Chinese empire, and son of Sogdian merchant.
  • Tan-ti (c.254), a Parthian monk.
  • Po Yen (c.259), a Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. The two languages -- Tocharian A (Turfanian or East Tocharian) and Tocharian B (Kuchean or West Tocharian) -- that made up this group have both been long extinct. The languages themselves bear... Kuchean prince
  • Dharmaraksa (Ch: 竺法护, Zhu Fahu) was one of the greatest translators of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. Scriptural catalogues describe him as of Yueh-Chih origin. His family lived at Dunhuang, where he was born around 230 CE. At the age of eight, he adopted the name of... Dharmaraksa (265-313), a Kushan whose family had lived for generations at Dunhuang.
  • An Fachiin (281-306), a monk of Parthian origins.
  • Po Srimitra (317-322), a Kuchean prince.
  • Kumārajīva (also Kiu-kiu-lo, Kiu-mo-lo-che, Kiu-mo-to-tche-po, Tang-cheu) was a Kuchean Buddhist monk and scholar whose father was originally from an Indian noble family, and whose mother was a princess. He first studied teachings of the Sarvastivada schools... Kumarajiva (c. 401), a Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. The two languages -- Tocharian A (Turfanian or East Tocharian) and Tocharian B (Kuchean or West Tocharian) -- that made up this group have both been long extinct. The languages themselves bear... Kuchean monk, and one of the most important translators.
  • Fo T'u-teng (4th century), Central Asian monk who became a counselor to the Chinese court.
  • Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. Bodhidharma (Sanskrit: बोधिधमृ; Chinese 菩提達摩, pinyin Pútídámó or simply Dámó; Wade-Giles Tamo; Japanese ダルマ, Daruma) was a semi-legendary Buddhist monk, who lived from approximately 440 CE - 528... Bodhidharma (440-528), was, according to Yang Xuanzhi, a monk of Central Asia is a region of Asia. Various definitions of its exact composition exist. Definitions Under one definition, Central Asia covers about 9,029,000 km2, or 21% of the continent. Under this definition Central Asia includes the following countries: China (the province of Qinghai, and the autonomous regions of... Central Asian origin whom he met around 520 at Loyang. Bodhidharma was the founder of the Ch n is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. Chan is traditionally held to be a Chinese adaptation of Indian dhyana meditation practices, and is also often said to be influenced by indigenous Chinese Taoism. According to traditional accounts, the school was founded by an... Chan ( A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. Zen is the Japanese name of a well known branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism, practiced especially in China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. It stresses the role of meditation in pursuing enlightenment. But besides... Zen) school of Buddhism.
  • Jnanagupta (Sanskrit; Chinese 闍那崛多 or 志德) was a Buddhist monk from Gandhara who travelled to China and was recognised by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty. He is said to have brought with him 260 sutras in Sanskrit, and was supported in translating these into Chinese... Jnanagupta (561-592), a monk and tranlator from Gandhara.
  • Shikshananda (652-710 CE), a monk and translator from Udyāna (Sanskrit, meaning (James Legge translation), Chapter 8. (Online at the University of Adelaide Library) ... Udyana, Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. 3rd century Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara) Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra) is the ancient name of a region in eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan centered on the Swat River (see Udyana) and Kabul River, tributaries of the Indus... Gandhara.
  • Prajna (c. 810). A monk and translator from Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. It is an economic and cultural center strategically situated in a narrow valley along the Kabul River, high in the mountains before... Kabul, who educated the Japanese Kūkai (空海) or Kōbō-Daishi (弘法大師) , 774—835 CE: Japanese monk, scholar, and artist, founder of the Shingon or “True Word” school of Buddhism. Kūkai is famous as a calligrapher (see Shodo), engineer and is said... Kukai in Sanskrit texts.

Artistic influences

Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang). Musee Guimet, Paris. Personal photograph. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that...
Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang). Musee Guimet, Paris. Personal photograph. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that... Enlarge
"Heroic gesture of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. He is characteristically depicted as an Indian nobleman, posing with left hand on the hip, Gandhara, 2nd-3rd century. In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva is a being that, while not yet fully enlightened, is actively striving toward that goal. Conventionally... Bodhisattva", 6th-7th century Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. The term is also used to refer to items made out of this material. The name is Italian for baked earth. Terra cotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery, as well as... terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).

Central Asian missionnary efforts along the Silk Road were accompanied by a flux of artistic influences, visible in the development of Categories: Asian art | Stub ... Serindian art from the 2nd through the 11th century CE in the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan ( Professional sports teams in... Xinjiang.


Serindian art often derives from the art of the Greco-Buddhist art of the Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. 3rd century Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara) Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra) is the ancient name of a region in eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan centered on the Swat River (see Udyana) and Kabul River, tributaries of the Indus... Gandhara district of what is now The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan, combining Indian, Greek and Roman influences.


Highly sinicized forms of this syncretism can also be found on the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin, such as in Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌) is a city located in an oasis in the Gansu province, China. Its population is 100,000. It is located near the historic junction of the northern and southern Silk Roads, and was therefore a town of military importance. For centuries Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected... Dunhuang.


Silk Road artistic influences can be found as far as Japan to this day, in architectural motifs or representations of Japanese gods (see Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Greco-Buddhist art).


Chinese pilgrims to India

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Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuán zàng;, Wade-Giles: (唯識). The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school (法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself... Xuan Zang, Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌) is a city located in an oasis in the Gansu province, China. Its population is 100,000. It is located near the historic junction of the northern and southern Silk Roads, and was therefore a town of military importance. For centuries Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected... Dunhuang cave, ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... 9th century.

According to Chinese sources, Chinese Buddhist monks started to travel to The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India from around 260 CE. Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as . On Faxians return to China he landed at Laoshan in modern Shandong province, 30km east of the city of Qingdao. After landing, he proceeded to Shandongs then-capital, Qingzhou, where he remained for a year translating and editing the... Fa-hsien's pilgrimage to India (395-414) is said to have been the first significant one. He left along the Silk Road, stayed 6 years in India, and then returned by the sea route.


Tens of Chinese monks, possibly hundreds of them, visited India during that period.


The most famous of the Chinese pilgrims is Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuán zàng;, Wade-Giles: (唯識). The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school (法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself... Xuan Zang (629-644), whose large and precise translation work defines a “new translation period”, in contrast with older Central Asian works.


Decline

Buddhism in Central Asia started to decline in the 7th century with the expansion of Islam ( Arabic means submission and is described as a meaning peace (also a common salutation). A more precise translation of the word is also related to the word ) revealed his direct word for mankind to Muhammad (c. 570– 632) and other prophets, including Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims... Islam there. The vigorous Chinese culture progressively absorbed Buddhist teachings until a strongly Chinese particularism developed.


Central Asian Buddhist monks from the Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Tarim Basin and East Asian Buddhist monks appear to have maintained strong exchanges until around the 10th century, as shown by frescos from the Tarim Basin.

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the Dharma wheel 1.png article Search for Dharma wheel 1.png in other articles Look for Dharma wheel 1.png in Wiktionary, our sister dictionary project. Look for Dharma wheel 1.png in the Commons, our repository...
Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually... Buddhism
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Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a... Terms and concepts The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today. Throughout this period, the religion evolved as it encountered various countries and cultures, adding to its original Indian... History A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools The Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama Ananda, Siddharthas cousin and one of his chief disciples An Shih Kao, a Parthian monk and the first known Buddhist missionary to China, in 148 CE. Asanga Atisha (indirect founder... People An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of good luck, on his chest. One of the Buddhas disciples appears in the background. This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple. There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. An extensive list of... Schools and sects By Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. So in discussing Buddhism, its important to recall that there are distinctions between (and, of course, within) the Buddhism practiced in various regions, including: South Asia India Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Central Asia Greco-Buddhism Southeast Asia Thailand Malaysia Singapore East... region and The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments . Buddhism in Asia Region Total Population Buddhists % of Buddhists % of Buddhist total Central Asia 92,019,166 2,656,747 2.887% 0.64% country
Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel Amara Sinha... List of topics Before Common Era Trad. 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama (Buddha) is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. Trad. 534 BCE: Gautama leaves his inheritance and becomes a monk. Trad. 528 BCE: Gautama claims he has attained Enlightenment, and begins his ministry. Abt. 500 BCE: Classical Sanskrit replaces Vedic. 400s BCE... Timeline The Buddhist temple Wat Chiang Man, in Chiang Mai, Thailand, which dates from the late 13th century Buddhist temples and monasteries, sorted by location. Australia New South Wales Nan Tien Bhutan Kurjey Lhakhang Kyichu Lhakhang Taktshang China Fujian Guanghua Temple Wanfu Temple Guangdong Nanhua Temple Temple of the Six Banyan... Temples Buddhist texts come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes. Buddhists place varying value on texts: attitudes range from worship of the text itself, to dismissal of texts as falsification of the ineffable truth. Texts can be divided up in a number of ways, but the most fundamental division... Texts The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Culture

See also

  • Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Græco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 800 years in Central Asia in the area corresponding to modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the 4th century BCE and the 5th... Greco-Buddhism
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - History of Buddhism (6417 words)
Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and it has been suggested that their invasion of India was intended to show their support for the Mauryan empire, and to protect the Buddhist faith from the alleged religious persecutions of the Sungas (185–73 BCE).
The Kushans were supportive of Buddhism, and a fourth Buddhist council was convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, around 100 CE at Jalandhar or in Kashmir, and is usually associated with the formal rise of Mahayana Buddhism and its secession from Theravada Buddhism.
Buddhism probably arrived in China around the 1st century CE from Central Asia (although there are some traditions about a monk visiting China during Asoka's reign), and through to the 8th century it became an extremely active center of Buddhism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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