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Encyclopedia > Silicosis
Silicosis
ICD-10 J62
ICD-9 502

Silicosis (also known as Grinder's disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as miners lung, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ...


The full name for this disease is pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis, and at 45 letters it is the longest word in the English language. (The name has been described as a "trophy word" -- its only job is to serve as the longest word [1] .) There are endless debates over what is the longest word in the English language, demonstrating that the idea of what constitutes a word is not as straightforward as it seems. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Silicosis (especially the acute form) is characterized by shortness of breath, fever, and cyanosis (bluish skin). It may often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), pneumonia, or tuberculosis. Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the microscopic, alveoli (air-filled sacs) responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


This respiratory disease was first recognized in 1705 by Ramazzini who noticed sand-like substances in the lungs of stonecutters. The name silicosis (from the latin silex or flint) was attributed to Visconti in 1870.

Contents


Silica

Silica is the second most common mineral on earth. It is found in concrete, masonry, sandstone, rock, paint, and other abrasives. The cutting, breaking, crushing, drilling, grinding, or abrasive blasting of these materials may produce fine silica dust. It can also be in soil, mortar, plaster, and shingles. Silicosis is due to deposition of fine dust (less than 1 micrometre in diameter) containing crystalline alpha-quartz silica or silicon dioxide. The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


The induction period between initial silica exposure and development of radiographically detectable nodular silicosis is usually 10 years. Shorter induction periods are associated with heavy exposures, and acute silicosis may develop within 6 months to 2 years following massive silica exposure.


Pathology

When the small silica dust particles are breathed into the lungs, they can embed themselves deeply into the tiny alveolar sacs and ducts where oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged. There, the lungs cannot clear out the dust by mucous or coughing.


When fine particles of silica dust are deposited in the lungs, macrophages that ingest the dust particles will set off an inflammation response by releasing tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, leukotriene B4 and other cytokines. In turn, these stimulate fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen around the silica particle, thus resulting in fibrosis and the formation of the nodular lesions. A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine that is secreted by macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ...


Furthermore, the surface of silicon dust can generate silicon-based radicals that lead to the production of hydroxyl and oxygen radicals, as well as hydrogen peroxide, which can inflict damage to the surrounding cells. // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ...


Characteristic lung tissue pathology in nodular silicosis consists of fibrotic nodules with concentric "onion-skinned" arrangement of collagen fibers, central hyalinization, and a cellular peripheral zone, with lightly birefringent particles seen under polarized light. In acute silicosis, microscopic pathology shows a periodic acid-Schiff positive alveolar exudate (alveolar lipoproteinosis) and a cellular infiltrate of the alveolar walls. Tropocollagen triple helix. ... This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ...


Prevalence

Although silicosis has been known for centuries, the industrialization of mining has lead to an increase in silicosis cases. In the United States, a 1930 epidemic of silicosis due to the construction of the Hawk's Nest Tunnel near Gauley Bridge, West Virginia caused the death of more than 400 workers. The Hawks Nest Incident involved injuries and deaths as the result of the construction of the Hawks Nest Tunnel near Gauley Bridge, West Virginia as part of a hydroelectric project. ... Gauley Bridge is a town located in Fayette County, West Virginia. ...


Also, the mining establishment of Delamar Ghost Town, Nevada was ruined by a dry-mining process that produced a silicosis-causing dust. After hundreds of deaths from silicosis, the town was nicknamed The Widowmaker. Delamar Mine Area (Trailings Visible on Left Side) // Overview Nicknamed The Widowmaker, Delamar Ghost Town is a small abandoned city in a very remote central eastern corner of Nevada, USA. It was once a thriving gold operation, but was ruined by its own dry-mining process which killed its residents...


Indeed, silicosis is an occupational hazard to mining, sandblasting, quarry and foundry workers, as well as grinders, stonecutters and those continually exposed to silica dust. The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... Sandblasting is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds. ... This article is about the factory that makes castings of metal. ...


Due to protective measures, such as using respirators, death rates of silicosis in Western countries have been steadily declining.


Symptoms

The symptoms of silicosis include:

  • Tachypnea or shortness of breath after physical exertion
  • Dry or severe cough, often persistent and accompanied by hoarseness of the throat
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Changes in breathing pattern (rapid breathing or shallow breathing)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chest pain
  • Fever

In advanced cases, the following may also occur: Tachypnea is a medical term for breathing which is more rapid than normal. ...

Patients with silicosis are particularly susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) infection. Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ... Cor pulmonale is a medical term used to describe a change in structure and function of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of a respiratory disorder. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


Types of Silicosis

Classification of silicosis is made according to the disease's severity, onset, and rapidity of progression. These include:

  • Chronic silicosis

A form of the disease that develop after 20 years or longer of exposure to low levels of silica dust. Chronic silicosis itself is further subdivided into simple and complicated silicoses. This is the most common type of silicosis.

  • Asymptomatic silicosis

Early cases of the disease do not present any symptoms

  • Acute silicosis

Silicosis that develops after 1 to 3 years of exposure to very high concentration of silica dust.

  • Accelerated silicosis

Silicosis that develops after an average of 10 years of exposure to high concentration of silica dust.


Diagnosis

Patient history should reveal exposure to silica dust due to occupation. Physical check up will reveal decreased chest expansion and abnormal breath sounds. Pulmonary function test will reveal reduced lung capacity.


Chest x-ray will confirm the presence of nodules in the lungs, especially in the upper lobes. Typically, it will also reveal eggshell calcification of the hilar lymph nodes. In rare cases, pulmonary nodules may also be calcified. In advanced cases of silicosis, coalescence of nodules may show up as large masses. Dystrophic calcification is the mineralization of soft tissue without a systemic mineral imbalance. ...


A computed tomography or CT scan can also provide a mode detailed analyses of the nodules, and can reveal cavitation due to concomittant mycobacterial infection. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


Treatment

Silicosis is an irreversible condition, with no cure. Treatment options currently focus on alleviating the symptoms and preventing complications. These include:

Experimental treatments include: Various smoking equipment including different pipes, and cigars. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Isoniazid (also called is isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is an antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Pyrazinamide is an antituberculosis agent used to treat tuberculosis in afflicted patients. ... Physical therapy can help restore lost functionality in many people. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ...

  • Whole-lung lavage.
  • Inhalation of powdered aluminium, d-penicillamine and polyvinyl pyridine-N-oxide.
  • Corticosteroid therapy.
  • The herbal extract tetrandine may slow progression of silicosis.

In medicine, lavage is a general term refering to cleaning or rinsing. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Penicillamine is a pharmaceutical of the chelator class. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...

Prevention

The best way to prevent silicosis is to identify work-place activities that produce crystalline silica dust and then to eliminate or control the dust.


See also

Pneumoconiosis, also known as miners lung, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Chest X-ray in asbestosis shows plaques above diaphragm Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...

Notes

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Silicosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (980 words)
Silicosis (also known as Grinder's disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Characteristic lung tissue pathology in nodular silicosis consists of fibrotic nodules with concentric "onion-skinned" arrangement of collagen fibers, central hyalinization, and a cellular peripheral zone, with lightly birefringent particles seen under polarized light.
Indeed, silicosis is an occupational hazard to mining, sandblasting, quarry and foundry workers, as well as grinders, stonecutters and those continually exposed to silica dust.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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