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Encyclopedia > Silesia
Silesia
Language(s): Silesian, Polish,
German, Czech
Time zone: CET (UTC+1)
CEST (UTC+2)

Silesia (English pronunciation [saɪˈ lɪːʃɐ], Czech: Slezsko; German: ; Latin: Silesia; Polish: Śląsk; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. Most of it is now within the borders of Poland (Opole and Lower Silesian Voivodeships), with small parts in the Czech Republic (Czech Silesia). The largest cities are Wrocław and Katowice. Image File history File links Silesia_(Now). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the Polish dialect. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Time zones of Europe: Pale colours indicate countries without daylight saving Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Image File history File links Schlesien. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article is about the Polish dialect. ... This is a list of major historical regions of Central Europe. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Åšnieżka/Sněžka/Snow Mountain Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), is a mountain range in Central Europe. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Silesian Beskids (Polish: , Czech: ) is one of the Beskids mountain ranges in Outer Western Carpathians in southern Poland and the eastern Czech Silesia. ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ...


Slavic peoples first arrived in this territory around the 6th century. It became the territory of Greater Moravia and Bohemia. Rulers of Bohemia received ducal authority by pledging allegiance to Emperor Otto I in 950 AD. With the establishment of the Piast Poland shortly thereafter, Boleslaw I Chrobry united Silesia with the Polish state. Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966...


In the Middle Ages, Silesia was divided among many independent duchies ruled by a cadet branches of the Piast dynasty. During this time, cultural and ethnic German influence increased due to immigrants from the German-speaking components of the Holy Roman Empire. It subsequently became a possession of the Bohemian crown under the Holy Roman Empire in the 14th century, and passed with that crown to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. The Duchy of Crossen was inherited by Brandenburg in 1476 and, with the renunciation by King Ferdinand I in 1538, it became an integral part of Brandenburg. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Krosno OdrzaÅ„skie (German: ) is a city in Western Poland with 12,500 inhabitants (2002), situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship (since 1999), previously part of Zielona Góra Voivodeship (1975-1998). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ...


In 1742, most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession. This part of Silesia constituted the Province of Silesia (later the Prussian provinces of Upper and Lower Silesia) until 1945, when most of the German part of Silesia was seized by the Soviets and transferred to Poland after World War II. Austrian Silesia, the small portion of Silesia retained by Austria after the Silesian Wars, is now within the borders of the Czech Republic. Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Lower Silesia (Niederschlesien in German) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ...

Contents

Administration

Most of Silesia lies within modern Poland, whose part is divided within the following voivodeships (provinces): A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ...

The Opole and Silesian Voivodeships are called Upper Silesia. The small portion in the Czech Republic known as Czech Silesia forms, with the northern part of Moravia, the Moravian-Silesian Region of that country, while the remainder forms a small part of the Olomouc Region. Capital city PoznaÅ„ Area 29,826 km² Population (2005)  - Density 3,372,417 113. ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Lubusz Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubuskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of western Poland. ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Moravian-Silesian Region (Czech: Moravskoslezský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia. ... Olomouc Region (Czech: Olomoucký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (Morava) and in a small part of the historical region of Silesia (Slezsko). ...


Traditionally, Silesia was bounded by the Kwisa and Bobr rivers, while the territory west of the Kwisa was Upper Lusatia (earlier Milsko). However, because part of it was included in the Prussian Province of Lower Silesia, in Germany the Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis and Hoyerswerda are considered parts of Silesia. Those districts, along with the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, make up the geographic region of Lower Silesia. B br (Czech Bobr) is a river in the northern Czech Republic and southwestern Poland, a tributary of the Oder River, with a length of 272 kilometres (2 in Czech Republic, 270 in Poland, 10th longest Polish river) and the basin area of 5,876 sq. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... The Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis (German for district of Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia) is the eastermost Kreis (district) of Saxony and Germany. ... Hoyerswerda (Upper Sorbian Wojerecy, Lower Sorbian Wórjejce, Czech Hojeřice) is a town in the German Bundesland of Saxony. ... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ...


Etymology

In summary, the etymology of the name Silesia is not obvious. The issue seems to be politically or ethnically charged because of twists of history subsequent to the ancient formation of the name.


One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic) people migrated towards south of the Baltic Sea along the Elbe, Oder, and Vistula Rivers in the 2nd century. When the Silingi moved from the area during the Migration Period, they left remnants of their society behind. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ...


The most evident remnants are in the names of places, which were imposed (in Slavic form) by the new inhabitants, who were in fact Slavic (Polish: Śląsk; Old Polish: Śląžsk [-o]; Old Slavic: *Sьlęžьskъ [<*sǐlęgǐskǔ], from Old Vandalic *Siling-isk [land]). These people became associated with the place, and were thenceforth known as Silesians (using a Latinized form of the Polish name, Ślężanie), even though they had little in common with the original Silingi. Because Goths, another East Germanic group, settled in eastern Silesia while Slavic Wends lived in western Silesia during that time, the fortifications do not support any nationalistic theory.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The other theory (supported by archaeological finds)[citation needed] claims that the original name of the region Śląsk, is derived from Polish word ślągwa meaning high humidity (to this day the region of Mountain Ślęża - the original Polish settlement - has coastal climate). Archaeological finds from the 7th and 8th centuries have also uncovered former largely populated areas[citation needed], protected by a dense system of fortifications from the west and south[citation needed]; the lack of such systems from the north or east supports the notion that Silesia was populated by early Polish tribes from the 5th to 13th centuries[citation needed]. Neither Polish name Śląsk nor German translation Schlesien show any resemblance to the alleged tribe of "Silingi". The Latin name Silesia originated in 11th century.[citation needed]


History

Early people

The first signs of genus Homo in Silesia date to between 230,000 and 100,000 years ago. The Silesian region between the upper Vistula and upper Oder was the northern extreme of the human penetration at the time of the last glaciation. The anatomically-modern Homo is estimated to have arrived in Silesia about 35,000 years ago [1]. Subsequently, Silesia was inhabited by people who belonged to changing archaeological cultures in the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, and the ethnic identity of whose cannot currently be determined. The civilization of Old Europe undoutedly included Silesia. Later, the Indo-European tribes of Scythians and Celts are known to have played a role within the Silesian territory. Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... “Celts” redirects here. ...


The first written sources about Silesia came down from the Egyptian Claudius Ptolemaeus (Magna Germania) and the Roman Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (Germania). According to Tacitus, the 1st century Silesia was inhabited by a multi-ethnic league dominated by the Lugii, an East Germanic tribe. The Silingi were also part of this federation, and most likely a Vandalic people (Germanic) that lived south of the Baltic Sea in the Laba, later Elbe, Oder, and Vistula river areas. Also, other East Germanic tribes inhabited the scarcely populated region. This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Greek Σιλίγγαι - Silingai) were an East Germanic tribe probably part of the larger Vandal group. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ...


Middle Ages

After 500 the Great Migration had induced the bulk of the original East Germanic tribes to leave Silesia and wander through Southern Europe, while Slavic tribes began to appear and spread including the Silesian lands.


Early documents mention a few mostly Slavic tribes probably living in Silesia (Silesian tribes). The Bavarian Geographer (ca. 845) specifies the following peoples: the Slenzanie, Dzhadoshanie, Opolanie, Lupiglaa, and Golenshitse. A document of the Bishopric of Prague (1086) also mentions the Zlasane, Trebovyane, Poborane, and Dedositze. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Bavarian Geographer is anonymous medieval document prepared in ca. ... Åšlężanie was a tribe of West Slavs, specifically of the Lechitic/Polish tribes/Silesian tribes groups, inhabiting territories of Lower Silesia, near Mount Åšlęża mountain and ÅšlÄ™za river up to the area of modern city of WrocÅ‚aw. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ...


In the 9th and 10th centuries, the territory later called Silesia was part of Great Moravia, Moravia, and then Bohemia, in the neighbouring area within today's Czech Republic to the south. Ca. 990, some parts of Silesia were conquered and annexed into the newly-created Polish state by Duke Mieszko I, (see map), although some historians give this date as 999 and the rule of Duke Boleslaus I. During Poland's fragmentation (1138–1320) into duchies ruled by different branches of the Piast dynasty. Silesia was ruled by descendants of the former royal family. Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Reign From c. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms OrzeÅ‚ Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ...


In 1146, High Duke Władysław II acknowledged the overlordship of the Holy Roman Empire over Poland, but was driven into exile. In 1163 his two sons took possession of Silesia with Imperial backing, dividing the land between them as dukes of Lower and Upper Silesia. They created two main Piast lines in Silesia, Wrocławska (of Wrocław)) and Opolsko-Raciborska (of Opole and Racibórz. The policy of subdivision continued under their successors, with Silesia being divided into 16 principalities by the 1390s. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II the Exile. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Racibórz (-Polish, Czech: RatiboÅ™, German: Ratibor) is a town in southern Poland with 65,100 inhabitants (1995) situated in the Silesian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Katowice Voivodship (1975-1998). ...


In 1241 after raiding Lesser Poland, the Mongols invaded Silesia and caused widespread panic and mass flight. They looted much of the region, but abandoned their siege of the castle of Wrocław, supposedly after being fended off by Blessed Czeslaw's "miraculous fireball." They then annihilated the combined Polish and German forces at the Battle of Legnica, which took place at Legnickie Pole near Legnica. Upon the death of Ögedei Khan, the Mongols chose not to press forward further into Europe, but returned east to participate in the election of a new Grand Khan. Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Saint Ceslaus (CzesÅ‚aw) (c. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; also Ogotai or Oktay; ca. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ...


The ruling Silesian lords decided to rebuild their cities according to the latest administrative ideas. They founded or rebuilt some 160 cities and 1,500 towns and introduced the codified German city law (Magdeburg law and Środa Śląska law) in place of the older, customary Slavic and Polish laws. They also made up for the recent population loss by inviting new settlers, mostly German and Dutch colonists from the Holy Roman Empire. Since the end of the 13th century or beginning of the 14th, Silesian dukes invited many German settlers to improve their duchies. Germans settled mostly in cities, as did Jews and some Czechs. In the countryside, especially in Upper Silesia, people of Polish origins still predominated. This policy of inviting Germans to colonize and cultivate the barren lands, and the assimilation of the ruling classes and the German and Slavic inhabitants, gave reason to Polish and German nationalists for ideological tensions between both nations in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. German town law (German: ) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) refers to town privileges used by many cities, towns, and villages throughout Central and Eastern Europe during the Middle Ages. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


In the second half of the 13th century, various knightly orders settled in Silesia — the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star were the first, soon followed by the Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights. Symbol of the order. ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, the Knights of Malta, the Knights of Rhodes, and the Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ...


Silesian duchies

Many Piast dukes tried to reincorporate Silesia into the Polish kingdom and reunite Poland during the time of divisions. The first significant attempts were made by Duke Henryk IV Probus of Silesia, but he died in 1290 before realizing his goal. Duke Przemysł II of Greater Poland united two of the original provinces and was crowned in 1295, but was murdered in 1296. According to his will Greater Poland was supposed to be inherited by Duke Henryk Głogowski (of Głogów) who also aspired to unite Poland and even claimed the title Duke of Poland. However, most nobles of Greater Poland supported another candidate from the Kuyavian line of Piasts, Duke Władysław I the Elbow-high. Władysław eventually won the struggle because of his broader support. In the meantime, King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia decided to extend his rule and was crowned as King of Poland in 1300. The next half century was rife with wars between Władysław (later his son Casimir III the Great) and a coalition of Bohemians, Brandenburgers and Teutonic Knights trying to divide Poland. During this time most Silesian dukes, despite their ties with Poland, ruled small realms that were unable to unite with Poland and thus fell under the influence of neighboring Bohemia. See also List of Polish rulers Piast_dynasty Dukes of Silesia Categories: Poland-related stubs | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Wroclaw ... PrzemysÅ‚ II PrzemysÅ‚ II (October 14, 1257 – February 8, 1296), was a duke of PoznaÅ„, Greater Poland, Kraków and Pomerania, and King of Poland from 1295 until his death. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... GÅ‚ogów (pronounce: [gÈ—oguv], German: Glogau, Czech: Hlohov, the latter rare) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Kazimierz I Kujawski, Eufrozyna Opolska Consorts Jadwiga Kaliska Children Stefan, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw, Kunegunda, Elżbieta, Jadwiga, Casimir III the Great Date of Birth 1261 Place of Birth - Date of Death 1333 Place of Death Cracow Coronation January... Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus II Premyslid (Czech: ; Polish: ; September 17, 1271 – June 21, 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278 - 1305), Duke of Kraków (1291 - 1305), King of Poland (1300 - 1305). ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ...


In 1327 Duke Henry VI of Breslau and the Upper Silesian dukes recognized the overlordship of King John I of Bohemia, while in 1335 King Casimir III of Poland accepted Bohemian control of most of Silesia (Treaties of Trenčín and Visegrád). Over the following centuries the lines of the Piast dukes of Silesia died out and were inherited by the Bohemian crown: John I, Count of Luxemburg John the Blind (Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Czech: Jan Lucemburský) (10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309, King of Bohemia, and titular King of Poland from 1310. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Trenčín (Hungarian: Trencsén, German: Trentschin, Latin: Laugaricio) is a town in western Slovakia (close to the Czech border) at the Váh river. ... Visegrád (–Hungarian, German: Plintenburg) is a small town in Pest County in Hungary with a long and rich history. ...

  • Wrocławska (of Wrocław) in 1335;
  • Świdnicka (of Świdnica) in 1368;
  • Oleśnicka (Oleśnica and Głogów) in 1476;
  • Żagańska (of Żagań) in 1504;
  • Opolska (of Opole) in 1532;
  • Cieszyńska (of Cieszyn) in 1625;
  • and Brzesko-Legnicka (of Brzeg and Legnica) in 1675.

Although Friedrich Wilhelm, the last male Silesian Piast Duke of Teschen (Cieszyn) died in 1625, rule of the duchy passed to his sister Elisabeth Lukretia, wife of the duke of Liechtenstein, until her death in 1653 after which it reverted to the empire under the Habsburg rulers. Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Old town Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Åšwidnica Åšwidnica (German Schweidnitz, Czech Svídnice) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... OleÅ›nica (German Oels or Öls. ... GÅ‚ogów (pronounce: [gÈ—oguv], German: Glogau, Czech: Hlohov, the latter rare) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... CoA of Å»agaÅ„ Å»agaÅ„ (French and German Sagan) is a town in western Poland with 26,500 inhabitants (2004). ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Divided city. ... Brzeg (German: ) is a town in southwestern Poland with 42,00 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Duchy of Cieszyn (Teschen) (Polish KsiÄ™stwo cieszyÅ„skie) was an independent duchy in the area of Cieszyn Silesia. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


By the end of the 14th century the country had been split up into 18 principalities: Wrocław, Brzeg, Głogów, Jawor, Legnica, Ziębice, Oleśnica, Świdnica and Ścinawa in Lower Silesia; Bytom, Niemodlin, Koźle, Nysa, Opole, Racibórz, Strzelce Opolskie, Cieszyn and Opava in the upper district. The petty rulers of these sections wasted their strength with internecine quarrels and proved quite incompetent to check the lawlessness of their feudal vassals. Save under the vigorous rule of some dukes of Lower Silesia, such as Henry I and Bolko I, and the above-named Henry II and IV, who succeeded in reuniting most of the principalities under their sway, the country fell into a state of growing anarchy. Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... GÅ‚ogów (pronounce: [gÈ—oguv], German: Glogau, Czech: Hlohov, the latter rare) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... Church of Peace Jawor (German: Jauer) is a town in southwestern Poland with 25,700 inhabitants (1998). ... ZiÄ™bice (German: ) is a town on the OÅ‚awa River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland. ... OleÅ›nica (German Oels or Öls. ... Old town Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Åšwidnica Åšwidnica (German Schweidnitz, Czech Svídnice) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... Åšcinawa (German: ) is a town in Poland, in Lower Silesia, in Lubin County, on the Oder River. ... Bytom ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland with 205,560 inhabitants (1999). ... Castle in Niemodlin Niemodlin (German: ) is a town in Opole County, Opole Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,911 inhabitants (2004). ... COSEL,or KOSEL, a town in Poland at the junction of the Klodnica and the Odra, 29 Ifl. ... Nysa (until 1946: German Neisse or Neiße; the current version is a Polish rendering of this) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa KÅ‚odzka river with 52,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Racibórz (-Polish, Czech: RatiboÅ™, German: Ratibor) is a town in southern Poland with 65,100 inhabitants (1995) situated in the Silesian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Katowice Voivodship (1975-1998). ... Strzelce Opolskie (German: ) is a town in south-western Poland with 19,628 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ... Divided city. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Opava First mentioned 1195 Mayor ZbynÄ›k Stanjura Area    - City 90,61 km² Elevation 257 m Population  - City 59 843 Postal code 746 01 Website: http://www. ... Bolko I (born between 1252 and 1256 - died 9 November 1301) was a grandson of Henry the Pious and second oldest son of BolesÅ‚aw II, the Duke of Legnica and Hedwig of Anhalt. ...


The inheritance of the Silesian duchies by Bohemia incorporated the region into the Holy Roman Empire. Under Emperor Charles IV, Silesia and especially Wrocław (Vratislav, Breslau) gained greatly in importance, as many great buildings and large Gothic churches were built. From the 13th century onward the population of the region became increasingly Germanized through the arrival of more German settlers and the assimilation of local rulers and peasants within this new German majority. Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria_Hungary The Czech lands (in Czech: &#268;eské zem&#283;) or Czechia (in Czech: &#268;esko) is an auxiliary term used for Bohemia + Moravia + Czech part of Silesia + other territories that were parts of the Kingdom of Bohemia (Lands of the Bohemian... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Between 1425 and 1435, devastation was caused by the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. The Hussites turned against the German population, and some regions, especially Upper Silesia, became partly Slavic-speaking again. Despite the widespread nature of the conflagration, Silesia remained largely Catholic, excluding Cieszyn Silesia where Hussite ideas became popular. Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - Sudomĕř – Vítkov – Vyšehrad – Nebovidy - Německý Brod – Hořice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: Śląsk Cieszyński, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ...


Under later rulers the connection with Bohemia brought the Silesians no benefit, but involved them in the destructive Hussite wars. At the outbreak of this conflict in 1420 they gave ready support to their king Sigismund against the Bohemian Hussites, whom they regarded as dangerous to their German nationality, but by this act they exposed themselves to a series of invasions (1425-1435) by which the country was severely devastated. In consequence of these raids the German element of population in Upper Silesia permanently lost ground; and a complete restitution of the Slavonic nationality seemed imminent on the appointment of the Hussite, George Podiebrad, to the Bohemian kingship in 1457. Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469). Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Sigismund is a common name. ... George of Podebrady - statue in KunÅ¡tát (Czech Republic). ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ...


Although part of the Holy Roman Empire, Silesia continued to have strong economic ties, especially through the Jewish merchants in the cities, with the neighbouring Kingdom of Poland during the Renaissance period and beyond. The word Jew ( Hebrew: &#1497;&#1492;&#1493;&#1491;&#1497;) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Matthias enforced his authority by the vigorous use of his mercenaries and by wholesale confiscations of the lands of turbulent nobles. By instituting a permanent diet of Silesian princes and estates to co-operate with his vicegerent, he took an important step towards the abolition of particularism and the establishment of an effective central government. In spite of these reforms the Silesians, who felt severely the financial exactions of Matthias, began to resent the control of the Bohemian crown. Profiting by the weakness of Matthias' successor Vladislav, they extorted concessions which secured them a practical autonomy. They still retained these privileges at the outset of the religious Reformation, which the Silesians, in spite of their Catholic zeal during the Hussite wars, accepted readily and carried out with singularly little opposition from within or without. In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Vladislaus, Wladislaus, Ladislaus or Ladislas (Polish: W&#322;adys&#322;aw, Czech, Russian: Vladislav, Hungarian: László) is the name of several kings and dukes of Poland, Hungary and Bohemia. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


But a drastic change in their government was imposed upon them by the German king, Ferdinand I, who had been prevented from interference during his early reign by his wars with the Turks, and who showed little disposition to check the Reformation in Silesia by forcible means, but subsequently reasserted the control of the Bohemian crown by a series of important enactments. He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether. Henceforth, too, annexations of territory were frequently carried out by the Bohemian crown on the extinction of Silesian dynasties, and the surviving princes showed an increasing reluctance to exercise their authority. Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed almost completely under foreign administration. See: Ferdinand I of Leon, the Great (ca. ...


Protestant Reformation

Upper Silesia's historical coat of arms
Upper Silesia's historical coat of arms

The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century took an early hold in Silesia, and most inhabitants became Lutheran. Many Reformation pastors contributed to developing and reemphasizing Slavic culture and language in Silesia. Image File history File links Upper_Silesia_coat_of_arms. ... Image File history File links Upper_Silesia_coat_of_arms. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty was elected King of Bohemia. In the same year he made the formerly elected Bohemian crown an inherited possession of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1537 the Piast Duke Frederick II of Brzeg concluded a treaty with Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, whereby the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg would inherit the duchy upon the extinction of the Piasts, but the treaty was rejected by Ferdinand. Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brzeg (German: ) is a town in southwestern Poland with 42,00 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire &#8212; German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) &#8212; were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Joachim II Hector Hohenzollern, Margrave of Brandenburg, Imperial Elector was born in 1505 and died in 1571. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ...


The religious conflicts and wars of the Reformation and Counter Reformation in the 17th century led many Silesian Protestants to seek refuge in the then-tolerant Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Thousands settled in the province of Greater Poland, under the protection of powerful Protestant magnates like Rafał Leszczyński. Silesian members of the Czech Brethren, under the leadership of Comenius, settled in Leszno. Protestant Silesians often circumvented restrictive laws by building their churches on the Polish side of the border. The Counter-Reformation (sometimes called the Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself and to protect itself from Protestant attacks (protests), starting with the middle of the sixteenth century, in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents BogusÅ‚aw LeszczyÅ„ski Anna Denhoff Consorts Anna JabÅ‚onowska Children with Anna JabÅ‚onowska StanisÅ‚aw LeszczyÅ„ski Date of Birth 1650 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 31, 1703 Place of Death PleÅ›nica RafaÅ‚ LeszczyÅ„ski (1650... The Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská, Latin: Unitas Fratrum, also known as Czech or Bohemian Brothers or Brethren) is a Christian denomination whose roots are in the pre-reformation work of Jan Hus, who was martyred in 1415. ... Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ... Leszno ( ), German Lissa, is a town in central Poland with 63,300 inhabitants (2001). ...


Thirty Years' War

Lower Silesia's historical coat of arms
Lower Silesia's historical coat of arms

The second "Defenestration of Prague" in 1618 sparked the Thirty Years' War, caused by King Ferdinand II's attempts to restore Catholicism and stamp out Protestantism within Bohemia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Defenestrations of Prague can refer to either of two incidents in the history of Bohemia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ...


Although Ferdinand requested assistance from the mostly Catholic Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Polish szlachta sympathized with the Bohemian and Hungarian nobility despite their religious differences and refused King Sigismund III Vasa's attempt to assist the Habsburgs. Finally, Sigismund decided to help the Habsburgs by sending an unemployed mercenary group called the Lisowczycy in late 1619, hoping to regain parts of Silesia in exchange. The Lisowczycy's support would prove decisive during the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. However, as the Habsburgs' situation improved, Emperor Ferdinand II did not agree to any concessions in Silesia, nor did he help in Poland's war against the Ottoman Empire, and the Polish kings never received anything except a vague set of promises and several brides to keep them favourably inclined to the Habsburg dynasty. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland... Lisowczyk - painting by Juliusz Kossak, circa 1860-65, a copy of Rembrandts famous painting. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ...


After the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Habsburgs greatly encouraged Catholicism and succeeded in reconverting to Catholicism about 60% of the population of Silesia. By 1675 the last Silesian Piast rulers had died out. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...


Kingdom of Prussia

Superior SilesiaUpper Silesia map of 1746
Superior Silesia
Upper Silesia map of 1746

In 1740, the annexation of Silesia by King Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia was welcomed by many Silesians, not only by Protestants or Germans. Frederick based his claims on the Treaty of Brieg and began the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). By war's end, the Kingdom of Prussia had conquered almost all of Silesia, while some parts of Silesia in the extreme southeast, like the Duchy of Cieszyn and Duchy of Opava, remained possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy. The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) confirmed Prussian control over most of Silesia, and the Prussian Province of Silesia became one of the most loyal provinces of Prussia. In 1815 the area around Görlitz, formerly part of Saxony, was incorporated into the province after the Napoleonic Wars. By this time German had become the only popular language in Lower Silesia, while dialects of Polish and Czech were used in most of the countryside of Upper Silesia. German was the most common language in most Silesian cities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x2500, 5208 KB) Summary Superiorem Silesiam - Upper Silesia map of 1746. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x2500, 5208 KB) Summary Superiorem Silesiam - Upper Silesia map of 1746. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... Duchy of Cieszyn (Teschen) (Polish KsiÄ™stwo cieszyÅ„skie) was an independent duchy in the area of Cieszyn Silesia. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Church towers in Görlitz. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ...


Silesia in Germany and Austria

Imperial German Silesia 1905
Imperial German Silesia 1905

As a Prussian province, Silesia became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany in 1871. There was considerable industrialization in Upper Silesia, and many people moved there at that time. The overwhelming majority of the population of Lower Silesia was by then German-speaking and many were Lutheran, including the capital Breslau. There were areas such as the District of Oppeln (then Regierungsbezirk Oppeln) and rural parts of Upper Silesia, however, where a larger portion or even majority of the population was Slavic-speaking and Roman Catholic. In Silesia as a whole, ethnic Poles comprised about 30% of the population[citation needed], but most of them lived around Katowice in the southeast of Upper Silesia and in 1849 Poles made up 58% of population [citation needed]. Many people from Poland moved into Germany, coming through Silesia, often going to Berlin during Industrialisation. and particularly to get away from Russian Polish territory. The installation of trains made mass movements possible and there were times, that trains would not stop in the eastern parts of Germany in order to curb the massive onslaught of people moving in from the east. The Kulturkampf set Catholics in opposition to the government and sparked a Polish revival, much of it fostered by Poles from outside of Germany, in the Upper Silesian parts of the province. The first conference of Hovevei Zion groups took place in Kattowitz (Katowice), German Empire in 1884. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1335, 1751 KB) Description: Historical map of Schlesien 1905 Source: Bibliothek allgemeinen und praktischen Wissens für Militäranwärter Band I, 1905 / Deutsches Verlaghaus Bong & Co Berlin * Leipzig * Wien * Stuttgart Author: Scan made by Kogo License: Public Domain, because copyright... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1335, 1751 KB) Description: Historical map of Schlesien 1905 Source: Bibliothek allgemeinen und praktischen Wissens für Militäranwärter Band I, 1905 / Deutsches Verlaghaus Bong & Co Berlin * Leipzig * Wien * Stuttgart Author: Scan made by Kogo License: Public Domain, because copyright... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... There are 439 German districts, administrative units in Germany. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... Hovevei Zion (transliterated Hebrew, alternatively Hibbat Zion; English translation: Lovers of Zion) organizations are considered the forerunner and foundation of the modern Zionist movement. ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
an account of rural life in German Silesia in the nineteenth centtury.

At the same time, the areas of Ostrava and Karvina in Austrian Silesia became increasingly industrialized. Most of the Polish-speaking people there, however, were Slavic Lutherans in contrast to the German-speaking Catholic Habsburg dynasty ruling Austria-Hungary. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... Location of Karviná in the Czech Republic Karviná (Polish: ) is a city in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


In 1900 the population of Austrian Silesia numbered 680,422, which corresponds to 342 inhabitants per square mile (132/km²). The Germans formed 44.69% of the population, 33.21% were Poles and 22.05% Czechs and Slavs. According to religion, 84% were Roman Catholics, 14% Protestants and the remainder were Jews. The local diet was composed of 31 members, and Silesia sent 12 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes Silesia was divided into 9 districts and 3 towns with autonomous municipalities: Troppau, the capital, Bielitz and Friedek. Other principal towns were: Teschen, Polnisch-Ostrau, Jagerndorf, Karwin, Freudenthal, Freiwaldau and Bennisch. In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... There was a Reichsrat in Germany, see Reichsrat (Germany) in the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary (Cisleithania), see Reichsrat (Austria) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location of Karviná in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Karviná First mentioned 1268  - Mayor Tomáš Hanzel (ÄŒSSD) Area    - City 57. ... Freudenthal is a surname and may refer to: Axel Olof Freudenthal Dave Freudenthal, U.S. politician Hans Freudenthal, mathematician Jacob Freudenthal (1839-1907), German philosopher Nathan Freudenthal Leopold, Jr. ... Jeseník (Czech: Frývaldov until 1947, German: Freiwaldau) is a city and a district in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. ...


In the Treaty of Versailles after the defeat of Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I, it was decided that the population of Upper Silesia should hold a plebiscite in order to determine the future of the province, with the exception of a 333 km² area around Hlučín (Hultschiner Ländchen), which was granted to Czechoslovakia in 1920 despite having a German majority. The plebiscite, organised by the League of Nations, was held in 1921. In Cieszyn Silesia firstly was an interim deal between Rada Narodowa Księstwa Cieszyńskiego and Národním Výborem pro Slezsko about partition past lands of the Duchy of Cieszyn according to ethnic lines. However, that deal was not approved by the Czechoslovak government in Prague. On 23 January 1919, Czechoslovakia invaded the lands of Cieszyn Silesia and stopped on 30 January 1919 on the Vistula River near Skoczów.[2][3] The planned plebiscite was not organised and the division of Cieszyn Silesia was decided on 28 July 1920 by the Ambassadors' Council at the Treaty of Versailles, which instituted the present-day border between Poland and the Czech Republic. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hlučín is city in Moravian-Silesian Region of Czech Republic (center of area named Hlučínsko). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Duchy of Cieszyn (Teschen) (Polish KsiÄ™stwo cieszyÅ„skie) was an independent duchy in the area of Cieszyn Silesia. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wis&#322;a), is the longest river in Poland. ... Skoczów is a town in southern Poland with 23,100 inhabitants (1995). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Interwar period

Military band walks under the sign made by Polish people of Karwina during the 1938 annexation of Zaolzie by Poland. The sign reads "We've been waiting for you 600 years".

After the referendum, there were three Silesian Insurrections instigated by Polish inhabitants of the area, as a result of which the League of Nations decided that the province should be split with areas where majority voted for Poland going to Poland and areas where majority voted for Germany going to Germany. The League decided that the eastern-most Upper Silesian areas where majority voted for Poland, should become an autonomous area within Poland organised as the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship (Autonomiczne Wojewodztwo Śląskie) and with Silesian Parliament as a constituency and Silesian Voivodship Council as the executive body. One of the central political figures that stirred these changes was Wojciech Korfanty. Image File history File linksMetadata Zaolzie_karwina_1938. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zaolzie_karwina_1938. ... Location of Karviná in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Karviná First mentioned 1268  - Mayor Tomáš Hanzel (ÄŒSSD) Area    - City 57. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania &#347;l&#261;skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after... Silesian Voivodeship (1920-1945) - an autonomous voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic created as a result of popular plebiscite 1921, 3 Silesian Uprisings and partition of Upper Silesia between Poland, Germany, and Czechoslovakia. ... The Silesian Parliament in Katowice. ... Wojciech Korfaty in 1905 Wojciech Korfanty (20 April 1873-17 August 1939) was a Polish nationalist activist, journalist and politician, serving as member of the German Reichstag and the Prussian Landtag, later in the Polish Sejm. ...


The Silesian Uprisings 1919-1921: The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania śląskie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The major part of Silesia, remaining in Germany, was reorganised into the two provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia. In Silesia the synagogues in Breslau and in many other cities were destroyed during the Kristallnacht of 1938. In October 1938, Cieszyn Silesia (the disputed area west of the Olza River, also called Zaolzie in Polish - 876 km² with 258,000 inhabitants), was taken by Poland from Czechoslovakia following the Munich Agreement that surrendered border areas of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany. Czech Silesia with Ostrau was incorporated into the Sudetenland Gau, while Hultschin was incorporated into Upper Silesia province. The First Silesian Uprising (Polish: Pierwsze powstanie Å›lÄ…skie, German: Erster Polnischer Aufstand) was the first out of three insurrections of Polish national extremists in the mixed Upper Silesia region (Part of the german/prussian province of Silesia) in order to occupy the region and join it to Poland, that... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Second Silesian Uprising (Polish: Drugie powstanie Å›lÄ…skie, German: Zweiter Polnischer Aufstand) was the second out of three military insurections of polish national extremists in the mixed Upper Silesia region (Part of the german/prussian province of Silesia) in order to occupy the region and join it to Poland... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Third Silesian Uprising (Polish: Trzecie powstanie Å›lÄ…skie, German: Dritter Polnischer Aufstand) was the last out of three military insurections of polish national extremists in the mixed Upper Silesia region (Part of the german/prussian province of Silesia) in order to occupy the region and join it to Poland... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Lower Silesia (Niederschlesien in German) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk CieszyÅ„ski, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ... Olza (Czech Ol&#353;e, German Olsa) is a river in Central Europe, right tributary of Oder. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... Gau can denote Gau, the German term for shire. ... Location of Hlučín in the Czech Republic Hlučín (German: , Polish: ) is a city in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ...


World War II

The German Reich retook possession of these mostly Polish parts of Upper Silesia along with Sosnowiec (Sosnowitz), Będzin (Bendzin, Bendsburg), Chrzanów (Krenau), and Zawiercie (Warthenau) counties and parts of Olkusz (Ilkenau) and Zywiec (Saybusch) counties in 1939, when the invasion of Poland marked the beginning of World War II. The local German populations frequently welcomed the Wehrmacht. In 1940 the Germans started to construct the Auschwitz concentration camp, which was later used as a death camp during the Holocaust. The Groß-Rosen concentration camp, which had subcamps in many Silesian cities, was also constructed in 1940. The Riese Project was later implemented, during which thousands of prisoners died. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Sielecki Castle Sosnowiec (pronounced: [sÉ”s:nÉ”vȋεʦ]) is a city located in the south of Poland, in a tributary of the Wisla (Vistula) river. ... BÄ™dzin Castle BÄ™dzin (pronounced: ) is a town in south Poland with 59,936 inhabitants (31 Dec 1999). ... Market square, Chrzanow, Poland Chrzanów is a town in south Poland with 42,100 inhabitants (1995). ... Zawiercie is a town in Silesian Voivodship, south Poland with 55,800 inhabitants (2005). ... Olkusz is a town in south Poland with 40,500 inhabitants (1995). ... &#379;ywiec is a town in southern Poland with 32,300 inhabitants (2001). ... Combatants Poland Germany, Slovakia, Soviet Union Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Gross-Rosen memorial (2005); above the entrance gate the phrase Arbeit macht frei KL Gross-Rosen (Groß-Rosen) was a German concentration camp, located in Gross-Rosen (Rogoźnica), Lower Silesia. ...


Silesia after WWII

In 1945, all of Silesia was occupied by the Soviet Red Army and Polish People's Army, in the course of the Silesian Offensives. By then a large portion of the German population had fled or were evacuated from Silesia out of fear of revenge by Soviet soldiers, but many returned after the German capitulation. Under the terms of the agreements at the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Agreement, both in 1945, German Silesia east of the rivers Oder and Lusatian Neisse Rivers was transferred to Poland (see Oder-Neisse line). Most of the remaining Silesian Germans, who before World War II amounted to more than four million, were forcibly expelled, some of them imprisoned in labour camps, e.g. Lamsdorf (Łambinowice) and Zgoda labour camp. Many perished in those camps. More than 30,000 Silesian men (majority of German roots, some having partially Polish roots) were deported to Soviet mines and Siberia, the majority of whom never returned. Others emigrated from Silesia in the years after the war (see German exodus from Eastern Europe). Soviet redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Piast eagle worn by LWP soldiers. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... World War II evacuation and expulsion refers to forced deportation, mass evacuation and displacement of peoples spurred on by the hostilities between Axis and Allied powers, and the border changes enacted in the post-war settlement. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Lusatian Neisse (German Lausitzer Neiße, Polish Nysa &#321;u&#380;ycka, Czech Lu&#382;ická Nisa) is a river in the Czech Republic (54 km) and on Polish-German border (198 km), in total 252 km long. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Łambinowice (German: ) is a village in western Poland, in the voivodeship of Opole, close to the town of Nysa. ... Camp Zgoda, main gate - monument Zgoda concentration camp - a concentration camp in Communist Poland, operated in 1945. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Expulsion of Germans after World_War II be merged into this article or section. ...


The industry of Silesia was rebuilt after the war and the region was repopulated by Poles, many of whom had themselves been expelled from eastern Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. A small German speaking remnant exists in the region around Opole (Oppeln), as well as some Slavic speaking and bilingual remnants of the pre-1945 population of Upper Silesia. In official Polish census 153,000 people declared German nationality, though up to 500,000 are of German ancestry.[citation needed] Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ...


Natural resources

Silesia is a resource-rich and populous region. Coal and iron are both abundant, and a substantial manufacturing industry is present. In post-communist times, however, the outdated nature of many of the facilities has led to environmental problems. The region also has a thriving agricultural sector, which produces mainly grains, potatoes, and sugar beets. The largest centre of copper mining in Poland lies in Lower Silesia between the cities of Legnica (Liegnitz), Głogów, Lubin and Polkowice. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... GÅ‚ogów (pronounce: [gÈ—oguv], German: Glogau, Czech: Hlohov, the latter rare) is a town in southwestern Poland. ...


Demographics

Modern Silesia is inhabited mostly by Poles, but also by minorities of Germans, Czechs, Ukrainians, and Moravians. The last Polish census of 2002 showed that the Slavic Silesians are the largest ethnic minority in Poland, Germans being the second — both groups are located mostly in Upper Silesia. The Czech part of Silesia is inhabited by Czechs, Moravians, and Poles. This article deals with the modern national/ethnic group. ...


Before the Second World War, Silesia was inhabited by Germans, Poles, Jews and Czechs. In 1905, a census showed that 75% of the population was German and 25% Polish. Most Jews were murdered in the Holocaust in the German concentration camps. The vast majority of German Silesians fled or were expelled from Silesia during and after World War II. Most ethnic German Silesians today live in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, many of them working as miners in the Ruhr area, like their ancestors did in the Silesian mines. In order to smooth their integration into West German society after 1945, they were organized into officially recognized organisations, like the Landsmannschaft Schlesien, financed from the federal German budget. One of its most notable but controversial spokesmen was the CDU politician Herbert Hupka. The prevailing public opinion in Germany is that these organisations will achieve reconciliation with the Polish Silesians, which is gradually occurring. Many of the pre-war Germanised Slavic Silesians living in Upper Silesia have remained culturally bound to and have sought work in the Federal Republic of Germany after 1990, along with their ethnic German Silesian countrymen. Examples of mixed Polish-German Silesians include Miroslav Klose; fellow teammate Lukas Podolski is also Silesian. Both are stars of the German national football team. Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... Landsmannschaft Schlesien - Nieder- und Oberschlesien e. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... Dr. phil. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Miroslav Klose (born, June 9, 1978 in Opole, Silesia, Poland as MirosÅ‚aw Marian Kloze) is a German footballer who plays as a striker. ... Lukas Podolski (IPA–German: ) (born as on June 4, 1985 in Gliwice, Silesia, Poland, nicknamed (Prinz) Poldi, is a German footballer of Polish origin. ... First international  Switzerland 5 - 3 Germany (Basel, Switzerland; 5 April 1908) Biggest win Germany 13 - 0 San MArino (Stockholm, Sweden; 1 July 1912) Biggest defeat England amateur 9 - 0 Germany (Oxford, England; 16 March 1909) World Cup Appearances 16 (First in 1934) Best result - Winners, 1954, 1974, 1990 European Championship...


Cities in Silesia

The following table lists cities in Silesia with a population greater than 100,000 (2006):

Wrocław
Katowice
Ostrava
Opole
Görlitz
Official name Population Area Administrative Country
1 Wrocław 635 932 293 km² Lower Silesian V.
2 Katowice 317 220 165 km² Silesian Voivodeship
3 Ostrava 309 531 214 km² Moravian-Silesian R.
4 Gliwice 199 451 134 km² Silesian Voivodeship
5 Bytom 187 943 69 km² Silesian Voivodeship
6 Zabrze 191 247 80 km² Silesian Voivodeship
7
Bielsko-Biała 176 864 125 km² Silesian Voivodeship
8
Ruda Śląska 146 658 78 km² Silesian Voivodeship
9 Rybnik 141 580 148 km² Silesian Voivodeship
10 Tychy 131 153 82 km² Silesian Voivodeship
11 Opole 128 268 97 km² Opole Voivodeship
12
Wałbrzych 126 465 85 km² Lower Silesian V.
13
Zielona Góra 118 221 58 km² Lubusz Voivodeship
14
Chorzów 114 686 33 km² Silesian Voivodeship
15 Legnica 105 750 56 km² Lower Silesian V.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 300 KB) Osrednji mestni trg (rynek) | WrocÅ‚aw, 1. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (820 × 620 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poland Katowice Upper... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x685, 122 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Ostrava ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1022x632, 187 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 933 pixel, file size: 1. ... Church towers in Görlitz. ... Image File history File links Herb_wroclaw. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Katowice_Herb. ... Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... Moravian-Silesian Region (Czech: Moravskoslezský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Gliwice_herb. ... Gliwice (pronounce: [gliviʦε]; German: ), is an industrial city in southern Poland with 200,361 inhabitants (2004) over the KÅ‚odnica River, about 20 km to the west from Katowice. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Bytom_herb. ... Bytom ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland with 205,560 inhabitants (1999). ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Zabrze_COA.svg‎ real name: Artur Jan FijaÅ‚kowski pl. ... Zabrze (pronounced: [zabʒε]; German: , from 1915-1945 Hindenburg) is a city in southern Poland with 194,041 inhabitants (2004). ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a_COA.svg‎ pl: Herb Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Silesian Voivodeship Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a ... Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a (pronounce: [[Media:Bielsko-Biala. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Ruda_ÅšlÄ…ska_COA.svg‎ en: Coat of arms of Ruda ÅšlÄ…ska pl: Herb Rudy ÅšlÄ…skiej File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Silesian Voivodeship Ruda ÅšlÄ…ska ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska Ruda ÅšlÄ…ska Mayor Andrzej Stania Area 77,7 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 149 000 - 1910/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 50°16 N 18°42 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SRS Twin towns - Municipal Website Ruda Åšl... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Rybnik_COA.svg‎ en: Coat of arms of Rybnik pl: Herb Rybnika Author: Olek Remesz (wiki-pl: Orem, commons: Orem) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Silesian Voivodeship Rybnik Coat of... Rybnik (pronounced: [ribnik]) is a city in southern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodship, close to the border with the Czech Republic, about 290 km south of the Polish capital Warsaw (Warszawa) and about 100 km west of Kraków, on the southern outskirts of the Upper Silesian industrial and metropolitan... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Tychy_COA.svg‎ real name: Artur Jan FijaÅ‚kowski pl. ... Tychy (pronounce: [tixi], German: ) is a city in southern Poland with a population of 132,600. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Opole_COA.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Opole ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_WaÅ‚brzych_COA.svg‎ pl: Herb WaÅ‚brzych File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia WaÅ‚brzych ... WaÅ‚brzych (pronounce: [vawbÊ’ix], German Waldenburg) is a town in south-western Poland with 139,600 inhabitants (1995). ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links POL_Zielona_Góra_COA.svg‎ pl: Herb Zielona Góra File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Silesia Zielona Góra ... Motto: Miasto przyszÅ‚oÅ›ci City of future Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lubusz Powiat city county Gmina Zielona Góra Estabilished 13th century City Rights 1323 Government  - Mayor Janusz Kubicki Area  - City 58. ... Lubusz Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubuskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of western Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Chorzów_herb. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta Chorzów Mayor Marek Kopel Area 33,5 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 117 430 - 2856/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 50°18 N 18°57 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SH Twin towns - Municipal Website Chorzów... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Legnica_herb. ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ...

See also

List of Silesians lists people who served Silesia and Silesian case: Alphabetical order A Kurt Alder 1902-1958; de Adolf Anderssen 1818-1879; de Hans Assmann Freiherr von Abschatz; de B Hans Baluschek; de Max Berg 1870-1947 Friedrich Bergius 1884-1949 Günter Blobel 1936- Max Born 1882-1970... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Silesian architecture Silesian architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Silesia throughout time, and those by Silesian architects world-wide. ... This article is about the Polish dialect. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania śląskie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... Girl in Upper Silesian dress from Mysłowice, 2006 Woman in Silesian dress from Teschen, 1914 Silesians (Silesian: Ślônzoki; Polish: ; Czech: ; German: ) are the West Slavic inhabitants of Silesia (Czech: ) , Poland and Czech Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Cavalli Sforza, "Genes, Peoples, and Languages", Scientific American, November 1991
  2. ^ Długajczyk 1993, 7.
  3. ^ Zahradnik 1992, 59.

References

  • Długajczyk, Edward (1993). Tajny front na granicy cieszyńskiej. Wywiad i dywersja w latach 1919-1939. Katowice: Śląsk. ISBN 83-85831-03-7. 
  • Zahradnik, Stanisław; and Marek Ryczkowski (1992). Korzenie Zaolzia. Warszawa - Praga - Trzyniec: PAI-press. 

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Panorama of Katowice at night Katowice (pronunciation: [] (Czech: Katovice, German: Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the KÅ‚odnica and Rawa rivers. ... Warszawa can refer to: Warsaw, capital city of Poland Warszawa, a song written by David Bowie and Brian Eno off the album Low. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Location of TÅ™inec in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Frýdek-Místek First mentioned 1444  - Mayor VÄ›ra Palkovská Area    - City 85. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Further reading

  • Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, 1st Series, volume XI, Upper Silesia, Poland, and the Baltic States, January 1920-March 1921, edited by Rohan Butler, MA, J.P.T.Bury, MA, & M.E.Lambert, MA, Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), London, 1961 (amended edition 1974), ISBN 0-11-591511-7*
  • Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, 1st Series, volume XVI, Upper Silesia, March 1921 - November 1922, edited by W.N.Medlicott, MA, D.Lit., Douglas Dakin, MA, PhD, & M.E.Lambert, MA, HMSO, London, 1968.

Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Roger Moorhouse (born 14 October 1968) is a British historian and author. ... Jonathan Cape has been since 1987 an imprint of Random House. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Silesia
  • Republic of Silesia page
  • Silesian Autonomy Movement page
  • Silesia on Germany Map of 1600
  • Map of Silesia in 1763
  • Old postcards from Silesian towns
  • Photos from Silesian towns, villages and communities before 1946
  • Map of Silesia as of 2000
  • Silesia in maps of Europe
  • Silesian Digital Library
  • Combined European History Exhibit by Germans, Poles, Czech, Slovaks and Hungarians

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Silesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3771 words)
In the Middle Ages, Silesia was a Piast Duchy, which subsequently became a possession of the Bohemian crown under the Holy Roman Empire and passed with that crown to the Austrian Habsburgs in 1526.
According to Tacitus, the 1st century Silesia was inhabited by a multi-ethnic league dominated by the Lugii.
Under the terms of the agreements at the Yalta Conference of 1944 and the Potsdam Agreement of 1945, German Silesia east of the rivers Oder (Odra) and Lusatian Neisse (Nysa Łużycka) was transferred to Poland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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