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Encyclopedia > Silicate minerals

The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate ion group. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ...


Subclasses:

Contents

Nesosilicates or Isosilicates

Nesosilicates (or orthosilicates) have isolated [SiO4]4−

Kyanite crystals
Kyanite crystals

tetrahedra that are connected only by interstitial cations. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ...

Phenacite or phenakite is a nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4. ... Willemite is a zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) and a minor ore of zinc. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is the magnesium rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series. ... Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) is the iron rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... The pyrope is a garnet. ... Almandine, or almandite, is a name applied to certain kinds of precious garnet, being apparently a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. ... Spessartine is a kind of garnet. ... A pale green, pink, brown, or black garnet, Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, occurring alone or as a constituent of the common garnet. ... Andradite is a kind of garnet. ... Uvarovite is a chromium bearing garnet: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3. ... Hydrogrossular, is a calcium aluminium garnet Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x, with hydroxide (OH) partially replacing silica (SiO4). ... Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. ... Thorite, (Th,U)SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate of thorium that crystallizes in the tetragonal system and is isomorphous with zircon. ... Andalusite-cordierite schist (Large brown crystals are Andalusite Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. ... Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek, kyanos, meaning blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. ... Sillimanite: Biotite gneiss (Mesozoic and Paleozoic) Sillimanite is an alumino-sillicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. ... Dumortierite is a glassy pink, green, violet, or blue aluminum borosilicate mineral, Al8BSi3O19OH, used in spark-plug ceramics and as imitation lapis lazuli. ... Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. ... Staurolite Staurolite is a red brown to black mostly opaque nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. ... Humite specimen with spinel (purple) intergrowth Humite is an orthorhombic mineral of a transparent vitreous brown to orange color. ... Chondrodite is a nesosilicate mineral with formula (Mg,Fe)5(F,OH)2(SiO4)2. ... Humite specimen with spinel (purple) intergrowth Humite is an orthorhombic mineral of a transparent vitreous brown to orange color. ... Clinohumite is an uncommon member of the humite group of minerals, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula (Mg,Fe)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2. ... A borosilicate of lime commonly occuring in glassy, greenish crystals. ... Titanite Titanite or sphene is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO5. ... Chloritoid is a silicate mineral of metamorphic origin. ...

Sorosilicates

Sorosilicates have isolated double tetrahedra groups with (Si2O7)6− or a ratio of 2:7.

  • Hemimorphite (calamine) - Zn4(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
  • Lawsonite - CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
  • Ilvaite - CaFe2+2Fe3+O(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Epidote group (has both (SiO4)4− and (Si2O7)6− groups)
  • Vesuvianite (idocrase) - Ca10(Mg,Fe)2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4

Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc. ... Lawsonite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O. Lawsonite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in prismatic, often tabular crystals. ... Ilvaite is a sorosilicate of iron and calcium with formula: CaFe2+2Fe3+Si2O7O(OH). ... Epidote from Slovakia Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral, Ca2(Al, Fe)3(SiO4)3(OH), crystallizing in the monoclinic system. ... This article is about the mineral named zoisite. ... Clinozoisite is a mineral, a complex silicate of calcium and Aluminium, formula, Ca2Al3(O,OH,SiO4, Si2O7). ... Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite discovered in the Meralani Hills of northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha. ... Allanite is a silicate containing a large amount of cerium. ... Vesuvianite is a green, brown, yellow, or blue metamorphic silicate mineral, Ca10Mg2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4. ... Vesuvianite is a green, brown, yellow, or blue metamorphic silicate mineral, Ca10Mg2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4. ...

Cyclosilicates

Cyclosilicates, ring silicates, have linked tetrahedra with (SixO3x)2x- or a ratio of 1:3. These exists as 3-member (Si3O9)6-, 4-member (Si4O12)8- and 6-member (Si6O18)12- rings.

Benitoite is a rare blue silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. ... Axinite is a brown to violet-brown, or reddish-brown bladed mineral composed of calcium aluminum boro-silicate, (Ca,Fe,Mn)3Al2BO3Si4O12OH. Axinite is pyroelectric and piezoelectric. ... Three varieties of beryl: Morganite, Aquamarine, and Heliodor The mineral beryl is a beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cordierite is a magnesium iron aluminum cyclosilicate with associated water. ... The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. ...

Inosilicates

Inosilicates, chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with either SiO3, 1:3 ratio, for single chains or Si4O11, 4:11 ratio, for double chains.


Single chain inosilicates:

Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... The pyroxene silicate minerals enstatite (MgSiO3) and ferrosilite (FeSiO3) form a complete solid solution series and are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and meteorites. ... The pyroxene silicate minerals enstatite (MgSiO3) and ferrosilite (FeSiO3) form a complete solid solution series and are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and meteorites. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Diopside Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. ... Hedenbergite, or calcium iron pyroxene, is a black mineral closely allied to diopside and, owing to the isomorphous replacement of iron by magnesium, there is no sharp line of division between them. ... Augite is a single chain inosilicate mineral described chemically as (Ca,Mg,Fe)SiO3 or calcium magnesium iron silicate. ... Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. ... Aegirine is an inosilicate member of the clinopyroxene group. ... Aegirine is an inosilicate member of the clinopyroxene group. ... Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate - LiAl(SiO3)2 - and is a source of lithium. ... Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. ... A piece of rhodonite Rhodonite is a member of the pyroxene group of minerals, consisting of manganese inosilicate, (Mn,Fe,Mg,Ca)SiO3, and crystallizing in the triclinic system. ... I hate it from Lebranon ...

Double chain inosilicates:

For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: (Mg, Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2, magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide. ... Cummingtonite or magnesium iron silicate hydroxide is a metamorphic index mineral with the chemical composition (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2. ... Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole group of minerals with formula Fe7Si8O22(OH)2. ... A sample of tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. ... Well-cleaved, dark, fine-grained chlorite-actinolite metadiabase intrudes light granitic gneiss Actinolite is an inosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Ca2(MgFe)5Si8O22(OH)2 // Mineralogy Actinolite is an intermediate member in a series between tremolite (Mg-rich) and ferro-actinolite (Fe-rich). ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. ... Glaucophane Glaucophane is a mineral belonging to the amphibole group, chemical formula Na2(Mg,Fe)3Al2Si8O22(OH)2. ... Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2. ... Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Blue asbestos (crocidolite) from Wittenoom, Western Australia. ... Arfvedsonite is a sodium amphibole mineral with composition: Na3(Fe,Mg)4FeSi8O22(OH)2: sodium, iron, magnesium, inosilicate, hydroxide. ...

Phyllosilicates

Phyllosilicates, sheet silicates (from Greek φύλλον phyllon, leaf), form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with Si2O5 or a 2:5 ratio.

Kaolin.
Kaolin.

Kaolin (Kaolinite). ... Kaolin (Kaolinite). ... Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals; it may contain minor amounts of other elements including chromium, manganese, cobalt and nickel. ... Antigorite is a monoclinic mineral from the kaolinite-serpentine group. ... Chrysotile Asbestos Chrysotile is an asbestiform sub-group within the serpentine group of minerals. ... Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals. ... For the town in the United States, see Clay, New York. ... Kaolinite is a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Pyrophyllite is a mineral species belonging to the clay family and composed of hydrous aluminium silicate HAl (SiOf)2. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Muscovite layer Muscovite, also known as potash mica, is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2. ... Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish or reddish brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates. ... A Biotite slice Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral that contains potassium, magnesium, iron and aluminium. ... Crystal of lepidolite, Brazil Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2) is a lilac or rose-violet colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium. ... Margarite is a calcium rich member of the mica group of the phyllosilicates with formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2. ... Chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate minerals often classified as clays. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ...

Tectosilicates

Tectosilicates, or "framework silicates", have a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra with SiO2 or a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth. Tectosilicates with the exception of the quartz group are aluminosilicates. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals that have the basic structure and composition of AlSiO4. ...

Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). Collected by Apollo 16 from the Lunar Highlands near Descartes Crater.
Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). Collected by Apollo 16 from the Lunar Highlands near Descartes Crater.

Commons:Image:Quartz Crystal. ... Commons:Image:Quartz Crystal. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Exploring Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission to the Moon. ... Descartes is a heavily-worn lunar crater that is located in the rugged south-central highlands of the Moon To the southwest is the Abulfeda crater. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... Tridymite Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of quartz and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal triclinic crystals, or scales, in cavities in acidic volcanic rocks. ... Common in volcanic rocks, cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of quartz and tridymite. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock forming tectosilicate mineral. ... Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral, which forms igneous rock. ... Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar ((K,Na)(Si,Al)4O8) which occurs in felsic volcanic rocks such as rhyolite and trachyte. ... Feldspar (from the German Feld, field, and Spat, a rock that does not contain ore) is the name of an important group of rock-forming minerals which make up perhaps as much as 60% of the Earths crust. ... Albite Albite is an alkali feldspar mineral. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Albite Albite is an alkali feldspar mineral. ... Oligoclase is a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase feldspars. ... Andesine is a feldspar mineral, a part of the plagioclase series. ... Labradorite, a feldspar mineral, is a member of the plagioclase series. ... Bytownite is a calcium rich member of the plagioclase solid solution series of feldspar minerals. ... Anorthite is one of the plagioclase feldspars, an important group of minerals abundant in the Earths crust. ... The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. ... Analcite or analcime (from the Greek analkimos - weak) is a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral. ... Nosean, also known as Noselite, is a form of sodalite. ... Cancrinite is a mineral, a complex carbonate and silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminium; formula Na6Ca2[(CO3,Al6Si6O24].2H2O. Found originally in 1839 in the Ural Mountains, it is named after Count Kankrin, a Russian minister of finance. ... Leucite or amphigene is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium metasilicate KAl(SiO3)2. ... A big crystal of Nepheline from Canaã Massif, Brazil Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: nephos, cloud), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites. ... Sodalite is a rare, rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental stone. ... Hauyne, haüyne or hauynite is a tectosilicate mineral with sulfate and chloride with formula: (Na,Ca)4-8Al6Si6(O,S)24(SO4,Cl)1-2. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Petalite is a lithium aluminiumtectosilicate mineral LiAlSi4O10, crystallizing in the monoclinic system. ... Scapolite (Gr. ... Meionite is a silicate mineral belonging to the scapolite group with the formula Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3. ... Analcite or analcime (from the Greek analkimos - weak) is a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... Natrolite is a mineral species belonging to the zeolite group. ... Categories: Silicate minerals | Mineral stubs ... Heulandite - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Stilbite is a mineral of the zeolite group consisting of hydrated calcium aluminium silicate, NaCa2Al5Si13O36*14H2O. Stilbite from Kiui Island, Alaska, USA Usually a small proportion of the calcium is replaced by sodium. ...

References and external links

  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S., 1966 pr, Dana's Manual of Mineralogy, 17th ed., ISBN 0-471-03288-3
  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • Mineral gallery
  • Minerals.net
  • mindat.org mineral database
  • Webmineral.com

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Glossary Of Meteorite Terms & Definitions - Meteorites Australia (1327 words)
Basalt - are volcanic rocks primarily composed of the minerals olivine, pyroxene and feldspar.
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Silicate minerals can be derived from the quartz, tridymite, and crystoballite structures by replacing a subset of the silicon ions with ions of a lower charge, together with placing other cations in places between tetrahedra to achieve overall neutrality.
Silicate minerals are noted for their tetrahedral form.
In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to denote a type of rock that consists predominately of silicate minerals.
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