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Encyclopedia > Silicon chip

An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices in most applications. They utilize electronic conduction in the solid state, as opposed to the vacuum state or gaseous state. Semiconductor devices are available as... semiconductor devices, mainly Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. It acts as a variable valve which, based on its input current (BJT) or input voltage (FET), allows a precise amount of... transistors, as well as passive components like An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device. While real world resistors cannot attain this perfect goal, they are designed to present little variation in electrical resistance when subjected to changing temperature and other... resistors. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... As of 2004, typical chips are of size 1 cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. One centimetre is: one-hundredth of one metre one-tenth of a decimetre ten millimetres. Unicode has symbols for cm (㎝), for square centimetre (㎠) and for cubic centimetre (㎤... cm2 or smaller, and contain millions of interconnected devices, but larger ones exist as well.


Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). Before the advent of microprocessors, electronic... microprocessors, which drive everything from The tower of a personal computer. A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are constructed from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to... computers to Cellular redirects here. For the 2004 movie see Cellular (movie). A mobile phone, the Sony Ericsson T630 A mobile phone is a device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (cf. cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited... cellular phones to digital Microwave oven A microwave oven is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook food. History The idea for using microwaves to cook food was discovered by Percy Spencer who was working for Raytheon and was building magnetrons for radar sets. One day he was working on an active... microwave ovens. Digital The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. The anthropomorphic term memory has been used in the U.S. ever... memory chips are another family of integrated circuits that are crucially important in modern A society is a group of people living or working together. There are various different uses of the term society. The casual meaning of society simply refers to a group of people living together in an ordered community.1 The social sciences use the term society to mean a group... society.


The integrated circuit was made possible by mid- ( 19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. Common usage sometimes regards it as lasting from 1900 to 1999, but this is considered incorrect due to the... 20th-century Technology ( Gr. τεχνολογια < τεχνη craftsmanship + λογος word, reckoning + the suffix ια) has more than one definition. One is the development and application of tools, machines, materials and processes that help to... technology advancements in Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create chips, the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconductor material. Silicon... semiconductor device fabrication and experimental discoveries that showed that Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices in most applications. They utilize electronic conduction in the solid state, as opposed to the vacuum state or gaseous state. Semiconductor devices are available as... semiconductor devices could perform the functions performed by In electronics, a vacuum tube (American English) or (thermionic) valve (British English) is a device generally used to amplify a signal. Once used in most electronic devices, vacuum tubes are now used only in specialized applications. For most purposes, the vacuum tube has been replaced by the much smaller and... vacuum tubes at the time. The integration of large numbers of tiny Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. It acts as a variable valve which, based on its input current (BJT) or input voltage (FET), allows a precise amount of... transistors onto a small chip was an enormous improvement to the manual assembly of finger-sized vacuum tubes. The integrated circuit's small size, reliability, fast switching speeds, low Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power, often known as power or electricity, involves the production and delivery of electrical energy in sufficient quantities to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. History Although electricity... power consumption, Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. It was popularised by Henry Ford in the early 20th Century, notably in his Ford Model T. Mass production is notable because it permits very high rates of production per person and therefore provides very inexpensive... mass production capability, and ease of adding There are different senses of complexity: In information processing, complexity is a measure of the total number of properties transmitted by an object and detected by an observer. Such a collection of properties is often referred to as a state. In physical systems, complexity is a measure of the probability... complexity quickly pushed vacuum tubes into Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. Types of obsolescence Technical or functional obsolescence When a new, more functional product or technology supercedes the old (example: telegraph -> telephone) The product becomes useless due to changes in... obsolescence.


Only a half century after their development was initiated, integrated circuits have become ubiquitous. The tower of a personal computer. A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are constructed from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to... Computers, Cellular redirects here. For the 2004 movie see Cellular (movie). A mobile phone, the Sony Ericsson T630 A mobile phone is a device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (cf. cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited... cellular phones, and other A digital system is one that uses discrete values rather than a continuous spectrum of values: compare analog. The word comes from the same source as the word digit: the Latin word for finger (counting on the fingers) as these are used for discrete counting. The distinction digital versus analog... digital The term Appliance refers to two classes of objects: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical problem, such as prosthetic and energy input. These are grouped into two categories: small appliances and major appliances. Such items... appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies. Indeed, many A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline. In British usage, a scholar is equally likely to be a schoolchild (usually a boy) or a learned person. In American usage, the schoolchild meaning is rare. Similar words: Intellectual Professor Schoolchild See... scholars believe that the The Digital Revolution is a term describing the effects of the rapid drop in cost and rapid expansion of power of digital devices such as computers and telecommunications. It includes changes in technology and society, and is often specifically used to refer to the controversies that occur as these technologies... digital revolution brought about by integrated circuits was one of the most significant occurrences in the History is a term for information about the past. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. The term history comes from the Greek ιστορία historia, an account of... history of Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. Biologists classify human beings as Homo sapiens (Latin for knowing man), a primate species of mammal with a highly developed brain, belonging to the family of great apes, along with chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans... mankind.

Source and public domain notice at [1] Original caption: integrated circuit (400x) This is a portion of a semi-conductor device showing several printed circuits. Each color represents a different material, and in this case a vacuum problem during the deposition of aluminum (cyan) caused this layers lumpy appearance...
Source and public domain notice at [1] Original caption: integrated circuit (400x) This is a portion of a semi-conductor device showing several printed circuits. Each color represents a different material, and in this case a vacuum problem during the deposition of aluminum (cyan) caused this layers lumpy appearance... Enlarge
A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy, and the term microscopic means minute or very small, not... Optical Microscope image of an integrated circuit showing defects in the General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13 (IIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2700 kg/m3, 2.75 Appearance silvery Atomic properties Atomic weight 26.981538 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 125 pm (118 pm) Covalent radius 118 pm van der Waals radius no... aluminium layer deposition.
Contents

Fabrication

Main article: Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create chips, the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconductor material. Silicon... Semiconductor device fabrication.


The A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. The distinction between a semiconductor and an insulator is not very well-defined, but roughly, a semiconductor is an insulator with a band gap small enough that... semiconductors of the The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. The elements are arranged by electron structure so that many chemical properties vary regularly across the table. Each element is listed by its atomic number and chemical symbol... periodic table of the A chemical element, often called simply element, is a substance that cannot be divided or changed into different substances by ordinary chemical methods. The smallest particle of such an element is an atom, which consists of electrons centered around a nucleus of protons and neutrons. The atomic number of an... chemical elements were identified as the most likely materials for a In physics, the solid state is one of the three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). See also: solid state physics. In electronics, solid state circuits are those that do not contain vacuum tubes. The term was introduced to describe the transition from valve-based amplifiers to transistorised amplifiers... solid state In electronics, a vacuum tube (American English) or (thermionic) valve (British English) is a device generally used to amplify a signal. Once used in most electronic devices, vacuum tubes are now used only in specialized applications. For most purposes, the vacuum tube has been replaced by the much smaller and... vacuum tube by researchers like William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Born in London, England, to American parents, and raised in California, he received his... William Shockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. In 1925, Walter Gifford... Bell Laboratories starting in the 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930s. Starting with Copper forms two oxides, copper(I) oxide (cuprous oxide, Cu2O) a red powder and copper(II) oxide (cupric oxide, CuO) a black powder. Cu2O has some scientific uses, including use as a superconductor. CuO is the main product when copper is heated in air. The mineral cuprite, a red colored... copper oxide, proceeding to General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 4 , p Density, Hardness 5323 kg/m3, 6 Appearance greyish white Atomic properties Atomic weight 72.64 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 125 (125) pm Covalent radius 122 pm van der Waals radius no data Electron configuration... germanium, then General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Series metalloid Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2330 kg/m3, 6.5 Appearance dark grey, bluish tinge Atomic properties Atomic weight 28.0855 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 110 pm (111 pm) Covalent radius 111 pm van der Waals radius... silicon, the materials were systematically studied in the 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January 5 - FM radio is demonstrated to the FCC for the first time. January 6 - World War II: Mass execution of Poles, committed by Germans in the Poznan, Warthegau. January 12 - World War... 1940s and Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with Britain in response. January 9 - The Israeli government recognizes the... 1950s. (Some III-V compounds of the periodic table of the elements such as Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a chemical compound composed of gallium and arsenic. It is an important semiconductor, and is used to make devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits (ie, MMICs), infrared light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. The electronic properties of GaAs are superior to silicons. It has... gallium arsenide are used for specialised applications like LEDs, Night-vision is seeing in the dark. There are two ways to accomplish this; biologically, and through technology. Technological night vision works on one of two principles. The first is by detecting infrared radiation, which is a form of energy emitted by all objects regardless of the ambient light conditions... night vision, and the highest-speed integrated circuits.) Today, silicon monocrystals are the main Substrate is a term used in printing, mainly industrial printing, to describe the base material that images will be printed onto. These materials include (though are not limited to) films, foils, textiles, fabrics, plastics, and any variety of paper (lightweight, heavyweight, coated, uncoated, paperboard, cardboard, etc.). The end use of... substrate used for integrated circuits (ICs). It took decades to perfect methods of creating This article is about the form of solid matter. For other uses of this word, see Crystal (disambiguation). Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Generally, fluid substances... crystals without defects in the In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. A crystal structure is composed of a unit cell, a set of atoms arranged in a particular way, which is periodically repeated in three dimensions on a lattice. The spacings between unit cells in... crystalline structure of the semiconducting material.


A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. The distinction between a semiconductor and an insulator is not very well-defined, but roughly, a semiconductor is an insulator with a band gap small enough that... Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in an almost two-dimensional bottom-up layer process which includes these key process steps: -

  • Imaging
  • Deposition
  • Etching

The main process steps are supplemented by doping, cleaning and planarisation steps.


A mono-crystal General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Series metalloid Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2330 kg/m3, 6.5 Appearance dark grey, bluish tinge Atomic properties Atomic weight 28.0855 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 110 pm (111 pm) Covalent radius 111 pm van der Waals radius... silicon See Wafer (cooking) for the original meaning of the word. In microelectronics, a wafer is a thin slice of semiconducting material, such as a silicon crystal, upon which microcircuits are constructed by diffusion and deposition of various materials. Wafers are thus of key importance in the fabrication of semiconductor devices... wafer (or for special applications, Silicon on sapphire (SOS) is a hetero-epitaxial process that consists of a thin layer of silicon grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) wafer. SOS is part of the Silicon on Insulator (SOI) family of CMOS technologies. SOS is primarily used in military and space applications because of its inherent resistance... silicon on sapphire or Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a chemical compound composed of gallium and arsenic. It is an important semiconductor, and is used to make devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits (ie, MMICs), infrared light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. The electronic properties of GaAs are superior to silicons. It has... gallium arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate. Photolithography is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication to transfer a pattern from a photomask (also called reticle) to the surface of a wafer or substrate. It bears a similarity to the conventional lithography used in printing. Lithography involves a combination of etching, chemical deposition, and chemical treatments in... Photolithography is used to mark different areas of the substrate to be In semiconductor production, doping refers to the process of intentionally introducing impurities into a pure semiconductor substrate, in order to change its electrical properties. For doping silicon, the dopants are called III-V compounds, referring by Roman numerals to the columns in the Periodic Table of the Elements; Silicon itself... doped or to have polysilicon or General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13 (IIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2700 kg/m3, 2.75 Appearance silvery Atomic properties Atomic weight 26.981538 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 125 pm (118 pm) Covalent radius 118 pm van der Waals radius no... aluminum tracks sputtered on them.

Enlarge
Cris-crossing geometry of the layers of an IC
  • For a CMOS (pronounced see-moss) is the name used for a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS chips include microprocessor, microcontroller, static RAM, and other digital logic circuit designs. The central characteristic of the technology is that it only uses significant power when its transistors are switching between on and off... CMOS process, for example, a Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. It acts as a variable valve which, based on its input current (BJT) or input voltage (FET), allows a precise amount of... transistor is formed by the cris-crossing intersection of striped layers. The stripes can be monocrystalline substrate, doped layers, perhaps insulator layers or polysilicon layers. Some etched vias to the doped layers might interconnect layers with For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). In chemistry, a metal ( Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms ions (cations) and has metallic bonds, and it is sometimes said that it is similar to a cation in a cloud of electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of... metal conducting tracks.
    • The cris-crossed checkerboard-like (see image above) transistors are the cheapest part of the An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. It can be as small as an integrated circuit on a silicon chip, or as large as an electricity distribution network. A circuit is a network that has... circuit, each checker forming a transistor.
    • Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. Intentional capacitors have thin metal plates stacked or rolled to form a compact device, but every multi-conductor... Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to the area of the "plates", with insulating material between the plates.
    • An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device. While real world resistors cannot attain this perfect goal, they are designed to present little variation in electrical resistance when subjected to changing temperature and other... Resistive structures, meandering stripes of varying lengths, form the loads on the circuit. The resistors are the most expensive part of a typical integrated circuit. The total length of the resistive structure, and not its width, determines the resistance.
    • More rarely, An inductor is a passive electrical device that stores energy in a magnetic field, typically by combining the effects of many loops of electric current. Inductors Physics of the inductor Construction An inductor is usually constructed as a coil of conducting material, typically copper wire. A core of ferrous material... inductive structures can be simulated by The gyrator is an electric circuit which inverts an impedance. In other words, it can make a capacitive circuit behave inductively, a bandpass filter behave like a bandcut filter, and so on. It was invented around 1948 by B.D.H. Tellegen of Philips Research Laboratories, Eindhoven (The gyrator, a... gyrators.
    • Since a CMOS device only draws current on the transition between In mathematics and computer science, Boolean algebras, or Boolean lattices, are algebraic structures which capture the essence of the logical operations AND, OR and NOT as well as the corresponding set theoretic operations intersection, union and complement. They are named after George Boole, an English mathematician at University College Cork... logic In information processing, a state is the complete set of properties (for example, its energy level, etc. see state (physics)) transmitted by an object to an observer via one or more channels. Any change in the nature or quantity of such properties in a state is detected by an observer... states, CMOS devices are stressed at a much lower level than a bipolar device.
    • A This article is about the animal, sheep; for other meanings of Sheep, see Sheep (disambiguation). The article Ram redirects here; a ram is an intact male sheep. For other meanings of Ram, see Ram (disambiguation). Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 A sheep is any of several woolly ruminant quadrupeds... memory device is the most regular type of integrated circuit; the highest density devices are thus memories; but even a Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). Before the advent of microprocessors, electronic... microprocessor will have memory on the chip. (See the regular array structure at the bottom of the first image.)
    • Although the structures are intricate, they are largely two-dimensional in nature, with widths which have been shrinking for decades. The layers of material are fabricated much like a photographic process, although Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet. The three basic dimensions of light (and of all electromagnetic radiation) are: intensity (or brilliance or amplitude, perceived... light This article is about waves in the most general sense; a separate article focuses on ocean waves. A wave is a disturbance that propagates. Apart from electromagnetic radiation, and probably gravitational radiation, which can travel through vacuum, waves exist in a medium (which on deformation is capable of producing elastic... waves in the The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. There are no exact bounds to the optical spectrum; a typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm, although some people may be able to... visible spectrum can no longer be used to "expose" a layer of material, as they be would too large for the features. Thus In physics, the photon (from Greek φοτος, meaning light) is a quantum of excitation of the quantised electromagnetic field and is one of the elementary particles studied by quantum electrodynamics (QED) which is the oldest part of the Standard Model of particle physics. In laymans... photons of even higher frequencies are used to build the " As used in photolithography, a photomask is typically an optically transparent fused quartz blank imprinted with a pattern defined with chrome metal. A complete set of photomasks, each defining a pattern layer in integrated circuit fabrication, is fed into a photolithography stepper or scanner and individually selected for exposure. In... photomasks" for each layer.
    • The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. History The first electron microscope was built in 1931 by Ernst Ruska and... Electron microscopes are an essential tool for a A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of operations or events, possibly taking up time, space, expertise or other resource, which produces some outcome. A process may be identified by the changes it creates in the properties of one or more objects under its influence. Compare: project. See... process An engineer may be someone who practices the engineering profession, or the driver of a rail locomotive. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back... engineer who might be Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. Debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly coupled, as changes in one may cause bugs to... debugging a fabrication process.

Each device is tested, before packaging. The wafer is then diced into small rectangles called die. The die is then connected into a package using General Name, Symbol, Number Gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 (IB), 6, d Density, Hardness 19300 kg/m3, 2.5 Appearance Metallic yellow Atomic properties Atomic weight 196.96655 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 135 (174) pm Covalent radius 144 pm van der Waals radius 166... gold or aluminum wires which are Welding is a joining process that produces coalescence of materials (typically metals or thermoplastics) by heating them to welding temperature, with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler material. Most commonly, workpieces are welded by melting... welded to pads, usually found around the edge of the die. After packaging, the devices go through final test on very expensive automated testers, which account for over 25 percent of the cost of fabrication. A fabrication facility, commonly known as a A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. The distinction between a semiconductor and an insulator is not very well-defined, but roughly, a semiconductor is an insulator with a band gap small enough that... semiconductor fab, currently costs over a billion US Dollars to construct, because much of the operation is automated. In the most advanced processes, the wafers exceed 30 centimeters in diameter (wider than a common dinner plate).


Significance

Integrated circuits can be classified into For the Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact publication, see Astounding Magazine. For the server log file analyzer, see Analog (program). An analog (American English spelling) or analogue (British English spelling) signal is any continuously variable signal. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal... analog, Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. In most cases there are two voltage levels: one near to zero volts and one at a higher level depending on the supply voltage in use. These two levels are often represented as L and H. Levels... digital and This article or section should be merged with Mixed-signal_circuit A mixed-mode integrated circuit is an integrated circuit with both digital and analog electronics integrated on the same chip (silicon die). The digital and analog parts are usually separated and placed in distinct regions on the die, often using... mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).


Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of A logic gate is an arrangement of electronically-controlled switches used to calculate operations in Boolean algebra. Logic gates can also be constructed from relays, diodes, fluidics and optical elements. Nikola Tesla filed the first patent for the AND logic gate in July 1900, the application being divided and granted... logic gates, This article is about the electronic component. For other meanings, see flip-flop (disambiguation). In electronics and computing, the flip-flop or bistable multivibrator is a pulsed digital circuit capable of serving as a one-bit memory. A flip-flop typically includes zero, one, or two input signals; a clock... flip-flops, The term multiplexer has uses in several fields of application: Electronics In electronics, a multiplexer or mux is a device that combines several electrical signals into a single signal. There are different types of multiplexers for analog and digital circuits. Signal processing In digital signal processing, a multiplexer (often abbreviated... multiplexers, etc. in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration.


The growth of complexity of integrated circuits follows a trend called "Moore's Law", first observed by Gordon Moore Gordon Earl Moore (born January 3, 1929) is co-founder of Intel Corporation and the author of Moores law. Moore was born in San Francisco, California. He received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1950 and a Ph.D. in... Gordon Moore of The following article is about the multinational corporation; intel is also an abbreviation for intelligence, used in reference to military intelligence and espionage. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC) (founded 1968) is a US-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. Intel also... Intel. Moore's Law in its modern interpretation states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years. By the year 2000 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 2000 From Wikipedia 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd... 2000 the largest integrated circuits contained hundreds of millions of transistors. It is difficult to say whether the trend will eventually slow down (see In futurology, a technological singularity is a predicted point in the development of a civilization at which technological progress accelerates beyond the ability of present-day humans to fully comprehend or predict. The Singularity can more specifically refer to the advent of smarter-than-human intelligence, and the cascading technological... technological singularity).


The integrated circuit is one of the most important inventions of the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century. Modern Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a computer was a person who computes. Since the advent of the electronic computer, it has come to also mean the operation and usage of these machines, the electrical processes carried out within the computer hardware itself, and the... computing, Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. Communication is the academic discipline which studies communication. Forms of communication Animal communications Interpersonal communications Marketing Propaganda Public affairs Public relations Intrapersonal communications Nonverbal communications Speech communications Cross-cultural communication Telecommunications Computer-mediated communications Forms and... communications, Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. It is a large branch of industry and of secondary production. Some industries, like semiconductor and steel manufactureres use the term fabrication. Although handicraft production has been... manufacturing and For other article subjects named transport see transport (disambiguation). Transport, or transportation in American English, is the movement of objects like people, goods, signals and information from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans, meaning across, and portare, meaning to carry. Aspects of transport The... transport systems, including the This article is about the Internet, the extensive, worldwide computer network available to the public. An internet is a more general term for any set of interconnected computer networks that are connected by internetworking. Graphic representation of the WWW information network structure around Wikipedia, as represented by hyperlinks The Internet... Internet, all depend on its existence.


History

The integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer (born 1909), working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence, and published in ... Washington DC on May 7 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ May 7 From Wikipedia May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). There are 238 days remaining. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome... May 7, Summary of notable events in 1952. Events January events January 8 - West Germany has 8 million refugees inside its borders. January 24 - Sudden heavy snowfall in Algeria. January 24 - Vincent Massey sworn in as first Canada-born Governor-General of Canada. February events February 2 - A Cuba moving northeast. The... 1952. Dummer unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956.


The first integrated circuits were manufactured independently by two scientists: Jack St. Clair Kilby (born November 8, 1923) is a notable American electrical engineer. He invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at Texas Instruments. At about the same time Robert Noyce made the same discovery at Fairchild Semiconductor. Jack was born in Jefferson City, Missouri. He spent much... Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry as TI, is a company based in Dallas, Texas, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. History of Texas Instruments Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott and Henry Bates Peacock, three of... Texas Instruments filed a patent for a "Solid Circuit" made of General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 4 , p Density, Hardness 5323 kg/m3, 6 Appearance greyish white Atomic properties Atomic weight 72.64 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 125 (125) pm Covalent radius 122 pm van der Waals radius no data Electron configuration... germanium on February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 328 days remaining, 329 in leap years. Events 300-1899 337 - Julius I is elected pope. 1778 - American Revolutionary War: In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce are signed... February 6, 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January 1 - Cultivars of plants named after this date must be named in a modern language, not in Latin. January 1 - Cuba: Fulgencio Batista flees Havana when forces of Fidel Castro advance January... 1959. Kilby recieved patents US3138743, US3138747, US3261081, and US3434015. Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 - June 3, 1990), nicknamed the Mayor of Silicon Valley, co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the invention of the integrated circuit or microchip. Noyce graduated with a BA in physics from Grinnell... Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. In the 1970s Fairchild increasingly turned to high end customers... Fairchild Semiconductor was awarded a patent for a more complex "unitary circuit" made of Silicon on April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). There are 250 days remaining. Events 1607 - Dutch fleet destroys anchored Spanish fleet 1707 - An Allied Austrian army is defeated by Bourbon army at Almansa ( Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession... April 25, 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year - i.e., one that looked the same upside down - since 1881, and the last until 6009. Events January January 1 - The farthing coin, used since the 13th century, ceases to be... 1961. (See the Chip that Jack built (http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/jackbuilt.shtml) for more information.)


Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of dielectric isolation caused by the action of a p-n junction (the diode) as a key concept behind the IC.


SSI

The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. Called "Small-Scale Integration" (SSI), they used circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens.


SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and vice-versa. Both the The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). The L indicates that the missile is silo-launched; the G indicates that it is designed to... Minuteman missile and Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36.2 ft 11.03 m Diameter: 12.8 ft 3.9 m Volume: 218 ft3 6.17 m3 Weights Command module: 12,807 lb 5,809 kg Service module: 54,064 lb 24,523... Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers for their inertially-guided flight computers; the The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system. It was developed for the Apollo program by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory under Charles Stark Draper, with hardware design led by Eldon C. Hall (see References). Based upon MIT documents, early architectural work seems to come from J... Apollo guidance computer led and motivated the integrated-circuit technology, while the Minuteman missile forced it into mass-production.


These programs purchased almost all of the available integrated circuits from 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January - State of emergency is lifted in Kenya - Mau Mau Rebellion is officially over January 1 - Independence of Cameroon January 9 - Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt January 14 - Ralph Chubb, the... 1960 through Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. January 14 - George Wallace becomes governor of Alabama. January 22 - Elysée treaty between France and Germany January 28 - Black student Harvey Gantt enters Clemson College in... 1963, and almost alone provided the demand that funded the production improvements to get the production costs from $1000/circuit (in 1960 dollars) to merely $25/circuit (in 1963 dollars).


MSI

The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. Many of the trends of... 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip, called "Medium-Scale Integration" (MSI).


They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (because of fewer separate components), and a number of other advantages.


LSI

Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to "Large-Scale Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1970s From Wikipedia Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of... 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.


LSI circuits began to be produced in large quantities around 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-February January 1 - Construction begins on Arcosanti, by Paolo Soleri, in Mayer, Arizona, located 65, miles north of Phoenix, Arizona. January 1 - Unix epoch at 00:00:00 UTC. January 12 - Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian civil war. January 15... 1970, for computer main memories and pocket calculators.


VLSI

The final step in the development process, starting in the Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s and continuing on, was "Very Large-Scale Integration" ( Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) of systems of transistor-based circuits into integrated circuits on a single chip first occurred in the 1980s as part of the semiconductor and communication technologies that were being developed. The first semiconductor chips held one transistor each. Subsequent advances added more and more transistors... VLSI), with hundreds of thousands of transistors, and beyond (well past several million in the latest stages).


For the first time it became possible to fabricate a The central processing unit (CPU) is the part of a computer that interprets and carries out the instructions contained in the software. Overview This CPU uses numerous pins to connect to the motherboard. Most CPUs divide the tasks of interpreting and carrying out the instructions between: A control unit that... CPU or even an entire Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). Before the advent of microprocessors, electronic... microprocessor on a single integrated circuit. In 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Spain and Portugal enter the European Community January 1 - Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. January 9 - After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves... 1986 the first one megabit Different types of RAM. From top to bottom: DIP, SIPP, SIMM 30 pin, SIMM 72 pin, DIMM, RIMM RAM redirects here. For other meanings of the word ram see Ram (disambiguation). Random Access Memory or RAM is a type of computer storage whose contents can be accessed in any order... RAM chips were introduced, which contained more than one million transistors. Microprocessor chips produced in 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. Events January January 1 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect January 6 - Nancy Kerrigan is clubbed on the right leg by an assailant under orders from... 1994 contained more than three million transistors.


This step was largely made possible by the codification of "design rules" for the CMOS (pronounced see-moss) is the name used for a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS chips include microprocessor, microcontroller, static RAM, and other digital logic circuit designs. The central characteristic of the technology is that it only uses significant power when its transistors are switching between on and off... CMOS technology used in VLSI chips, which made production of working devices much more of a systematic endeavour. (See the 1980 landmark text by Professor Carver A. Mead is a prominent U.S. computer scientist. Carver Mead and Lynn Conway co-wrote the landmark text Introduction to VLSI systems in 1980. A pioneering and well-written textbook, it has been used in VLSI integrated circuit education all over the world for decades. In relation... Carver Mead and Lynn Conway is a U.S. computer scientist and inventor. She worked at IBM in the 1960s and is credited with the invention of generalised dynamic instruction handling. Conway was fired by IBM in 1968 after revealing to them that she was a transsexual; and was planning on transitioning to... Lynn Conway referenced below.)


ULSI

To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for Ultra-Large Scale Integration was proposed for chips of complexity more than 1 million of transistors. However there is no qualitative leap between VLSI and ULSI, hence normally in technical texts the "VLSI" term covers ULSI as well, and "ULSI" is reserved only for cases when it is necessary to emphasize the chip complexity, e.g., in marketing.


WSI

The most extreme integration technique is wafer-scale integration (WSI), which uses whole uncut wafers containing entire computers (processors as well as memory). Attempts to take this step commercially in the Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s (e.g. by Gene Myron Amdahl (born November 16, 1922) is an American computer architect and hi-tech entrepreneur of Norwegian descent, chiefly known for his work on mainframe computers at International Business Machines (IBM) and later his own companies. Childhood and education Amdahl was born to immigrant parents in Flandreau, South Dakota... Gene Amdahl) failed, mostly because of defect-free manufacturability problems, and it does not now seem to be a high priority for industry.


SOC

The WSI technique failed commercially, but advances in semiconductor manufacturing allowed for another attack on the IC complexity, known as System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions – all on one chip. A typical computer system consists of a number of integrated circuits... System-on-Chip (SOC) design. In this approach, components traditionally manufactured as separate chips to be wired together on a Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. A printed circuit board or PCB interconnects electronic components without discrete wires. Alternative names are printed wiring board or PWB. A printed circuit board consists... printed circuit board, are designed to occupy a single chip that contains memory, microprocessor(s), peripheral interfaces, Input/Output logic control, data converters, etc., i.e., the whole electronic system.


Other developments

In the Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s A programmable logic device or PLD is an electronic component used to build digital circuits. Unlike a logic gate, which has a fixed function, a PLD has an undefined function at the time of manufacture. Before the PLD can be used in a circuit it must be programmed. It is... programmable integrated circuits were developed. These devices contain circuits whose logical function and connectivity can be programmed by the user, rather than being fixed by the integrated circuit manufacturer. This allows a single chip to be programmed to implement different LSI-type functions such as A logic gate is an arrangement of electronically-controlled switches used to calculate operations in Boolean algebra. Logic gates can also be constructed from relays, diodes, fluidics and optical elements. Nikola Tesla filed the first patent for the AND logic gate in July 1900, the application being divided and granted... logic gates, This article or section should include material from ALU adder In electronics, an adder is a device which will perform the addition, S, of two numbers. In computing the adder is part of the ALU, and some ALUs contain multiple adders. Although adders can be constructed for many numerical representations... adders and In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. These registers... registers. Current devices named A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. FPGAs are generally slower than their ASIC counterparts, and draw more power. However, they have several advantages... FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) can now implement tens of thousands of LSI circuits in parallel and operate up to 400 MHz.


The techniques perfected by the integrated circuits industry over the last three decades have been used to create microscopic machines, known as Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the technology of the very small, yet not within the realm of Molecular nanotechnology. MEMS devices refer to mechanical components on the micrometre size and include 3D lithographic features of various geometries. They are typically manufactured using planar processing similar to semiconductor processes such... MEMS. These devices are used in a variety of commercial and defense applications, including projectors, ink jet printers, and are used to deploy the airbag in car accidents.


In the past, radios could not be fabricated in the same low-cost processes as microprocessors. But since 1998, a large number of radio chips have been developed using CMOS processes. Examples include Intel's DECT cordless phone, or Atheros's 802.11 card.


Packaging

The earliest integrated circuits were packaged in ceramic flat packs, which continued to be used by the military for their reliability and small size for many years. Commercial circuit packaging quickly moved to the IC in a DIP14-Package In electronics, a Dual In-line Package (DIP), sometimes called a DIL package, is an electronic device package with a rectangular housing and a row of electrical connecting pins along each of two opposite sides, usually the longer sides of the rectangle. Note: DIPs may... dual in-line package (DIP), first in ceramic and later in plastic. In the 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. Events January-February January 1- April 1 - National steel strike in the United Kingdom January 1 - Changes to the Swedish Act of Succession creates Victoria of Sweden, Crown Princess over her younger brother January 4 - American president Jimmy Carter proclaims, with support... 1980s pin counts of VLSI circuits exceeded the practical limit for DIP packaging, leading to Package Diagram for 168-Pin PGA Embedded IntelDX2™ Processor The pin grid array or PGA is a type of packaging used for integrated circuits, particularly microprocessors. The integrated circuit (IC) is mounted in a ceramic slab of which one face is covered, or partially covered, in a square array... pin grid array (PGA) and leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages. Surface-mount components on a keydrives circuit board Surface mount technology (SMT) is a method for constructing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Electronic devices so made are called surface-mount devices or SMDs. In industry it has... Surface mount packaging appeared in the early 1980s and became popular in the late 1980s, using finer lead pitch with leads formed as either gull-wing or J-lead, as exemplified by SOIC and PLCC packages. In the late 1990s, PQFP and The abbreviation TSOP can stand for several things: The Society for Organic Petrology is a scientific organization. In electronics, thin small-outline packages are a type of surface mount technology. The song TSOP, or The Sound of Philadelphia, was the theme song for the American television music program Soul Train... TSOP packages became the most common for high pin count devices, though PGA packages are still often used for high-end Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). Before the advent of microprocessors, electronic... microprocessors.


A ball grid array is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. It is descended from the pin grid array (PGA), which is a package with one face covered (or partly covered) with pins in a grid pattern. These pins are used to conduct electrical signals from... Ball grid array (BGA) packages...


Notable integrated circuits

  • The Schematic symbol of the 555 timer The 555 is a integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. Introduced in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips), it is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. The purpose of... 555 common A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state systems such as oscillators, timers and flip-flops. The most common form is the astable or oscillating type, which generates a square wave - the high level of harmonics in its output is what gives the... multivibrator subcircuit (common in electronic timing circuits)
  • The Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Pope Zacharias succeeds Pope Gregory III. Carloman, Pippin the Short and Grifo succeed their father Charles Martel as Mayor of the Palace. York Minster church is burned. Deaths October 22 - Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace... 741 An operational amplifier or op-amp is an electronic circuit module (normally built as an integrated circuit, but occasionally with discrete transistors or vacuum tubes) which has a non-inverting input (+), an inverting input (-) and one output. The output voltage is the difference between the + and - inputs multiplied by the... operational amplifier
  • The 7400 series of TTL integrated circuit SSI devices were historically important as the first widespread family of IC devices. Modern variants of the family are still used today for glue logic. Early 7400 series parts were constructed using bipolar transistors, although most newer sub-series use CMOS technology or... 7400 series A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT), and resistors; it is notable for being the base for the first widespread semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. TTL gained almost universal acceptance after Texas... TTL logic building blocks
  • The 4000 series is the general classification used to refer to the industry standard integrated circuits which implement a variety of logic functions using CMOS technology. They were created in the 1960s as a lower power and more versatile alternative to the 7400 series of TTL logic chips. Almost all... 4000 series, the CMOS (pronounced see-moss) is the name used for a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS chips include microprocessor, microcontroller, static RAM, and other digital logic circuit designs. The central characteristic of the technology is that it only uses significant power when its transistors are switching between on and off... CMOS counterpart to the 7400 series
  • The Intel 4004, a 4-bit CPU, was the worlds first single-chip microprocessor, as well as the first commercial one. At about the same time, some other integrated circuit CPU designs, such as the military F14 CADC of 1970, were implemented as chipsets, i.e. multiple-chip constellations... Intel 4004, the world's first Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). Before the advent of microprocessors, electronic... microprocessor
  • The The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology in 1975. When it was introduced it was the least expensive full featured CPU on the market by far, at about 1/6th the price, or less, of competing designs from larger companies such as Motorola and... MOS Technology 6502 and The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. It was widely used both in desktop and embedded computer designs, and is one of the most popular CPUs of all time. Although Zilog made several attempts to move off the Z80 onto more... Zilog Z80 microprocessors, used in many The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. The home computer became affordable for the general public due to the mass production of the silicon chip... home computers

Notable manufacturers

  • This article or section should include material from Alcatel cellular telephones Alcatel SA (NYSE: ALA) is a French company that makes telecommunications transmission equipment, including multiplexers and fiber optic terminal equipment and integrated circuits. The business is most notably known for its GSM telephones and its ADSL modems, but also... Alcatel
  • For other possible meanings of AMD see AMD (disambiguation) Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) (NYSE: AMD) is a manufacturer of integrated circuits based in Sunnyvale, California. It is the second-largest supplier of x86 compatible processors, and a leading supplier of non-volatile flash memory. It was founded in 1969... AMD
  • Analog Devices is an American multinational producer of semiconductor devices. Analog specialises in ADC, DAC, and signal processing chips for consumer goods. Analogs design rules are in the 1-3 micrometre feature sizes range. The company headquarters are in Norwood, Massachusetts. They have large fabrication plants in the US... Analog Devices
  • Applied Materials, Inc. (NASDAQ: AMAT) is the worlds largest supplier of products and services to the semiconductor industry. The company is headquartered in Santa Clara, California in the Silicon Valley. Founded in 1967 by Michael A. McNeilly and others, Applied Materials went public in 1972. Applied Materials manufactures systems... Applied Materials
  • Atmel Corporation is a manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984. Its products include EEPROM and Flash memory devices, microcontrollers (including 8051 and ARM architectures) and its own Atmel AVR architecture, FPGAs and many others. The President and CEO of Atmel is George Perlegos. His brother, Gust Perlegos, is Vice President... Atmel
  • Agere Systems Inc. is a company that was spun-off from the Microelectronics Group of Lucent Technologies on June 1, 2002. Agere was the name of a Texas-based electronics company that Lucent had acquired in 2000. The company currently develops, integrates and sells optoelectronic and integrated circuit components used... Agere (formerly part of In 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units, along with the famous Bell Laboratories, to form a new company named Lucent Technologies (NYSE: LU). One of the primary reasons for the spinoff was to allow AT&Ts equipment manufacturing business to profit from sales... Lucent, which was formerly part of AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. AT&T provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies. During its long history, AT&T has at times been the worlds... AT&T)
  • Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. In the 1970s Fairchild increasingly turned to high end customers... Fairchild Semiconductor
  • International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. With over 330,000 employees worldwide and revenues of $96 billion (figures from 2004... IBM
  • Infineon Technologies is a German manufacturer of integrated circuits and related products. It was formed from the semiconductor division of Siemens AG in 1999, and went public in 2000. Its headquarters are in Munich, Germany, with major production and R&D sites around the world. In fiscal year 2003... Infineon Technologies
  • The following article is about the multinational corporation; intel is also an abbreviation for intelligence, used in reference to military intelligence and espionage. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC) (founded 1968) is a US-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. Intel also... Intel
  • MOS Technology, Inc., also known as Commodore Semiconductor Group, was a microprocessor and calculator company famous for its 6502 processor. Note that, despite the name similarity, MOS Technology is not the same company as Mostek. Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing some important MOS Technology circuits: the... MOS Technology / MOS Technology, Inc., also known as Commodore Semiconductor Group, was a microprocessor and calculator company famous for its 6502 processor. Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing some important MOS Technology circuits: the 6510 CPU and the 6581 (SID). Company history MOS originally started up to provide a... Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG)
  • American corporation Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. is, as its name indicates, a semiconductor manufacturer. It was created from the semiconductor product sector of Motorola during 2004. Freescale focuses on the embedded and communications markets for their chips. Motorola announced the spinoff on October 6, 2003. Freescale had an IPO on July... Freescale Semiconductor (formerly part of Motorola started as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928. The name of the company was changed to Motorola in 1947, but the word had been used as a trademark since the 1930s. The company is based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. Founder Paul Galvin came up with the name Motorola... Motorola)
  • Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... National Semiconductor
  • NEC Corporation is a multi-national information technologies company headquarterd in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. It is an internet solutions business involved in the manufacture and sales of computers, communications equipment, electronic devices and software, including the Versa notebooks for the international market and the Lavie series for Japanese market... NEC Corporation
  • Company logo Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics), usually known as Philips, is one of the largest consumer electronics producers in the world. In 2003, their sales were €29.0 billion and they employed 164,000 people in more than 60 countries. Philips is organized in a... Philips
  • Established April 1, 2003, Renesas Technology Corp. is a joint venture of Hitachi Ltd. (55%) and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (45%), formed with the purpose of conducting development, design, manufacture, sales and servicing of system LSIs, including microcomputers/microcontrollers logic analog devices as well as discrete devices, and memory products, including... Renesas
  • Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry as TI, is a company based in Dallas, Texas, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. History of Texas Instruments Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott and Henry Bates Peacock, three of... Texas Instruments
  • VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics group. It is the worlds largest independent manufacturer of motherboard chipsets. The company was founded in 1987 from the Symphony Company in Silicon Valley by, among others... VIA Technologies
  • ZiLOG, often seen as Zilog, is a manufacturer of 8-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. Zilog was incorporated in California in 1974 by Federico Faggin, who left Intel after working on the 8080, and the Z80 shared many features with it. After... ZiLOG

See also

  • Computer Engineering (also sometimes called Computer Systems Engineering) is a specialised discipline that combines electrical engineering and computer science. A computer engineer is an electrical engineer with a focus on digital logic systems, and less emphasis on radio frequency or power electronics. From a computer science perspective, a computer engineer... Computer engineering
  • A current mirror is a circuit designed to regulate a current; to keep it constant regardless of loading. Transistor Q1 is connected such that it has a constant current flowing through it; it actually behaves like a forward-biased diode, and the current is determined by the resistance R1. It... Current mirror
  • Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. Its practitioners are called electrical engineers. Electrical engineering is a broad field that encompasses many subfields. Subfields Electrical engineering has many subfields dealing with the various aspects of electromagnetism. Some work directly with... Electrical engineering
  • Electronics is the study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. The pure study of such devices is considered as a branch of physics, while the design and construction of electronic... Electronics
  • In electronics, emitter coupled logic (or ECL) is a design which uses transistors to steer current through gates which compute logical functions. By comparison, TTL and related families use transistors as digital switches, where transistors are either cut off or saturated, depending on the state of the circuit. This distinction... Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)
  • In electronics, a vacuum tube (American English) or (thermionic) valve (British English) is a device generally used to amplify a signal. Once used in most electronic devices, vacuum tubes are now used only in specialized applications. For most purposes, the vacuum tube has been replaced by the much smaller and... Integrated circuit vacuum tube
  • This article or section should be merged with Mixed-signal_circuit A mixed-mode integrated circuit is an integrated circuit with both digital and analog electronics integrated on the same chip (silicon die). The digital and analog parts are usually separated and placed in distinct regions on the die, often using... Mixed-mode integrated circuit
  • A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT), and resistors; it is notable for being the base for the first widespread semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. TTL gained almost universal acceptance after Texas... Transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
  • A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip optimised to control devices. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor, the kind used in a PC. A typical microcontroller contains all the memory and I/O interfaces needed, whereas... Microcontroller
  • Moore's law
  • Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create chips, the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconductor material. Silicon... Semiconductor device fabrication
  • A simulation is an imitation of some real device or state of affairs. Simulation attempts to represent certain features of the behavior of a physical or abstract system by the behavior of another system. Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems, and human systems to... Simulation
  • A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. chip) designed to produce sound (see chiptune). It might be doing this through digital, analog or mixed-mode electronics. Sound chips normally contain things like oscillators, envelope controllers, samplers, filters and amplifiers. Well known sound chips PSGs Atari POKEY MOS Technology... Sound chip
  • External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything)...Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties... May 22... SPICE, In electronics, a hardware description language or HDL is any language from a class of computer languages for formal description of electronic circuits. It can describe circuits operation, its design, and tests to verify its operation by means of simulation. An HDL is a standard text-based expression of... HDL, A ZIF socket ZIF is an acronym for Zero Insertion Force. A normal integrated circuit(IC) socket requires the IC to be pushed into sprung contacts which then grip by friction. For an IC with hundreds of pins, the total insertion force can be very large (the equivalent of several... ZIF, Automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) systems are tools for generating tests for digital circuits after they are produced. Testing very-large-scale integrated circuits with a high fault coverage is a difficult task because of complexity. Different ATPG methods have to be applied to combinatorial and sequential circuits. See also... ATPG

Conferences related to VLSI

  • IEDM - IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting
  • DAC - Design Automation Conference
  • EDS - IEEE EDS Meetings Calendar
  • EDS - IEEE EDS Sponsored, Cosponsored & Topical Conferences
  • CAS - IEEE Circuits and Systems Conferences

VLSI Journals

  • ED - IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
  • EDL - IEEE Electron Device Letters
  • CAD - IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
  • JSSC - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
  • VLSI - IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems
  • CAS II - IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analogy and Digital Signal Processing
  • SM - IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
  • SSE - Solid-State Electronics
  • SST - Solid-State Technology
  • TCAD - Journal of Technology Computer-Aided Design

References

  • Mead, C. and Conway, L. (1980). Introduction to VLSI Systems. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-04358-0.
  • Kang, S. and Leblebici, Y. (2002). CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis & Design. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072460539.
  • Weste, Neil H.E. and Harris, David (2004). CMOS VLSI Design : A Circuits and Systems Perspective. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0321149017.
  • Hodges, D.A., Jackson H.G. and Saleh, R. (2003). Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072283653.
  • Uyemura, John P. (2001). Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems. Wiley. ISBN 0471127043.

Patents

  • US3138743 (http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3138743.WKU.&OS=PN/3138743&RS=PN/3138743) -- Minaturized electronic circuit -- J. S. Kilby
  • US3138747 (http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3138747.WKU.&OS=PN/3138747&RS=PN/3138747) -- Intergrated semiconductor circuit device -- J. S. Kilby
  • US3261081 (http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3261081.WKU.&OS=PN/3261081&RS=PN/3261081) -- Method of making minaturied electronic circuits -- J. S. Kilby
  • US3434015 (http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3434015.WKU.&OS=PN/3434015&RS=PN/3434015) -- Capacitor for minaturied electronic circuits or the like -- J. S. Kilby

  Results from FactBites:
 
silicon: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4953 words)
Silicon of lower purity is used in metallurgy as a reducing agent and as an alloying element in steel, brass, alumiinum, and bronze.
Silicon is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor Germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than almost all other material combinations.
Silicon is commercially prepared by the reaction of high-purity silica with wood, charcoal, and coal, in an electric arc furnace using carbon electrodes.
Howstuffworks "How Semiconductors Work" (1209 words)
Silicon is a very common element -- for example, it is the main element in sand and quartz.
Even though N-type silicon by itself is a conductor, and P-type silicon by itself is also a conductor, the combination shown in the diagram does not conduct any electricity.
The natural progression from silicon to doped silicon to transistors to chips is what has made microprocessors and other electronic devices so inexpensive and ubiquitous in today's society.
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