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Encyclopedia > Silicon Graphics
SGI
Type Public (NASDAQSGIC)
Founded California (1982)
Headquarters Sunnyvale, California, USA
Key people Robert "Bo" Ewald, CEO
Eng Lim Goh, CTO
Kathy A. Lanterman, CFO
Tim Butchart, VP
Barry J. Weinert, VP
Industry Computer hardware and software
Products High-performance computing, visualization and storage
Revenue US $519 million (2006)
Operating income US-$127 million (2006)
Net income US$-146 million (2006)
Employees 1600 (2007)
Slogan Innovation for Results
Website www.sgi.com

Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI, historically sometimes referred to as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems (SGCS)) is a company manufacturing high-performance computing solutions, including computer hardware and software. SGI was founded by Jim Clark and Abbey Silverstone in 1982, initially as a maker of 3D graphics display terminals. SGI’s products, strategies and market positions have varied. Its initial products were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, and derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics. The Geometry Engine was the first VLSI implementation of a geometry pipeline: specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images. NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ... A chief technical officer or chief technology officer (abbreviated as CTO) is an executive position whose holder is focused on scientific and technical issues within a company. ... CFO redirects here. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... It has been suggested that Interactive visualization be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... USD redirects here. ... One million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. ... Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), also known as operating income and operating profit, is a term used to describe a companys earnings. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... This article is about work. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Software redirects here. ... Dr. James H. Clark (born 1944) is a prolific entrepreneur and former computer scientist. ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... Geometry Pipelines, also called Geometry Engines(GE) are the first stage in a classical Graphics Pipeline, such as the Reality Engine. ... Stanford redirects here. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Geometry Pipelines, also called Geometry Engines(GE) are the first stage in a classical Graphics Pipeline, such as the Reality Engine. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ...


SGI was originally incorporated as a California corporation in November 1981, and reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in January 1990. On 8 May 2006, SGI filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from which it emerged on 17 October 2006.[1] SGI is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Delaware corporation is a corporation chartered in the U.S. state of Delaware. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chapter 11 is a chapter of the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - Total 22. ...

Contents

History

Early years

The original SGI logo is still used today as well as the newer "initials" logo.
The original SGI logo is still used today as well as the newer "initials" logo.

Dr. James H. Clark left his position as an electrical engineering associate professor at Stanford University to found SGI in 1982 along with a group of seven graduate students and research staff from Stanford: Kurt Akeley, David J. Brown, Tom Davis, Rocky Rhodes, Marc Hannah, Herb Kuta, and Mark Grossman; Abbey Silverstone - a former manufacturing executive at Xerox; and a few others. The Mayfield Fund venture capital group supplied the initial funding. Image File history File links Silicon Graphics logo. ... Image File history File links Silicon Graphics logo. ... Dr. James H. Clark (born 1944) is a prolific entrepreneur and former computer scientist. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Kurt Akeley is a computer graphics engineer. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Mayfield Fund is a venture capital firm located on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California, home to many of Silicon Valleys leading venture capital firms. ... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ...


Motorola 680x0-based systems

SGI's first generation products included the Integrated Raster Imaging System (IRIS 1000) series of high-performance graphics terminals, based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor with a motherboard design related to the Sun-1 workstation, and incorporating a Multibus and ethernet. The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-Bit [1] CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... The name Sun-1 refers to the first generation of UNIX computer workstations and servers produced by Sun Microsystems, launched in 1982. ... Multibus is a computer bus standard used in industrial systems. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ...


IRIS 1000 series

The first entries in the 1000 series (models 1000 and 1200, introduced in 1984) were graphics terminals, peripherals to be connected to a general-purpose computer such as a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX, to provide graphical raster display abilities. They used 8MHz Motorola 68000 CPUs with 768KB of RAM and had no disk drives; they booted over the network (via an Excelan EXOS/101 ethernet card) from their controlling computer. They used the "PM1" CPU board, which was a variant of the Stanford University "SUN" board that was the basis of the Sun-1 workstation. The graphics system was composed of the GF1 Frame buffer, the UC3 "Update Controller", DC3 "Display Controller", and the BP2 bitplane. Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... Look up raster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Disk Drive is the afternoon show on CBC Radio Two. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. ...


Later 1000-series machines, the 1400 and 1500, ran at 10MHz and had 1.5MB of RAM. The 1400 had a 73MB ST-506 disk drive, while the 1500 had a 474MB SMD-based disk drive. They may have used the PM2 CPU and PM2M1 RAM board from the 2000 series. The usual monitor for the 1000 series ran at 30Hz interlaced. The ST-506 was the first hard disk intended for use specifically on microcomputers, introduced in 1980 by Seagate Technology. ... Interlacing is a method of displaying images on a raster-scanned display device, such as a cathode ray tube (CRT). ...


IRIS 2000 and 3000 series

SGI rapidly evolved its machines into workstations with its second product line — the IRIS 2000 series. SGI began using the UNIX System V operating system. There were five models in two product ranges, the 2000/2200/2300/2400/2500 range which used 68010 CPUs (the PM2 CPU module), and the later "Turbo" systems, the 2300T, 2400T and 2500T, which had 68020's (the IP2 CPU module). All used the Excelan EXOS/201 ethernet card, the same graphics hardware (GF2 Frame Buffer, UC4 Update Controller, DC4 Display Controller, BP3 Bitplane). Their main differences were the CPU, RAM, and Weitek Floating Point Accelerator boards, disk controllers and disk drives (both ST-506 and SMD were available). These could be upgraded, for example from a 2400 to a 2400T. The 2500 and 2500T had a larger chassis, a standard 6' 19" EIA rack with space at the bottom for two SMD disk drives weighing approximately 150 lb each[2]. The non-Turbo models used the Multibus for the CPU to communicate with the floating point accelerator, while the Turbos added a ribbon cable dedicated for this. 60 Hz monitors were used for the 2000 series. It has been suggested that Traditional Unix be merged into this article or section. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 [1]. It is largely similar to the Motorola 68000 CPU with the exception of the addition of several instructions for breakpoint and register control (ccr instead of sr), as well as the ability to save... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Weitek Corporation was a former chip-design company that originally concentrated on floating point units for a number of commercial CPU designs. ... A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU). ... The ST-506 was the first hard disk intended for use specifically on microcomputers, introduced in 1980 by Seagate Technology. ... Storage Module Device (SMD) was a family of storage devices (hard disk drives) first shipped by Control Data Corporation in December 1973 as the 9760 40 MByte (unformatted) storage module disk drive[1] . The 9762 80 MByte variant was announced in June 1974[1] and the 9764 150 MByte & the... Multibus is a computer bus standard used in industrial systems. ...


The height of the machines using Motorola CPUs was reached with the IRIS 3000 series (somewhere around 1989, models 3010/3020/3030 and 3110/3115/3120/3130, the 30's both being full-size rack machines). They used the same graphics subsystem and ethernet as the 2000's, but could also use up to 12 "geometry engines", the first widespread use of hardware graphics accelerators. The standard monitor was a 19" 60 Hz non-interlaced unit with a tilt/swivel base; 19" 30 Hz interlaced and a 15" 60 Hz non-interlaced (with tilt/swivel base) were also available.


The IRIS 3130 and its smaller siblings were impressive for the time, being complete UNIX workstations. The 3130 was powerful enough to support a complete 3D animation and rendering package without mainframe support. With large capacity hard drives by standards of the day (two 300 MB drives), streaming tape and ethernet, it could be the centerpiece of an animation operation. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


The line was formally discontinued in 1989, with about 3500 systems shipped of all 2000 and 3000 models combined.


RISC era

With the introduction of the IRIS 4D series, SGI switched to using the MIPS Computer Systems RISC microprocessor architecture. These machines were more powerful, able to address more memory and came with powerful on-board math capability. They made much of the SGI name, as 3D graphics became more popular on television and film. MIPS Technologies, formerly MIPS Computer Systems, is most widely known for developing the MIPS architecture and a series of pioneering RISC CPUs. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ...


SGI produced a broad range of MIPS-based workstations and servers during the 1990s, running SGI's version of UNIX System V, now called IRIX. These included the massive Onyx visualization systems, the size of refrigerators and capable of supporting up to 64 processors while managing up to three streams of high resolution, fully realized 3D graphics. IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ...


In 1992, MIPS released the first 64-bit MIPS microprocessor, the R4000, which was the first commercially released 64-bit RISC microprocessor (a market soon joined by Digital's Alpha chip and others). IRIX 6.2 was the first fully 64-bit IRIX release, including 64-bit pointers. In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp...


In August 2006, SGI announced the end of production for MIPS/IRIX systems[3]. As of 29 December 2006, MIPS/IRIX products are no longer generally available from SGI.


IRIS GL and OpenGL

Until the second generation Onyx Reality Engine machines, SGI offered access to its high performance 3D graphics subsystems through a proprietary API known as ‘IRIS Graphics Language’ (IRIS GL). As more features were added over the years, IRIS GL became harder to maintain and cumbersome to use. In 1992, SGI decided to clean up and reform IRIS GL and made the bold move of allowing the resulting OpenGL API to be cheaply licensed by SGI's competitors, and set up an industry-wide consortium to maintain the OpenGL standard (the OpenGL Architecture Review Board). API and Api redirect here. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 3D computer graphics (and 2D computer graphics as well). ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ...


This meant that for the first time, fast, efficient, cross-platform graphics programs could be written. To this day, OpenGL remains the only real-time 3D graphics standard to be portable across a variety of operating systems. Its main competitor ('Direct3D' from Microsoft) runs only on Microsoft Windows-based machines, Sega Dreamcast and Xbox consoles. Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... Windows redirects here. ... The Dreamcast , code-named Dural, Dricas and Katana during development) is Segas fifth and final video game console and the successor to the Sega Saturn. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ...


ACE Consortium

SGI was part of the early-90s Advanced Computing Environment initiative with 20 others, including Compaq, Digital Equipment Corporation, MIPS Computer Systems, Groupe Bull, Siemens, NEC, NeTpower, Microsoft and Santa Cruz Operation to introduce workstations based on the MIPS architecture and able to run Windows NT and SCO UNIX. The group produced the Advanced RISC Computing or ARC specification. The consortium fell apart, apparently for political reasons. The Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) was defined by an industry consortium in the early 1990s to be the next generation commodity computing platform after DOS-based Personal Computers. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... MIPS Technologies, formerly MIPS Computer Systems, is most widely known for developing the MIPS architecture, a series of pioneering RISC CPUs. ... Groupe Bull (also known as Bull Computer or, informally, as Bull) is a French computer company based in Paris. ... Siemens redirects here. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) was a software company based in Santa Cruz, California that was best known for selling three Unix variants for Intel x86 processors: Xenix, SCO UNIX (later known as SCO OpenServer), and UnixWare. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Tarantella, Inc. ... An ARC console screen on an Alpha AXP system Advanced RISC Computing is a specification promulgated by a defunct consortium of computer manufacturers (the Advanced Computing Environment project), setting forth a standard MIPS RISC-based computer hardware and firmware environment. ...


Entertainment industry

An SGI computer with the FSN three-dimensional file system navigator appeared in the 1993 movie Jurassic Park. One hallmark of this scene is Lex's line, “This is a Unix system. I know this.” This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ...


In the movie Twister, the heroes can be seen using an SGI laptop, however the unit seen was not an actual working computer. An SGI monitor can be seen in the 2001 cyber thriller Swordfish while Stanley Jobson (Hugh Jackman) compiles a hydra computer worm. Other on-screen credit includes Disclosure (Michael Douglas and Demi Moore) and Lost In Space (William Hurt). Twister is a 1996 disaster film starring Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton as storm chasers researching tornadoes. ... Swordvag1na (sometimes referred to as Password: Swordvag1na or Operation: Swordvag1na) is an action/thriller film. ... Disclosure is a 1994 thriller based on Michael Crichtons novel of the same name. ...


Once inexpensive PCs began to have graphics performance close to the more expensive specialized graphical workstations (which were SGI's core business), SGI concentrated on its high performance server capabilities, offering servers for digital video and the Web. Many SGI graphics engineers have left to work at other computer graphics companies like ATI and NVIDIA, contributing to the PC 3D graphics revolution. Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... ATI redirects here. ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ...


Name and logo changes

In response to these market changes, Silicon Graphics Inc. changed its corporate identity to “SGI” in an attempt to clarify their current market position as more than a graphics company, although its legal name was unchanged.


At the same time in 1999, SGI announced a new logo — simply the letters “sgi” in a stylized lowercase font and a proprietary typeface called “SGI”, created by branding and design consulting firm Landor Associates, in collaboration with designer Joe Stitzlein. The new logo drew criticism for wasting the professional goodwill associated with the previous box-outline logo. SGI later re-adopted the cube logo, and now uses both logos. Landor Associates is a San Francisco-based brand and creative design consultancy. ...


Acquisition of Alias, Wavefront, Cray and Intergraph

In 1995, SGI purchased Alias Research and Wavefront Technologies and merged the companies into Alias|Wavefront, now known as Alias Systems Corporation. Later, in June 2004, SGI sold Alias to the private equity investment firm Accel-KKR for $57.1 million. On October 4, 2005, Autodesk, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADSK) announced that it signed a definitive agreement to acquire Alias for $182 million in cash. Wavefront was a computer graphics company started by Bill Kovacs and Roy Hall, and developed the Wavefront Advanced Visualizer computer graphics system. ... Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront), headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a software company that produces high-end 3D graphics software. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


In February 1996, SGI purchased the well-known supercomputer manufacturer Cray Research for $740 million [4], and began to use marketing names such as “CrayLink” for (SGI-developed) technology integrated into the SGI server line. Three months later, it sold the SPARC/Solaris part of the Cray business to Sun Microsystems for an undisclosed amount (widely believed to be $50 million). Many of the Cray T3E engineers designed and developed the SGI Altix and NUMAlink technology. SGI sold the Cray brand and product lines to Tera Computer Company on March 31, 2000 for $35 million plus one million shares[1]. SGI also distributed its remaining interest in MIPS Technologies through a spin-off effective June 20, 2000. For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... Cray-2 supercomputer Cray Inc. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The Cray T3E was a massively parallel supercomputer sold by Cray Research from 1995. ... Altix is Silicon Graphicss line of servers and supercomputers. ... NUMAlink is a high-speed low-latency switched fabric computer bus used as a shared memory computer cluster processor interconnection in Silicon Graphics computer systems. ... Tera Computer Company Founded in 1987 in Washington, DC, by James Rottsolk and Burton Smith. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


In September 2000, SGI acquired the Zx10 series of Windows workstations and servers from Intergraph Computer Systems. These models were rebadged as SGI systems, but discontinued in June 2001. Intergraph was founded in 1969 as M&S Computing, Inc. ...


Late 1990s and recent developments

Another attempt by SGI in the late 1990s to introduce its own family of Intel-based workstations running Windows NT (see also SGI Visual Workstation) proved to be a financial disaster, and shook customer confidence in SGI’s commitment to its own MIPS-based line. Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ...


SGI has also been a big booster of free software, supporting several projects (such as Linux and Samba) and providing some previously proprietary code (such as XFS) to the free software world. Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Samba logo. ... XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics for their IRIX operating system. ...


Switch to Itanium

In 1998, SGI announced that future generations of its machines would be based not on their own MIPS processors, but the new “super-chip” from Intel, the Itanium. Funding for its own high-end processors was constrained, and it was planned that the R10000 would be the last MIPS mainstream processor. MIPS would focus entirely on the embedded market, where it was having some success, and SGI would no longer have to fund development of a CPU that, since the failure of ARC, found use only in their own machines. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ...


But this plan quickly went awry. As early as 1999 it was clear the Itanium was going to be delivered very late, and then that it would have nowhere near the performance originally expected. As the production delays increased, MIPS's existing R10000-based machines grew increasingly uncompetitive. Eventually it was forced to introduce faster MIPS processors, the R12000, R14000 and R16000, which were used in a series of models from 2002 until 2006.


SGI's first Itanium-based system was the short-lived SGI 750 workstation, launched in 2001. SGI's MIPS-based systems were not to be superseded until the launch of the Itanium 2-based Altix servers and Prism workstations some time later. Unlike the MIPS systems, these models used GNU/Linux (SuSE Linux Enterprise Server with SGI enhancements) as their operating system instead of IRIX. SGI uses Transitive Corporation's QuickTransit software to allow their old MIPS/IRIX applications to run (in emulation) on the new Itanium/Linux platform. Itanium 2 logo The Itanium 2 is an IA-64 64-bit microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Intel, and introduced on July 8, 2002. ... Altix is Silicon Graphicss line of servers and supercomputers. ... A SGI Prism computer is essentially a SGI Altix with ATI graphics, often using the ATI 350 or 420 Chipset. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... SUSE (pronounced IPA: , properly (in German), ZOO-za, loosely SOO-sa [1] in English) is a major retail Linux distribution, produced in Germany and owned by Novell, Inc. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... The Transitive Corporation provided the engine used in Apples Rosetta software, which translates software for Apple machines using PowerPC processors so it can run on Intel-based Macintoshes, the engine is based on Transitive Corporations QuickTransit software. ... QuickTransit is dynamic binary translation software developed by Transitive Corporation. ...


In the server space the Itanium 2-based Altix eventually replaced the MIPS-based Origin product line. In the workstation space, the switch to Itanium was not completed before SGI exited this market.


The Altix was the most powerful computer in the world in 2006, if a "computer" is defined as a collection of hardware running under a single instance of an operating system. The Altix had 512 Itanium processors running under a single instance of Linux. A cluster of 20 machines was then the eighth fastest supercomputer. All faster supercomputers were clusters, but none have as many FLOPS per machine. However, more recent supercomputers are massive clusters of machines that are individually less capable. SGI acknowledged this and in 2007 moved away from the "massive NUMA" model to efficient clusters. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ...


Switch to Xeon

Although SGI continues to market Itanium-based machines, its more recent machines are based on the Intel Xeon processor. The first Altix XE systems were relatively low-end machines, but by December 2006 the XE systems were more capable than the Itanium machines by some measures (e.g., power consumption in FLOP/W, density in FLOP/m3, cost/FLOP). The XE1200 and XE1300 servers use a cluster architecture. This is a departure from the pure NUMA architectures of the earlier Itanium and MIPS servers. This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ...


in June 2007, SGI announced the Altix ICE 8200.[5] This is a blade-based Xeon system with up to 512 Xeon cores per rack. An Altix ICE 8200 installed at New Mexico Computing Applications Center (with 14336 processors) ranked at number 3 on the TOP500 list of November 2007. The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ...


Decline

The addition of 3D graphic capabilities to PCs, and the ability of clusters of Linux and *BSD-based PCs to take on many of the tasks of larger SGI servers has eaten into SGI's core markets. The porting of Maya to Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows has further eroded the low end of SGI's product line. A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows redirects here. ...


And, SGI's premature announcement of its migration from MIPS to Itanium (still uncompleted as of 2006, but announced to be by December) and its abortive ventures into IA-32 architecture systems (the Visual Workstation line, the ex-Intergraph Zx10 range and the SGI 1000-series Linux servers) damaged SGI's credibility in the market. The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ...


In November 2005, SGI announced that it had been delisted from the New York Stock Exchange because its common stock had fallen below the minimum share price for listing on the exchange. SGI's market capitalization dwindled from a peak of over seven billion dollars in 1995 to just $120 million at the time of delisting. In February 2006, SGI announced that it may run out of cash by the end of the year, forcing a sale of the company or even bankruptcy.[6] The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


Re-emergence

In mid-2005, SGI hired Alix Partners to advise it on returning to profitability and received a new line of credit.


In November 2005, SGI stock was delisted from the NYSE and began trading as an over-the-counter stock. SGI announced it was postponing its scheduled annual December stockholders meeting until March 2006, to include a proposal for a reverse stock split in the range of 1-for-10 to 1-for-20. New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or derivatives directly between two parties. ...


In January 2006, SGI hired Dennis McKenna as its new CEO and chairman of the board of directors. Mr McKenna succeeded Robert Bishop, who remained vice chairman of the board of directors.


On 8 May 2006, SGI announced that it had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for itself and US subsidiaries as part of a plan to reduce debt by $250 million.[7] Two days later, the US Bankruptcy Court approved its first day motions and its use of a $70 million financing facility provided by a group of its bondholders. Foreign subsidiaries were unaffected. Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code governs the process of reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. ...


In a press release on 6th September 2006, SGI announced the end of development for the MIPS/IRIX line and the IRIX operating system. Production would end on 29th December and the last orders would be fulfilled by March 2007. Support for these products would end after December 2013. 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


SGI emerged from bankruptcy protection on 17 October, 2006.[8] Its stock symbol SGID.pk was canceled, and its stock is now traded under the symbol SGIC.[9] This new stock was distributed to the company's creditors, and the SGID common stockholders were left with worthless shares.[10] is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


SGI also moved its headquarters from Mountain View to Sunnyvale[11] at the time of this reorganization. Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - Total 22. ...


User base and core market

Conventional wisdom holds that SGI's core market has traditionally been Hollywood visual effects studios. In fact, SGI's largest revenue has always been generated by government and defense applications, energy, and scientific and technical computing. The rise of cheap yet powerful commodity workstations running Linux, Windows and Mac OS X, and the availability of diverse professional software for them, effectively pushed SGI out of the visual effects industry in all but the most niche markets, as studios have adopted the newer, cheaper technology. There are some tasks in modeling, animation, visual effects creation, video compositing, post-processing, broadcasting, and other areas related to computer graphics where a Silicon Graphics Altix server or Tezro workstation may outshine the x86 competitor. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... 1. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


High-end server market

In recent years, SGI has continued to enhance its line of servers (including some supercomputers) based on the SN architecture. SN, for Scalable Node, is a technology developed by SGI in the mid-1990s, that uses cache-coherent non-uniform memory access (CC-NUMA). In an SN system, processors, memory, and a bus- and memory-controller are coupled together into an entity called a node, usually on a single circuit board. Nodes are connected by a high-speed interconnect called a NUMAlink (originally CrayLink). There is no internal bus, and instead access between processors, memory, and I/O devices is done through a switched fabric of links and routers. For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ... NUMAlink is a high-speed low-latency switched fabric computer bus used as a shared memory computer cluster processor interconnection in Silicon Graphics computer systems. ... NUMAlink is a high-speed low-latency switched fabric computer bus used as a computer cluster processor interconnection system. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers, and a bus typically is controlled by device driver software. ... This article is about the computer interface. ... Switched Fabric is a Fibre Channel topology where many devices connect with each other via Fibre Channel switches. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ...


Thanks to the cache-coherence of the distributed shared memory, SN systems scale along several axes at once: as CPU count increases, so does memory capacity, I/O capacity, and system bisection bandwidth. This allows the combined memory of all the nodes to be accessed under a single OS image using standard shared-memory synchronization methods. This makes an SN system far easier to program and able to achieve higher sustained-to-peak performance than non-cache-coherent systems like conventional clusters or massively parallel computers which require applications code to be written (or re-written) to do explicit message-passing communication between their nodes. In computer networking, bisection bandwidth is the sum of the bandwidth of the minimum number of channels which, if removed, would partition the network into two sub-graphs. ... Look up OS, Os, os in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Linux Cluster at Purdue University A computer cluster is a group of locally connected computers that work together as a unit. ... Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain faster results. ... In computer science, message passing is a form of communication used in concurrent programming, parallel programming, object-oriented programming, and interprocess communication. ...


The first SN system, known as SN-0, was released in 1996 under the product name Origin 2000. Based on the MIPS R10000 processor, it scaled from 2 to 128 processors and a smaller version, the Origin 200 (SN-00), scaled from 1 to 4. Later enhancements enabled systems of as large as 512 processors. A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ...


The second generation system, originally called SN-1 but later SN-MIPS, was released in July 2000, as Origin 3000. It scaled from 4 to 512 processors, and 1,024-processor configurations were delivered by special order to some customers. A smaller, less scalable implementation followed, called Origin 300.


In November 2002, SGI announced a repackaging of its SN system, under the name Origin 3900. It quadrupled the processor area density of the SN-MIPS system, from 32 up to 128 processors per rack while moving to a “fat tree” interconnect topology. The Fat-Tree network, invented by Charles Leiserson of MIT, is a universal network for provably efficient communication. ...


In January 2003, SGI announced a variant of the SN platform called the Altix 3000 (internally called SN-IA). It used Intel Itanium 2 processors and ran the Linux operating system kernel. At the time it was released, it was the world's most scalable Linux-based computer, supporting up to 64 processors in a single system node[12]. Nodes could be connected using the same NUMAlink technology to form what SGI predictably termed “superclusters”. Altix is Silicon Graphicss line of servers and supercomputers. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... NUMAlink is a high-speed low-latency switched fabric computer bus used as a shared memory computer cluster processor interconnection in Silicon Graphics computer systems. ...


In February 2004, SGI announced general support for 128 processor nodes to be followed by 256 and 512 processor versions that year. In April 2004, SGI announced the selling of Alias for approximately $57 million. Press release.


In October 2004, SGI built the supercomputer Columbia for the NASA Ames Research Center, which broke the world record for computer speed. It was a cluster of 20 Altix supercomputers each with 512 Intel Itanium 2 processors running Linux, and achieved sustained speed of 42.7 trillion floating-point operations per second (teraflops), easily topping Japan's famed Earth Simulator, of 35.86 teraflops. But about a week later IBM's upgraded Blue Gene/L clocked in at 70.7 teraflops. As of November 2005, Columbia ranked No. 4, behind Blue Gene/L (now achieving 280.6 teraflops), a smaller Blue Gene, and ASC Purple, all built by IBM. Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Altix is Silicon Graphicss line of servers and supercomputers. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... The Earth Simulator (ES) was the fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... This article is about the supercomputer. ... ASC Purple is a supercomputer that is installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. The computer is a collaboration between IBM Corporation and Lawrence Livermore Lab. ...


In July 2006, SGI announced an SGI Altix 4700 system with 1,024 processors and 4 TB of memory running a single Linux system image. Press release This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ...


Product line

Current products

Itanium-based systems

  • Altix 450 mid-range server
  • Altix 4000 high-end server

2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ...

x86-64-based systems

  • Altix XE210 server
  • Altix XE240 server
  • Altix XE310 server
  • Altix XE1200 cluster
  • Altix XE1300 cluster
  • Altix ICE 8200

The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...

Past products

These are no longer being manufactured. SGI still sells some of them as "remarketed" (i.e., used) products.


Some 68k and MIPS-based models were also rebadged by other vendors, including CDC, Tandem Computers, Prime Computer and Siemens-Nixdorf. Badge engineering is a term that describes the rebadging of one model of car as another. ... Control Data Corporation (CDC), was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms. ... Tandem Computers was an early manufacturer of fault tolerant computer systems, marketed to the growing number of transaction processing customers who used them for ATMs, banks, stock exchanges and other similar needs. ... Prime Computer was a Natick, Massachusetts-based producer of minicomputers from 1972 until 1992. ... Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, AG (SNI), was a separate company within Siemens until the late 1990s, and was the largest IT company in Europe. ...


Motorola 68k-based systems

  • IRIS 1000 series graphics terminals (diskless 1000/1200, 1400/1500 with disks)
  • IRIS 2000 series workstations (2000/2200/2300/2400/2500 non-Turbo and 2300T/2400T/2500T "Turbo" models)
  • IRIS 3000 series workstations (3010/3020/3030 and 3110/3115/3120/3130)

MIPS-based systems

Workstations

Crimson is an older SGI system released in the early 1990s. ... An SGI Indigo The SGI Indigo was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI beginning in 1990. ... An SGI Indigo2 IMPACT R10000 The SGI Indigo2 and the SGI Challenge M were UNIX machines marketed by SGI from 1993 to 1997. ... An SGI Indy running Linux The Indy was the fruit of SGIs effort to muscle into the market for desktop publishing, low-end CAD, and multimedia. ... An SGI O2 (1996) SGI O2 Workstation The O2 is an entry-level Unix workstation introduced in 1996 by Silicon Graphics (SGI) to replace their earlier Indy series. ... SGI Octane2 (2000-2004). ... SGI Octane2 (2000-2004). ... // Overview The SGI O2s direct successor was the SGI Fuel, a high-end workstation primarily based around a single R14000 MIPS CPU. SGI introduced the Fuel in January 2002 with a list price of US$11,495. ... An SGI Tezro The SGI Tezro is the most recently released (as of January, 2005) high-end workstation available from SGI, and is the immediate sucessor to the SGI Octane. ...

Servers

An SGI Indy running Linux The Indy was the fruit of SGIs effort to muscle into the market for desktop publishing, low-end CAD, and multimedia. ... An SGI Indigo2 IMPACT R10000 The SGI Indigo2 and the SGI Challenge M were UNIX machines marketed by SGI from 1993 to 1997. ... The SGI Origin 350 computer system uses MIPS-based processors. ...

Visualisation
  • Onyx (deskside and rackmount systems)
  • Power Onyx (deskside and rackmount systems)
  • Onyx 10000 (deskside and rackmount systems)
  • Onyx2 (deskside and rackmount systems)
  • Onyx 350 (rackmount systems)
  • Onyx 3000 (rackmount systems)
  • Onyx4 (rackmount systems)

The SGI Onyx is a series of visualisation systems designed and manufactured by SGI, introduced in 1993 and offered in two models, deskside and rackmount. ...

Intel IA-32-based systems

Workstations

The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ... The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ... The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ... The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ... The SGI Visual Workstation series was a line of computer workstations manufactured by SGI and designed to run Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux. ...

Servers
  • SGI Zx10 Server (Windows)
  • SGI 1100 server (Linux/Windows)
  • SGI 1200 server (Linux/Windows)
  • SGI 1400 server (Linux/Windows)
  • SGI 1450 server (Linux/Windows)
  • SGI Internet Server (Linux)
  • SGI Internet Server for E-commerce (Linux)
  • SGI Internet Server for Messaging (Linux)

Itanium-based systems

Workstations
  • SGI 750 workstation

Servers

Industry-leading performance and price in a Linux® mid-range server SGI Altix 350 is a powerhouse mid-range server that offers SGIs industry-leading Altix® architecture at a breakthrough price point. ...

Visualisation

A SGI Prism computer is essentially a SGI Altix with ATI graphics, often using the ATI 350 or 420 Chipset. ...

References

  1. ^ SGI Emerges Lean, Focused and Ready to Grow. SGI Web site. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  2. ^ http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/sgi/iris/IRIS_FAQ.txt
  3. ^ End of General Availability for MIPS® IRIX® Products at sgi.com.
  4. ^ David Einstein, Could SGI Be A Takeover Target? Forbes, March 2000.
  5. ^ SGI (2007-06-26). "SGI Unveils Ultra-Dense SGI Altix ICE Blade Platform Purpose-Built for High-Performance Computing". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  6. ^ SGI's Future Could Include Bankruptcy, Sale. Extremetech, February 2006.
  7. ^ Patrick Fitzgerald. Silicon Graphics Seeks Chapter 11 As Sales Decline Wall Street Journal, 2006. (subscription required)
  8. ^ SGI Emerges Lean, Focused and Ready to Grow. SGI press release, 2006.
  9. ^ SGI Common Stock to Begin Trading on NASDAQ Under "SGIC". SGI Press release, October 2006.
  10. ^ SGI Files Plan of Reorganization and Disclosure Statement. SGI Press release, July 2006.
  11. ^ Vance, Ashlee. "SGI hermit crabs over to Sunnyvale", The Register, Silicon Graphics, Inc., 2007-01-12. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  12. ^ Scaling Linux to New Heights: the SGI Altix 3000 System Linux Journal, January 2003

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... During the SCOforum 2003, The SCO Group (SCO) showed several examples of illegal copying of copyrighted code in Linux. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics for their IRIX operating system. ...

External links

Official SGI Information

General Unofficial SGI Information

For the formal concept of computation, see computation. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... High Tech Computer Corporation (TSEC: 2498), known by its acronym HTC, is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of Microsoft Windows CE portable devices. ... Motorola Inc. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... Palm, Inc. ... Qualcomm (NASDAQ: QCOM) is a wireless telecommunications research and development company based in San Diego, California. ... Research In Motion Limited (RIM) (TSX: RIM, NASDAQ: RIMM) is a Canadian wireless device company. ... SAGEM (Société d’Applications Générales de l’Electricité et de la Mécanique, translated to Company of General Applications of Electricity and Mechanics) was a major French company involved in defence electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems. ... For an arrangement of Sony Ericsson products, see list of Sony Ericsson products Sony Ericsson is a joint venture established in 2001 by the Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation and the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson to make mobile phones. ... Conglomerate is the term used to describe a large company which consists of divisions of often seemingly unrelated businesses. ... GE redirects here. ... It has been suggested that HCL Technologies and HCL Infosystems be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... LG Electronics (KRXS: 066570, LSE:LGLD) is a South Korean multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest electronics companies. ... Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... NCR Corporation (NYSE: NCR) is a technology company specializing in solutions for the retail and financial industries. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Samsung Electronics (SEC, Hangul:삼성전자; KRXS: 005930, KRXS: 005935, LSE: SMSN, LSE: SMSD) is the worlds largest electronics and information technology company[1], headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... This article is about the media and entertainment company. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... 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BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (pronounced Bee tee) (also previously as British Telecom and is still commonly known as such amongst the general public) is the privatised UK state telecommunications operator. ... Capgemini (Euronext: CAP) is a major French company, one of the worlds largest information technology, management consulting, outsourcing and professional services companies with a staff of 75,000 operating in 30 countries. ... CGI Group Inc. ... Cognizant redirects here. ... CSCs headquarters in El Segundo CSCs branch office in HITEC City Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) NYSE: CSC is an information technology (IT) and business services company headquartered in El Segundo, California, USA. Its stated mission is to help clients achieve strategic goals and profit from the use of... Compuware World Headquarters on Campus Martius Park in Detroit Compuware Corporation NASDAQ: CPWR is a software company with products aimed at the information technology (IT) departments of large businesses. ... Deloitte & Touche (also referred to as Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, and branded as Deloitte. ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) (NYSE: EDS, LSE: EDC) is a global business and technology services company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... First Data Corporation (NYSE: FDC) is a payment processing company based in Greenwood Village, Colorado. ... Fujitsu Consulting is a consulting company based in Edison, New Jersey. ... Getronics N.V. (Euronext: GTN) is an international Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Company focused on Workspace Management Services, including Application Services. ... HCL Technologies is one of the leading global technology and IT enterprises that offers product engineering, technology and application services, BPO, infrastructure services, IT hardware, systems integration, and distribution of technology and telecom products in India. ... HP Technology Solutions (or HP TSG) is a consulting firm that branched off from Hewlett-Packard. ... IBM Global Services is the worlds largest business and technology services provider. ... i-flex solutions limited is an India based IT company that produces software for the financial services industry. ... Indra Sistemas is the leading Spanish Information Technology and Defense Systems company. ... Infosys Software Development Center in Pune. ... Keane (KEA) is a technology firm focused upon outsourcing. ... LogicaCMG is a telecommunications and IT consultancy company. ... Orange Business Services (formerly Equant) is a subsidiary of France Télécom and provides network and information technology business services in over 220 countries and territories. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Perot Systems Corporation NYSE: PER is an information technology services provider based in Plano, Texas. ... Science Applications International Corporation Science Applications International Corporation (usually known as SAIC) is the largest employee-owned research and engineering firm in the United States. ... Sapient NASDAQ: SAPE helps clients innovate their businesses in the areas of marketing, business operations, and technology”. Sapient has a reputation of tackling complex initiatives in the consulting industry like: helping MIT create a new model for making course material available globally, working with the US Marine Corps on their... Satyam Computer Services Ltd. ... 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A rising star on the horizon and a niche specialist partner for the Automotive, Semiconductor & F&A BPO industry , KPIT Cummins Infosystems was recently chosen as a leader in global outsourcing (#38) by the International Association of Outsourcing Professionals (May 07). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... EMC Corporation (NYSE: EMC) is an American manufacturer of software and systems for information management and storage. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Maxtor Corporation was an American manufacturer of computer hard disk drives founded in 1982 and acquired by Seagate in 2006. ... Network Appliance, Inc. ... Samsung Electronics (SEC, Hangul:삼성전자; KRXS: 005930, KRXS: 005935, LSE: SMSN, LSE: SMSD) is the worlds largest electronics and information technology company[1], headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. ... 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Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. ... Freescale sign Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... Hynix Semiconductor Inc. ... For the raceway, see Infineon Raceway. ... Intel redirects here. ... Micron Technology (Micron) NYSE: MU is a multinational company based in Boise, Idaho, USA, best known for producing many forms of semiconductor devices. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ... For other uses of NXP, see NXP (disambiguation). ... Qimonda AG (NYSE: QI), (pronounced key-MON-duh) is the new memory company split out of Infineon Technologies AG on May 1, 2006, to form the third largest DRAM company worldwide, according to the industry research firm Gartner Dataquest. ... Renesas Technology Corporation ) is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer. ... ROHM Co. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (Traditional Chinese: 台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司, abbrev. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... Software redirects here. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... CA, Inc. ... Electronic Arts (EA) (NASDAQ: ERTS) is an American developer, marketer, publisher, and distributor of computer and video games. ... Intuit Inc. ... McAfee, Inc. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For the video game system, see Nintendo Entertainment System. ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is one of the major companies developing database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development, middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) software. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... SAP AG (ISIN: DE0007164600, FWB: SAP, NYSE: SAP) is the largest European software enterprise and the third largest in the world, with headquarters in Walldorf, Germany. ... Symantec Corporation NASDAQ: SYMC, founded in 1982, is an international corporation which sells computer software, particularly in the realms of security and information management. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... For other uses, see 3 (disambiguation). ... América Móvil (NYSE: AMX, BMV: AMX, NASDAQ: AMOV) is the largest mobile network operator in Germano America and Latin America and the largest corporation in Latin America. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... For the information technology, see Airtel (FBI). ... Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL, India Communications Corporation Limited) is a public sector communications company in India. ... BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (pronounced Bee tee) (also previously as British Telecom and is still commonly known as such amongst the general public) is the privatised UK state telecommunications operator. ... For other uses, see Cablevision (disambiguation). ... Comcast Corporation (NASDAQ: CMCSA) is the largest cable television company and the second largest Internet service provider in the United States. ... DTAG corporate headquarters, Bonn Deutsche Telekom AG (ISIN: DE0005557508, FWB: DTE, NYSE: DT, LSE: DEU, TYO: 9496) (English translation: German Telecom) (abbreviated DTAG) is a telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn, Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... France Télécom (Euronext: FTE, NYSE: FTE) (often spelled France Telecom, without the accents, in non-French text) is the main telecommunication company in France. ... Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (日本電信電話 Nippon Denshin Denwa) is a telephone company that dominates the telecommunication market in Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... RCN Corporation, (NASDAQ: RCNI), founded in 1997 and based in Herndon, Virginia, is the first and largest American facilities-based competitive provider of bundled telephone, cable television and high speed Internet service delivered over its own fiber-optic local network to consumers in the Boston, New York, Eastern Pennsylvania, Washington... Rogers Communications Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sprint Nextel Corporation (NYSE: S) is one of the largest telecommunications companies in the US. With 55 million subscribers, Sprint Nextel operates the third largest wireless telecommunications network in the United States (based on total wireless customers), behind AT&T and Verizon Wireless. ... Swisscom AG is the leading telephone company in Switzerland. ... Telecom Italia is formerly a partially state-owned Italian telco. ... Telefónica, S.A., (IBEX-35:TEF, Euronext: TEF, NYSE: TEF, LSE: TDE, FWB: TEF, TYO: 9481) is a Spanish telecommunications company. ... Teléfonos de México S.A.B. de C.V. (NYSE: TMX), better known as Telmex, is a Mexican telecommunications company that provides telecommunication products and services in Mexico and in many parts of Latin America, such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and even in the United States. ... Time Warner Inc. ... Verizon Communications, Inc. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... Vodafone Group Plc is a mobile network operator headquartered in Newbury, Berkshire, England, UK. It is the largest mobile telecommunications network company in the world by turnover and has a market value of about £84. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... Apple Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... For other uses, see NEC (disambiguation). ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
EETimes.com - Silicon Graphics releases Linux workstations (825 words)
NEW YORK — Silicon Graphics Inc. got behind the Linux operating system in a big way on Monday (May 15), introducing a line of Intel-based workstations that will support Linux, and saying it will drop all development work on proprietary operating systems except for its high-end IRIX systems.
Silicon Graphics (Mountain View, Calif.) wants to build on its success with Linux servers by moving to Linux workstations, said Ujesh Desai, the company's IA-32 workstation line manager.
Silicon Graphics is offering those users both scaled-down and souped-up Linux machines.
Silicon Graphics Prism Visualization Systems Sweep 2005 HPCwire Editors' Choice and Readers' Choice Honors (599 words)
Combining the power of SGI's award-winning, scalable, shared-memory visualization architecture with leading 64-bit Linux(R) scalability found in SGI Altix(R) HPC servers and supercomputers, the Silicon Graphics Prism family delivers the best of both worlds with unbeatable visualization performance and Linux innovation, all in a single platform.
The Source of Innovation and Discovery(TM) SGI, also known as Silicon Graphics, Inc., is a leader in high-performance computing, visualization and storage.
NOTE: Silicon Graphics, SGI, Altix, the SGI cube and the SGI logo are registered trademarks, and Silicon Graphics Prism, OpenGL VizServer and The Source of Innovation and Discovery are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc., in the United States and/or other countries worldwide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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