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Encyclopedia > Silicon
14 aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
C

Si

Ge
General
Name, symbol, number silicon, Si, 14
Chemical series metalloids
Group, period, block 143, p
Appearance As broken ingot: crystalline

with dark reflective bluish-tinged faces
Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Image File history File links Si-TableImage. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The carbon group is group 14 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...

Standard atomic weight 28.0855(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.33 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 1687 K
(1420 °C, 2577 °F)
Boiling point 3538 K
(2355 °C, 5909 °F)
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 359 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Crystal structure Diamond cubic
Oxidation states 4, 3 [1], 2 [2], 1 [3]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 117.6 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 149 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 8433 m/s
Young's modulus 150 GPa
Bulk modulus 100 GPa
Mohs hardness 7
CAS registry number 7440-21-3
Band gap energy at 300 K 1.12 eV
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of silicon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Si syn 170 y β- 13.020 32P
References
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Silicon (pronounced /ˈsɪlɪkən/ or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/, Latin: silicium) is the chemical element that has the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, silicon is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon. As the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, silicon occasionally occurs as the pure free element in nature, but is more widely distributed in dusts, planetoids and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. On Earth, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the crust,[1] making up 25.7% of the crust by mass. The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... One unit cell of the diamond cubic crystal structure. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... Silicon (Si) Standard atomic mass: 28. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 109 seconds (a gigasecond) and 1010 seconds (32 years and 320 years). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, a tetravalent atom in a molecule has 4 electrons available for chemical bonding in its outer valence shell. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Silicon has many industrial uses. Elemental silicon is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. Silicon is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than any other material. A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ...


In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ...


Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid (a type of silica) forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms. Silicic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of silicon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

The outer electron orbitals (half filled subshell holding up to eight electrons) have the same structure as in carbon and the two elements are sometimes similar chemically. Even though it is a relatively inert element, silicon still reacts with halogens and dilute alkalis, but most acids (except for some hyper-reactive combinations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid) do not affect it. Having four bonding electrons however gives it, like carbon, many opportunities to combine with other elements or compounds under the right circumstances. Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics, an electron orbital (or simply orbital) is the description of the behavior of an electron in an atom or molecule according to quantum mechanics. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical series. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Both silicon and carbon are semiconductors, readily either donating or sharing their four outer electrons allowing many different forms of chemical bonding. Pure silicon has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, since the number of free charge carriers increases with temperature. The electrical resistance of single crystal silicon significantly changes under the application of mechanical stress due to the piezoresistive effect. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ... A single crystal is a crystalline solid in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample. ... The piezoresistive effect describes the changing electrical resistance of a material due to applied mechanical stress. ...


In its crystalline form, pure silicon has a gray color and a metallic luster. It is similar to glass in that it is rather strong, very brittle, and prone to chipping. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ...


History

Silicon was first identified by Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 as a component of the Latin silex, or silicis (meaning what were more generally termed "the flints" or "Hard Rocks" during the Early Modern era where nowadays as we would say "silica" or "silicates"), and was later mistaken by Humphry Davy in 1800 for a compound. In 1811 Gay-Lussac and Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon through the heating of potassium with silicon tetrafluoride. It was first isolated as an element by Berzelius in 1823. In 1824, Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Gay-Lussac. Berzelius also purified the product by repeatedly washing it. Lavoisier redirects here. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (December 6, 1778–May 10, 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. ... Louis Jacques Thénard. ... Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline allotropic form of silicon. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Silicon tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SiF4. ... Friherre Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 – August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Occurrence

Measured by mass, silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element on Earth, after oxygen. Pure silicon crystals are only occasionally found in nature; they can be found as inclusions with gold and in volcanic exhalations. Silicon is usually found in the form of silicon dioxide (also known as silica), and silicate. For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ...


Silica occurs in minerals consisting of (practically) pure silicon dioxide in different crystalline forms. Sand, amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which silicon dioxide appears. (They are known as "lithogenic", as opposed to "biogenic", silicas.) For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... Chalcedony knife, AD 1000-1200 Bloodstone redirects here. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... Lithogenic silica (LSi) comes from the greek words lithos, which means rock, and genesis, which means coming from. ... Diatoms are capable of synthesizing silica glass in vivo. ...


Silicon also occurs as silicates (various minerals containing silicon, oxygen and one or another metal), for example feldspar. These minerals occur in clay, sand and various types of rock such as granite and sandstone. Asbestos, feldspar, clay, hornblende, and mica are a few of the many silicate minerals. In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Silicon is a principal component of aerolites, which are a class of meteoroids, and also is a component of tektites, which are a natural form of glass. A meteorite is an extraterrestrial body that survives its impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Meteor redirects here. ... A tektite Tektites (from Greek tektos, molten) are natural glass objects, up to a few centimeters in size, which — according to most scientists — have been formed by the impact of large meteorites on Earths surface, although a few researchers favor an origin from the Moon as volcanic ejecta. ...


See also Category:Silicate minerals


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of silicon

Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable; 32Si is a radioactive isotope produced by argon decay. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 170 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta - emission to 32P (which has a 14.28 day half-life )[2] and then to 32S. Silicon (Si) Standard atomic mass: 28. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number (not to be confused with atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus) or nucleon number, is the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atomic nucleus. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... The Feynman diagram for beta decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino via an intermediate heavy W- boson In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Compounds

PDMS – a silicone compound

For examples of silicon compounds see silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicic acid (H4SiO4), silicates, silicate minerals, silicides, silicon ceramics like silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon halides like silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), trichlorosilane (HSiCl3), silanes H2(SiH2)n, organosilicons and silicones. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links PDMS.png‎ Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), created by Arthuralbano 02:49, 20 October 2006 (UTC), using Chemdraw Ultra from Cambridgesoft Corporation. ... Image File history File links PDMS.png‎ Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), created by Arthuralbano 02:49, 20 October 2006 (UTC), using Chemdraw Ultra from Cambridgesoft Corporation. ... Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most widely used silicon-based organic polymer, and is particularly known for its unusual rheological (or flow) properties. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Silicic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of silicon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... A silicide is a compound that has silicon with more electropositive elements. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon that is manufactured on a large scale for use mainly as an abrasive but also occurs in... Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is hard, solid substance, that can be obtained by direct reaction between silicon and nitrogen in high temperatures. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) is a colourless volatile liquid compound of silicon and chlorine. ... Silicon tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SiF4. ... Trichlorosilane is a chemical compound containing silicon, hydrogen, and chlorine. ... Silane is a chemical compound with chemical formula SiH4. ... Organosilicon compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon silicon bonds. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ...


See also Category:Silicon compounds


Applications

As the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, silicon is vital to the construction industry as a principal constituent of natural stone, glass, concrete and cement. Silicon's greatest impact on the modern world's economy and lifestyle has resulted from silicon wafers used as substrates in the manufacture of discrete electronic devices such as power transistors, and in the development of integrated circuits such as computer chips. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... This article is about the material. ... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... An etched silicon wafer In microelectronics, a wafer is a thin slice of semiconducting material, such as a silicon crystal, upon which microcircuits are constructed by doping (for example, diffusion or ion implantation), etching, and deposition of various materials. ... Look up Electronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... A microchip is, properly, an integrated circuit (IC). ...


Alloys

The largest application of pure silicon (metallurgical grade silicon), representing about 55% of the world consumption, is in the manufacture of aluminium-silicon alloys to produce cast parts, mainly for the automotive industry. Silicon is an important constituent of electrical steel, modifying its resistivity and ferromagnetic properties. Silicon is added to molten cast iron as ferrosilicon or silicocalcium alloys to improve its performance in casting thin sections, and to prevent the formation of cementite at the surface. Aluminum redirects here. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Look up Cast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Silicon steel be merged into this article or section. ... Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. ... Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Ferrosilicon, or ferrosilicium, is a ferroalloy an alloy of iron and silicon with between 15 and 90% silicon. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ...


In electronic applications

Pure silicon is used to produce ultra-pure silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics and in photovoltaic applications. Ultra-pure silicon can be doped with other elements to adjust its electrical response by controlling the number and charge (positive or negative) of current carriers. Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, integrated circuits, microprocessors, semiconductor detectors and other semiconductor devices which are used in electronics and other high-tech applications. In Photonics, silicon can be used as a continuous wave Raman laser medium to produce coherent light, though it is ineffective as a light source. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used in the production of low-cost, large-area electronics in applications such as LCDs, and of large-area, low-cost thin-film solar cells. It has been suggested that Wafer prober be merged into this article or section. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... In semiconductor production, doping refers to the process of intentionally introducing impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor in order to change its electrical properties. ... For the following two reasons the electron hole was introduced into calculations: If an electron is excited into higher state it leaves a hole in its old state. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... A semiconductor particle detector is a device that uses a semiconductor (usually silicon) to detect the passage of charged particles. ... Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Raman laser is a byproduct of the Raman Effect, discovered in 1928 by Nobel laureate Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. ... Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon. ... Roll-to-roll processing, also known as web processing, is the process of creating electronic devices on a roll of flexible plastic or metal foil. ... LCD redirects here. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ...


Silicones

The second largest application of silicon (about 40% of world consumption) is as a raw material in the production of silicones, compounds containing silicon-oxygen and silicon-carbon bonds that have the capability to acting as bonding intermediates between glass and organic compounds, and to form polymers with useful properties such as impermeability to water, flexibility and resistance to chemical attack. Silicones are used in waterproofing treatments, molding compounds and mold-release agents, mechanical seals, high temperature greases and waxes, caulking compounds and even in applications as diverse as breast implants, explosives and pyrotechnics.[3] Silicones, or polysiloxanes, are inorganic polymers consisting of a silicon-oxygen backbone (...-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-...) with side groups attached to the silicon atoms. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... A release agent, also known as a de-moulding agent, parting agent or form releaser, is a substance used in moulding and casting that aids in the separation of a mould from the material being moulded and reduces imperfections in the moulded surface. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Caulking - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a womans breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty enlargement, augmentation mammoplasty or the common slang term boob job) for cosmetic reasons; to reconstruct the breast (e. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ...

  • Construction: Silicon dioxide or silica in the form of sand and clay is an important ingredient of concrete and brick and is also used to produce Portland cement.
  • Pottery/Enamel is a refractory material used in high-temperature material production and its silicates are used in making enamels and pottery.
  • Glass: Silica from sand is a principal component of glass. Glass can be made into a great variety of shapes and with many different physical properties. Silica is used as a base material to make window glass, containers, insulators, and many other useful objects.
  • Abrasives: Silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives.
  • Silly Putty was originally made by adding boric acid to silicone oil. Now name-brand Silly Putty also contains significant amounts of elemental silicon. (Silicon binds to the silicone and allows the material to bounce 20% higher.)[citation needed]

See also Category:Silicon compounds For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... This article is about the material. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish (see metal polishing and wood finishing) a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon that is manufactured on a large scale for use mainly as an abrasive but also occurs in... Silly putty dripping through a hole Silly Putty shown as a solid cube Silly Putty (originally called nutty putty, and also known as Potty Putty) is a silicone plastic, marketed today as a toy for children, but originally created as an accident during the course of research into potential rubber... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Silicone oils (polymerized siloxanes) are silicon analogues of carbon based organic compounds, and can form (relatively) long and complex molecules based on silicon rather than carbon. ...


Production

Silicon is commercially prepared by the reaction of high-purity silica with wood, charcoal, and coal, in an electric arc furnace using carbon electrodes. At temperatures over 1900 °C, the carbon reduces the silica to silicon according to the chemical equation The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ...

SiO2 + C → Si + CO2.
SiO2 + 2C → Si + 2CO.

Liquid silicon collects in the bottom of the furnace, and is then drained and cooled. The silicon produced via this process is called metallurgical grade silicon and is at least 98% pure. Using this method, silicon carbide, SiC, can form. However, provided the amount of SiO2 is kept high, silicon carbide may be eliminated, as explained by this equation:

2 SiC + SiO2 → 3 Si + 2 CO.

In 2005, metallurgical grade silicon cost about $ 0.77 per pound ($1.70/kg).[4] USD redirects here. ...


It has been reported in recent years that, by molten salt electrolysis, pure silicon can be directly extracted from solid silica and this new electrolysis method, known as the FFC Cambridge Process, has the potential to produce directly the solar grade silicon without any CO2 emission at much lower energy consumption.[5][6][7]


Purification

The use of silicon in semiconductor devices demands a much greater purity than afforded by metallurgical grade silicon. Historically, a number of methods have been used to produce high-purity silicon. A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ...


Physical methods

Silicon wafer with mirror finish (NASA)
Silicon wafer with mirror finish (NASA)

Early silicon purification techniques were based on the fact that if silicon is melted and re-solidified, the last parts of the mass to solidify contain most of the impurities. The earliest method of silicon purification, first described in 1919 and used on a limited basis to make radar components during World War II, involved crushing metallurgical grade silicon and then partially dissolving the silicon powder in an acid. When crushed, the silicon cracked so that the weaker impurity-rich regions were on the outside of the resulting grains of silicon. As a result, the impurity-rich silicon was the first to be dissolved when treated with acid, leaving behind a more pure product. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...


In zone melting, also called zone refining, the first silicon purification method to be widely used industrially, rods of metallurgical grade silicon are heated to melt at one end. Then, the heater is slowly moved down the length of the rod, keeping a small length of the rod molten as the silicon cools and re-solidifies behind it. Since most impurities tend to remain in the molten region rather than re-solidify, when the process is complete, most of the impurities in the rod will have been moved into the end that was the last to be melted. This end is then cut off and discarded, and the process repeated if a still higher purity is desired. Zone melting is a method of separation by melting in which a series of molten zones traverses a long ingot of impure metal or chemical. ...


Chemical methods

Today, silicon is purified by converting it to a silicon compound that can be more easily purified than in its original state, and then converting that silicon element back into pure silicon. Trichlorosilane is the silicon compound most commonly used as the intermediate, although silicon tetrachloride and silane are also used. When these gases are blown over silicon at high temperature, they decompose to high-purity silicon. Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Trichlorosilane is a chemical compound containing silicon, hydrogen, and chlorine. ... Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) is a colourless volatile liquid compound of silicon and chlorine. ... Silane is a chemical compound with chemical formula SiH4. ...


At one time, DuPont produced ultra-pure silicon by reacting silicon tetrachloride with high-purity zinc vapors at 950 °C, producing silicon according to the chemical equation Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), the worlds second largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...

SiCl4 + 2 Zn → Si + 2 ZnCl2.

However, this technique was plagued with practical problems (such as the zinc chloride byproduct solidifying and clogging lines) and was eventually abandoned in favor of the Siemens process. Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ...

A polycrystalline silicon rod made by the Siemens process
A polycrystalline silicon rod made by the Siemens process

In the Siemens process, high-purity silicon rods are exposed to trichlorosilane at 1150 °C. The trichlorosilane gas decomposes and deposits additional silicon onto the rods, enlarging them according to chemical reactions like Polycrystalline silicon or polysilicon or poly-Si or simply poly (in context) is a material consisting of multiple small silicon crystals, and has long been used as the conducting gate material in MOSFET and CMOS processing technologies. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...

2 HSiCl3 → Si + 2 HCl + SiCl4.

Silicon produced from this and similar processes is called polycrystalline silicon. Polycrystalline silicon typically has impurity levels of less than 10−9. Polycrystalline silicon or polysilicon or poly-Si or simply poly (in context) is a material consisting of multiple small silicon crystals, and has long been used as the conducting gate material in MOSFET and CMOS processing technologies. ...


In 2006 REC announced construction of a plant based on fluidized bed technology using silane.[8] Renewable Energy Corporation (REC) is a Norwegian solar energy company established in 1996. ...

3SiCl4 + Si + 2H2 → 4HSiCl3
4HSiCl3 → 3SiCl4 + SiH4
SiH4 → Si + 2H2

Crystallization

Diamond Cubic Crystal Structure, Silicon unit cell
Diamond Cubic Crystal Structure, Silicon unit cell

Silicon, like carbon and other group IV elements form face-centered diamond cubic crystal structure. Silicon, in particular, forms a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice spacing of 0.5430710 nm.[9] For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... One unit cell of the diamond cubic crystal structure. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ...

A puller rod with seed crystal for growing single-crystal silicon by the Czochralski process
A puller rod with seed crystal for growing single-crystal silicon by the Czochralski process

The majority of silicon crystals grown for device production are produced by the Czochralski process, (CZ-Si) since it is the cheapest method available and it is capable of producing large size crystals. However, silicon single-crystals grown by the Czochralski method contain impurities since the crucible which contains the melt dissolves. For certain electronic devices, particularly those required for high power applications, silicon grown by the Czochralski method is not pure enough. For these applications, float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) can be used instead. It is worth mentioning though, in contrast with CZ-Si method in which the seed is dipped into the silicon melt and the growing crystal is pulled upward, the thin seed crystal in the FZ-Si method sustains the growing crystal as well as the polysilicon rod from the bottom. As a result, it is difficult to grow large size crystals using the float-zone method. Today, all the dislocation-free silicon crystals used in semiconductor industry with diameter 300mm or larger are grown by the Czochralski method with purity level significantly improved. A seed crystal is a small piece of single crystal material from which a large crystal of, usually, the same material is to be grown. ... A single crystal is a crystalline solid in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample. ... The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e. ... The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e. ... For other uses, see Crucible (disambiguation). ... Float-zone silicon is a high-purity alternative to silicon grown by the Czochralski process. ...


Different forms of silicon

One can notice the color change in silicon nanopowder. This is caused by the quantum effects which occur in particles of nanometric dimensions. See also Potential well, Quantum dot, and Nanoparticle. A potential well is the region surrounding a local minimum of potential energy. ... Colloidal quantum dots irradiated with a UV light. ... Silicon nanopowder Nanodiamonds, TEM image A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a small particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. ...


Silicon-based life

See also: Alternative biochemistry

Since silicon is similar to carbon, particularly in its valency, some people have proposed the possibility of silicon-based life. One main detraction for silicon-based life is that unlike carbon, silicon does not have the tendency to form double and triple bonds. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ...


Although there are no known forms of life that rely entirely on silicon-based chemistry, some use silica for specific functions. The polycystine radiolaria and diatoms have skeletons of opaline silicon dioxide, and the Hexactinellid sponges secrete spicules made of silicon dioxide. These forms of silicon dioxide are known as biogenic silica. Silicate bacteria use silicates in their metabolism[citation needed]. The polycystines are a group of radiolarian protists. ... Possible classes Polycystinea Acantharea Taxopodea Radiolaria are amoeboid protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. ... Diatoms are the most common of the eukaryotic algae. ... Genera Opalina Protoopalina Zelleriella Protozelleriella Cepedea The opalines are a small group of peculiar protists, found as endosymbionts in the gut of frogs and toads. ... LOSER sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed silaceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the skeletal structure. ... Diatoms are capable of synthesizing silica glass in vivo. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Life as we know it could not have developed based on a silicon biochemistry. The main reason for this fact is that life on Earth depends on the carbon cycle: autotrophic entities use carbon dioxide to synthesize organic compounds with carbon, which is then used as food by heterotrophic entities, which produce energy and carbon dioxide from these compounds. If carbon was to be replaced with silicon, there would be a need for a silicon cycle. However, silicon dioxide precipitates in aqueous systems, and cannot be transported among living beings by common biological means. This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ...


As such, another solvent would be necessary to sustain silicon-based life forms; it would be difficult (if not impossible) to find another common compound with the unusual properties of water which make it an ideal solvent for carbon-based life. Larger silicon compounds analogous to common hydrocarbon chains (silanes) are also generally unstable owing to the larger atomic radius of silicon and the correspondingly weaker silicon-silicon bond; silanes decompose readily and often violently in the presence of oxygen making them unsuitable for an oxidizing atmosphere such as our own. Silicon also does not readily participate in pi-bonding (the second and third bonds in triple bonds and double bonds are pi-bonds) as its p-orbital electrons experience greater shielding and are less able to take on the necessary geometry. Furthermore, although some silicon rings (cyclosilanes) analogous to common the cycloalkanes formed by carbon have been synthesized, these are largely unknown. Their synthesis suffers from the difficulties inherent in producing any silane compound, whereas carbon will readily form five-, six-, and seven-membered rings by a variety of pathways (the Diels-Alder reaction is one naturally-occurring example), even in the presence of oxygen. Silicon's inability to readily form long silane chains, multiple bonds, and rings severely limits the diversity of compounds that can be synthesized from it. Under known conditions, silicon chemistry simply cannot begin to approach the diversity of organic chemistry, a crucial factor in carbon's role in biology. A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Silane is a chemical compound with chemical formula SiH4. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing a Pi-bond at the bottom right of the picture. ... Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... A cyclosilane is a silane in a ring, like a cycloalkane is an alkane in a ring. ... Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a single ring of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... The Diels-Alder reaction The Diels-Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as...


However, silicon-based life could be construed as being life which exists under a computational substrate. This concept is yet to be explored in mainstream technology but receives ample coverage by sci-fi authors.


A. G. Cairns-Smith has proposed that the first living organisms to exist were forms of clay minerals—which were probably based around the silicon atom. Dr. A. Graham Cairns-Smith (19?? to 20??) is an organic chemist and molecular biologist at Glasgow University, most famous for his controversial 1985 book, Seven Clues to the Origins of Life. ...


In popular culture

Because silicon is an important element in semiconductors and high-tech devices, the high-tech region of Silicon Valley, California is named after this element. Other geographic locations with connections to the industry have since characterized themselves as siliconia as well. For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


See also

List of silicon makers: BP Solar Elkem Solar Ferrotec JFE Steel Joint Solar Silicon (JSSI) Hemlock MEMC Mitsubishi Materials REC Sumitomo / Sumco Tokuyama Topsil Semiconducters A/S Siltronic This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ...

References

  1. ^ The periodic table. webelements.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  2. ^ PHOSPHORUS - 32. sciencegateway.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  3. ^ [E.C.]; Clement, D.. "Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: VI. Silicon - An Old Fuel with New Perspectives".
  4. ^ SILICON. usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  5. ^ http//www.acr.net.au/~coastwatchers/charcoalition/noreductant.html
  6. ^ Xianbo Jin, Pei Gao, Dihua Wang, Xiaohong Hu, George Z. Chen, Electrochemical Preparation of Silicon and Its Alloys from Solid Oxides in Molten Calcium Chloride, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2004, 43, 733 - 736
  7. ^ T. Nohira, Y. Kasuda, Y. Ito, Pinpoint and bulk electrochemical reduction of insulating silicon dioxide to silicon Nat. Mat. 2003, 2, 397-401
  8. ^ Analyst_silicon_field_trip_March_28,_2007. hugin.info. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  9. ^ O'Mara, William C. (1990). Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology. William Andrew Inc., 349-352. ISBN 0815512376. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Chemistry : Periodic Table : silicon : key information (365 words)
Silicon is present in the sun and stars and is a principal component of a class of meteorites known as aerolites.
Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen.
Silicon is found also in minerals such as asbestos, feldspar, clay and mica.
Silicon - LoveToKnow 1911 (2378 words)
Silicon hydride, SiH4, is obtained in an impure condition, as a spontaneously inflammable gas, by decomposing magnesium silicide with hydrochloric acid, or by the direct union of silicon and hydrogen in the electric arc.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.
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