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Encyclopedia > Silk
Silk dresses
Silk dresses

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles. Silk is a natural fiber and a textile woven from it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 “Silkworm” redirects here. ... Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ...


"Wild silks" are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and cannot be artificially cultivated. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in China, South Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They differ from the domesticated varieties in color and texture, and cocoons gathered in the wild usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths. Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. This article is about a form of an insect. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


There is some evidence that small quantities of wild silk were already being produced in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East by the time the stronger, cultivated silk from China began to be imported (Hill 2003, Appendix C).


Silks are produced by several other insects, but only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacture. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects that complete metamorphosis, but also by some adult insects such as webspinners. Silk production is especially common in the Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants), and is sometimes used in nest construction. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders (see spider silk). A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ... Families There are 3 suborders and 8 families: Anisembiidae Australembiidae Clothodidae Embiidae Embonychidae Notoligotomidae Oligotomidae Teratembiidae Webspinners or embiids (order Embioptera) are a small group of mostly tropical and subtropical insects, classified under the subclass Pterygota. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Arachnid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of silk

The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever divulging the secret process whereby it was made. ...

China

Landscape of quick water from high mountain by Zhao Zuo, 1611 AD, Ming Dynasty. Hand scroll, ink and colour on silk.
Landscape of quick water from high mountain by Zhao Zuo, 1611 AD, Ming Dynasty. Hand scroll, ink and colour on silk.

Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, possibly as early as 6000 BC and definitely by 3000 BC. Legend gives credit to a Chinese empress, Xi Ling-Shi (Hsi-Ling-Shih, Lei-tzu). Silks were originally reserved for the Kings of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread gradually through Chinese culture both geographically and socially, and then to many regions of Asia. Silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants because of its texture and luster. Silk was in great demand, and became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July of 2007, archeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, are dated to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, roughly 2,500 years ago.[1] Although historians have suspected a long history of a formative textile industry in ancient China, this find of silk textiles employing "complicated techniques" of weaving and dyeing provides direct and concrete evidence for silks dating before the Mawangdui-discovery and other silks dating to the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD).[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 198 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (661 × 2002 pixel, file size: 873 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 198 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (661 × 2002 pixel, file size: 873 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Xi Ling-Shi or Xilingshi, (Chinese: 嫘祖; pinyin: ), is a legendary Chinese empress—wife of the Yellow Emperor. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal map spelling: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Mawangdui (馬王堆) is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


The first evidence of the silk trade is the finding of silk in the hair of an Egyptian mummy of the 21st dynasty, c.1070 BC [2]. Ultimately the silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. This trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia has become known as the Silk Road. For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 1070 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC - 1070s BC - 1060s BC 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC Events and Trends 1079 BC - Death of Zhou cheng wang, King of the... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. Nonetheless sericulture reached Korea around 200 BC, about the first half of the 1st century AD had reached ancient Khotan[2], and by AD 300 the practice had been established in India. The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The eastern hemisphere in 200 BC. Antiochus IIIs forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria, defeating the Egyptian general Scopas at Panion near the source of the Jordan River, and thus gaining control of Palestine. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... This article is about the year. ...


Thailand

Silk is produced in Thailand's most favorable climate by two types of silkworms, the cultured Bombycidae and wild Saturniidae, all the year round, mostly after the rice harvest by villagers from the southern and northeast parts of the country. Women traditionally weave silk on hand looms, and pass the skill on to their daughters as weaving is considered to be a sign of maturity and eligibility for marriage. Thai silk textiles often use complicated patterns in various colors and styles. Most regions of Thailand have their own typical silks.


South Asia

Silk, known as Pattu or Reshmi in southern parts of India and Resham in Hindi/Urdu (from Persian), has a long history in India and is widely produced today. Historically silk was used by the upper classes, while cotton was used by the poorer classes. Today silk is mainly used in Bhoodhan Pochampally (also known as Silk City), Kanchipuram, Dharmavaram, Mysore, etc. in South India and Banaras in the North for manufacturing garments and Sarees. "Murshidabad silk", famous from historical times, is mainly produced in Malda and Murshidabad district of West Bengal and woven with hand looms in Birbhum and Murshidabad district. Another place famous for production of silk is Bhagalpur. The silk from Kanchi is particularly well-known for its classic designs and enduring quality. The silk is traditionally hand-woven and hand-dyed and usually also has silver threads woven into the cloth. Most of this silk is used to make saris. The saris usually are very expensive and vibrant in color. Garments made from silk form an integral part of Indian weddings and other celebrations. In the northeastern state of Assam, three different types of silk are produced, collectively called Assam silk: Muga, Eri and Pat silk. Muga, the golden silk, and Eri are produced by silkworms that are native only to Assam. The heritage of silk rearing and weaving is very old and continues today especially with the production of Muga and Pat riha and mekhela chador, the three-piece silk saris woven with traditional motifs. Mysore Silk Sarees, which are known for their soft texture, last many years if carefully maintained. Bhoodhan Pochampally is a village in Nalgonda District. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... Sari has two meanings: name of an Indian garment worn by women. ... , Bhagalpur is a city and municipal corporation in Bihar state in eastern India. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous silks produced in Assam, called Muga, Pat and Eri silk. ... Mekhela Chador is the traditional Assamese dress worn by women. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ...


Mediterranean

Silk wearing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)
Silk wearing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)

In the Odyssey, 19.233, it is mentioned that Odysseus wore a shirt "gleaming like the skin of a dried onion" (varies with translations, literal translation here[3]). Some researchers proposed that the shirt was made of silk. The Roman Empire knew of and traded in silk. During the reign of emperor Tiberius, sumptuary laws were passed that forbade men from wearing silk garments, but these proved ineffectual.[4] Despite the popularity of silk, the secret of silk-making only reached Europe around AD 550, via the Byzantine Empire. Legend has it that monks working for the emperor Justinian I smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in hollow canes from China. While they were there, they also observed the secret techniques of silk making from the Chinese. The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly[citation needed]; all top-quality looms and weavers were located inside the Palace complex in Constantinople and the cloth produced was used in imperial robes or in diplomacy, as gifts to foreign dignitaries. The remainder was sold at very high prices. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1080, 250 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1080, 250 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Sumptuary laws (from the Latin sumtuariae leges) are laws which dictated, amongst other things, what color and type of clothing individuals were allowed to own and wear. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Islamic world

In Islamic teachings, Muslim men are forbidden to wear silk. Many religious jurists believe the reasoning behind the prohibition lies in avoiding clothing for men that can be considered feminine or extravagant.[5] Despite injunctions against silk for men, silk has retained its popularity in the Islamic world because of its permissibility for women. The Muslim Moors brought silk with them to Spain during their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


Medieval and modern Europe

Venetian merchants traded extensively in silk and encouraged silk growers to settle in Italy. By the 13th century, Italian silk was a significant source of trade. Since that period, the silk worked in the province of Como has been the most valuable silk in the world. The wealth of Florence was largely built on textiles, both wool and silk, and other cities like Lucca also grew rich on the trade. Italian silk was so popular in Europe that Francis I of France invited Italian silk makers to France to create a French silk industry, especially in Lyon. Mass emigration (especially of Huguenots) during periods of religious dispute had seriously damaged French industry and introduced these various textile industries, including silk, to other countries. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Como (It. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For the Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... This article is about the French city. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ...


James I attempted to establish silk production in England, purchasing and planting 100,000 mulberry trees, some on land adjacent to Hampton Court Palace, but they were of a species unsuited to the silk worms and the attempt failed. British enterprise also established silk filature in Cyprus in 1928. In England in the mid 20th Century silk was produced at Lullingstone Castle in Kent. Silkworms were raised and reeled under the direction of Zoe Lady Hart Dyke. Production started elsewhere later. In Italy, the Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale was founded in Padua in 1871 to research sericulture. In the late 19th century, China, Japan, and Italy were the major producers of silk.[citation needed] The most important cities for silk production in Italy were Como and Meldola (Forlì). In medieval times, it was common for silk to be used to make elaborate casings for bananas and other fruits. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Hampton Court redirects here. ... Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale This institution specialising in sericulture (silk|silk-farming) is in Padua, Italy. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Como (disambiguation). ... Meldola is a town in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ...


Silk was expensive in Medieval Europe and used only by the rich. Italian merchants like Giovanni Arnolfini became hugely wealthy trading it to the Courts of Northern Europe. Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini (c. ...


North America

James I of England introduced silk-growing to the American colonies around 1619, ostensibly to discourage tobacco planting. Only the Shakers in Kentucky adopted the practice. In the 1800s a new attempt at a silk industry began with European-born workers in Paterson, New Jersey, and the city became a US silk center, although Japanese imports were still more important. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... “Paterson” redirects here. ...


World War II interrupted the silk trade from Japan. Silk prices increased dramatically, and US industry began to look for substitutes, which led to the use of synthetics such as nylon. Synthetic silks have also been made from lyocell, a type of cellulose fiber, and are often difficult to distinguish from real silk (see spider silk for more on synthetic silks). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... The label of a coat with Tencel® Lyocell is a fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ...


Properties

Physical properties

Silk fibers have a triangular cross section with rounded corners. This allows light to hit at many different angles, so silk is a bright fiber and has a natural shine. It has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, unlike many synthetic fibers. Its denier is 4.5 g/d when dry and 2.8-4.0 g/d when wet. Cross section may refer to the following In geometry, Cross section is the intersection of a 3-dimensional body with a plane. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Denier can refer to: Denier, linear density of mass in fibres. ...


Silk is one of the strongest natural fibers but loses up to 20% of its strength when wet. It has a good moisture regain of 11%. Its elasticity is moderate to poor: if elongated even a small amount it remains stretched. It can be weakened if exposed to too much sunlight. It may also be attacked by insects, especially if left dirty.


Silk is a poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling.


Unwashed silk chiffon may shrink up to 8% due to a relaxation of the fiber macrostructure. So silk should either be pre-washed prior to garment construction, or dry cleaned. Dry cleaning may still shrink the chiffon up to 4%. Occasionally, this shrinkage can be reversed by a gentle steaming with a press cloth. There is almost no gradual shrinkage or shrinkage due to molecular-level deformation.


Chemical properties

Silk is made up of the amino acids GLY-SER-GLY-ALA-GLY and forms Beta pleated sheets. Interchain H-bonds are formed while side chains are above and below the plane of the H-bond network. This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Small residue(Gly) allows tight packing and the fibers are strong and resistant to stretching. The tension is due to covalent peptide bonds. Since the protein forms a Beta sheet, when stretched the force is applied to these strong bonds and they do not break. The 50% GLy composition means that Gly exists regularly at every other position.


Silk is resistant to mineral acids. It is yellowed by perspiration and will dissolve in sulfuric acid.


Uses

Silk's good absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather. It is often used for clothing such as shirts, blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, negligees, pyjamas, robes, skirtsuits, sun dresses and underwear. Business shirt In American English, shirt can refer to almost any upper-body garment other than coats and bras (the term top is sometimes used in ladieswear). ... A blouse A blouse most commonly refers to a womans shirt, although the term is also used for some mens military uniform shirts. ... Look up dress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The negligee is a form of womenswear intended for wear at night and in the bedroom or in a airport parking lot. ... Categories: Stub | Clothing ... A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... A skirt is a traditionally feminine tube- or cone-shaped garment which is worn from the waist and covers the legs. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ...


Silk's elegant, soft luster and beautiful drape makes it perfect for many furnishing applications. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window treatments (if blended with another fiber), rugs, bedding and wall hangings. Furnishings (aka art objects, decorative arts, knick-knacks, bric-a-brac) are the objects, other than furniture, that occupy an interior space. ... Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. ... Look up Rug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bedding refers to the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for warmth. ...


Silk is also used for parachutes, bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags. Early bulletproof vests were made from silk in the era of blackpowder weapons until roughly World War I. A special manufacturing process makes it suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures. Chinese doctors have used it to make prosthetic arteries. Silk cloth is also used as a material on which to write. This article is about the device. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... Silk comforters (絲綿被) are a luxurious Chinese bed covering. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A bulletproof vest – also called body armour (U.S. body armor) – is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armour to minimize injury from being hit by a fired bullet. ... Black powder is a type of gunpowder invented in the 9th Century and practically the only propellant and explosive known until the middle of the 19th Century. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ...


Production

The cultivation of silk is called sericulture. Over 30 countries produce silk, and the major ones are China (54%), India (14%) and Japan (11%).

Top Ten Cocoons(Reelable) Producers — 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China 978,013 C 290,003 F
Flag of India India 259,679 C 77,000 F
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 57,332 C 17,000 F
Flag of Brazil Brazil 37,097 C 11,000 F
Flag of Iran Iran 20,235 C 6,000 F
Flag of Thailand Thailand 16,862 C 5,000 F
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 10,117 C 3,000 F
Flag of North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 5,059 C 1,500 F
Flag of Romania Romania 3,372 C 1,000 F
Flag of Japan Japan 2,023 C 600 F
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

Cultivation

Silk filaments unraveled from silk cocoons
Silk filaments unraveled from silk cocoons

Silk moths lay eggs on specially prepared paper. The eggs hatch and the caterpillars (silkworms) are fed fresh mulberry leaves. After about 35 days and 4 moltings, the caterpillars are 10,000 times heavier than when hatched, and are ready to begin spinning a cocoon. A straw frame is placed over the tray of caterpillars, and each caterpillar begins spinning a cocoon by moving its head in a "figure 8" pattern. Two glands produce liquid silk and force it through openings in the head called spinnerets. Liquid silk is coated in sericin, a water-soluble protective gum, and solidifies on contact with the air. Within 2-3 days, the caterpillar spins about 1 mile of filament and is completely encased in a cocoon. Most caterpillars are then killed by heat and some are allowed to metamorphose into moths to breed the next generation of caterpillars. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 507 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 507 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A cicada in the process of shedding. ...


Obtaining filament silk

Silk filaments after dyeing
Silk filaments after dyeing
Reeling of the silk filaments onto a wheel
Reeling of the silk filaments onto a wheel

Stifled cocoons are sorted by fiber size, fiber quality and defects, then are brushed to find filaments. Several filaments are gathered together and wound onto a wheel (reeling; see photograph). Each cocoon yields approximately 1000 yards (1 kilometer) of silk filament, known as raw silk, or silk-in-the gum, fiber. Several filaments are combined to form a yarn. As fibers are combined and wrapped into the reel, they can be twisted to stay together. This is called ‘throwing’ and resulting yarn is called thrown yarn. The type of yarn and amount of twist relate to the fabric produced. The simplest type of thrown yarn is a ‘single’, where 8 filaments are twisted together. Singles can have 2 or 3 twists per inch, and are used for filling yarns in silk fabrics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Silk noils (silk waste) is produced from the inner portions of the cocoon. It is degummed (sericin is removed) and spun like other staple fiber. Or it can also be blended with another staple fiber and is spun into yarn.


Wild silk production is not controlled. Cocoons are harvested after the moth has matured, so silk cannot be reeled – it must be spun. Types of wild silk include Tussah (most common), Dupioni, Momme.


Animal rights

As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larvae, silk-culture has been criticized in the early 21st century by animal rights activists, especially since artificial silks are available.[6] Others point out that silkworms would become extinct without humans to care for them. [7] A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ...


Mahatma Gandhi was also critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy. Ahimsa is part of the three millennial Jain philosophy of India, "not to hurt any living thing". This led to development of a cotton spinning machine which Gandhi distributed and can be seen at the Gandhi Institute. Ahimsa Silk, made from the cocoons of wild and semi-wild silk moths, is promoted in parts of Southern India for those who prefer not to wear silk produced by killing silkworms. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


See also

Look up Silk in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Artificial silk, or (as the term is used in the textile industry) Art silk, is a synthetic manufactured fiber which is supposed to resemble silk. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... Tenun Pahang Diraja is a type of woven silk fabric which is famous and popular in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. ... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever divulging the secret process whereby it was made. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Chinese archaeologists make ground-breaking textile discovery in 2,500-year-old tomb. People's Daily Online.. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  2. ^ Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Edition. Appendix A. [1]
  3. ^ Odyssey 19 233-234: Τον δε χιτων' ενοησα περι χροισιγαλοεντα, / οιον τε κρομυοιο λοπον κατα σιγαλοεντα = "And I [= Odysseus, pretending to be someone else when talking to his wife Penelope when he came back to Ithaca ] noted the tunic about his [= Odysseus's] body, all shining like the skin of a dried onion."
  4. ^ Tacitus. Annals. 
  5. ^ Silk: Why It Is Haram for Men (2003-09-23). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  6. ^ Down and Silk: Birds and Insects Exploited for Fabric. PETA. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  7. ^ History of Sericulture, Culture Entomology Digest 1. Dr. Ron Cherry. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Good, Irene. 1995. “On the question of silk in pre-Han Eurasia” Antiquity Vol. 69, Number 266, December 1995, pp. 959-968
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 AD. Draft annotated English translation. Appendix E. [3]
  • Kuhn, Dieter. 1995. “Silk Weaving in Ancient China: From Geometric Figures to Patterns of Pictorial Likeness.” Chinese Science 12 (1995): pp. 77-114.
  • Liu, Xinru. 1996. Silk and Religion: An Exploration of Material Life and the Thought of People, AD 600-1200. Oxford University Press.
  • Sung, Ying-Hsing. 1637. Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century - T'ien-kung K'ai-wu. Translated and annotated by E-tu Zen Sun and Shiou-chuan Sun. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1966. Reprint: Dover, 1997. Chap. 2. Clothing materials.
  • Kadolph, Sara J. Textiles. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. 76-81.

External links

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Silk


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“Silk” is a smooth, free icon set, containing over 700 16-by-16 pixel icons in strokably-soft PNG format.
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Donating won't get you anything special, other than a warm feeling inside, and possibly urge me to produce more freely available material for my site.
Silk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1325 words)
Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, possibly as early as 6000 BC and definitely by 3000 BC.
Because of the high demand for the fabric, silk was one of the staples of international trade prior to industrialization.
Silk has recently come under critism from some animal rights activists who claim that the common practice of boiling silkworms alive in their cocoons is cruel.
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