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Encyclopedia > Silent film
Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films
Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films

A silent film is a motion picture with no synchronized recorded sound, especially spoken dialogue. Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... This article is about the comedy film. ... -1... -1... For the 1962 film version, see Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (film). ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ...


The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the motion picture itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, most films were silent before the late 1920s. Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


The silent film era is sometimes referred to as the "Age of the Silver Screen".

Contents

History

Roundhay Garden Scene, the first film recorded
Roundhay Garden Scene, the first film recorded
Main article: History of film

The first film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two second film of people walking around in a garden, called Roundhay Garden Scene. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The History of film spans over a hundred years, from the latter part of the 19th Century to the beginning of the 21st. ... Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (28 August 1841, vanished 16 September 1890) was an inventor who is generally recognized as the first person to record motion images on film. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


The art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era" before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" in the late 1920s. Many film scholars and buffs argue that the aesthetic quality of cinema decreased for several years until directors, actors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies". 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ...


The visual quality of silent movies — especially those produced during the 1920s — was often extremely high. However, there is a widely held misconception that these films were primitive and barely watchable by modern standards. This misconception is due to technical errors (such as films being played back at wrong speed) and due to the deteriorated condition of many silent films (many silent films exist only in second or even third generation copies which were often copied from already damaged and neglected film stock).


Intertitles

Main article: Intertitle

Because silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience. The title writer became a key professional in silent film and was often separate from the scenario writer who created the story. Intertitles (or titles as they were generally called at the time) often became graphic elements themselves, featuring illustrations or abstract decorations that commented on the action. In motion pictures, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of (i. ...


Live music and sound

Showings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the pianist at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris.[1] From the beginning, music was recognized as essential, contributing to the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues (musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons). Small town and neighborhood movie theaters usually had a pianist. From the mid-teens onward, large city theaters tended to have organists or entire orchestras. Massive theatrical organs such as the famous "mighty Wurlitzer" could simulate some orchestral sounds along with a number of sound effects. The Lumière Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, usually referred to simply as Wurlitzer, is an American company, formerly a producer of stringed instruments, woodwind, brass instruments, theatre organs, band organs, orchestrions, electric pianos and jukeboxes. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ...


The scores for silents were often more or less improvised early in the medium's history. Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from Photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which would send out a cue sheet with the film. Starting with mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D.W. Griffith's groundbreaking epic The Birth of a Nation (USA, 1915) it became relatively common for films to arrive at the exhibiting theater with original, specially composed scores.[2] Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Photoplay Music is the term given to music written specifically for the accompaniment of silent films. ... A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... A film score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... Joseph Carl Breil (29 June 1870, Pittsburgh - 24 January 1926, Los Angeles) composed the scores for early motion picture epics such as D. W. Griffiths Birth of a Nation and Intolerance, as well as the theme to the Amos n Andy radio show. ... David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ...


By the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians (at least in America). But the introduction of talkies, which happened simultaneously with the onset of the Great Depression, was devastating to many musicians. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Some countries devised other ways of bringing sound to silent films. The early cinema of Brazil featured fitas cantatas: filmed operettas with singers lip-synching behind the screen.[3] In Japan, films had not only live music but also the benshi, a live narrator who provided commentary and character voices. The benshi became a central element in Japanese film form, as well as providing translation for foreign (mostly American) movies.[4] Their popularity was one reason why silents persisted well into the 1930s in Japan. The cinema of Brazil started in 1930. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Benshi (弁士 in Japanese) were performers who provided live narration for silent Japanese films. ...


Few film scores have survived intact from this period, and musicologists are still confronted by questions in attempting a precise reconstruction of those which remain. Scores can be distinguished as complete reconstructions of composed scores, newly composed for the occasion, assembled from already existing music libraries, or even improvised.


Critical in the development of the silent score is the theater organ designed to fill a gap between a simple piano soloist and a larger orchestra. Theater organs had a wide range of special effects, and used actual percussion. A theatre organ is an organ installed in a movie theatre, most often modelled after the style originally devised by Robert Hope-Jones, which he called a unit orchestra. Such instruments were typically built to provide the greatest possible variety of timbres with the fewest possible pipes, and often had... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ...


Interest in the scoring of silent films fell somewhat out of fashion during the 1960s and 1970s. There was a belief current in many college film programs and repertory cinemas that audiences should experience silent film as a pure visual medium, undistracted by music. This belief may have been encouraged by the poor quality of the music tracks found on many silent film reprints of the time. More recently, there has been a revival of interest in presenting silent films with quality musical scores, either reworkings of period scores or cue sheets, or composition of appropriate original scores. A watershed event in this context was Francis Ford Coppola's 1980 restoration of Abel Gance's Napoleon (1927) with a live orchestral score composed by his father Carmine Coppola. Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Abel Gance (October 25, 1889 - November 10, 1981) was a world-renowned French film director, producer, writer, actor and editor. ...


Notable current specialists in the art of arranging and performing silent film scores include Steven Ball (of Ann Arbor's Michigan Theater); Rosa Rio (organist at the Brooklyn Fox during the silent era and now at the Tampa Theater), Ben Model, Neil Brand, Phillip C. Carli, Jon Mirsalis, Dennis James and Donald Sosin. Carl Davis has created entirely new scores for silent era classics. Robert Israel has written new scores for the comedies of Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd. In addition to composing original film scores Timothy Brock has restored many of Charlie Chaplin's scores. Some ensemble groups have specialized in accompanying silent films, including Silent Orchestra, Alloy Orchestra and the Mont Alto Motion Picture Orchestra. Neil Brand is a British writer, composer, and a world-renowned silent film accompanist. ... James and the console of the organ of Seattles Paramount Theater, 2007. ... Carl Davis CBE (born October 28, 1936, New York City, United States) is an American conductor and composer who has been living in the UK since 1961. ... Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... Harold Clayton Lloyd (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was an American film actor and director, most famous for his silent comedies. ... Timothy Brock (b. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ...


Acting techniques

Lillian Gish was a major star of the silent era and continued to promote the art of silent films until her death
Lillian Gish was a major star of the silent era and continued to promote the art of silent films until her death

Silent film actors emphasised body language and facial expression so that the audience could better understand what an actor was feeling and portraying on screen. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,725 × 3,517 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,725 × 3,517 pixels, file size: 1. ... Lillian Diana de Guiche (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993), was an Oscar-nominated American actress, better known as Lillian Gish. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ...


Much silent film acting is apt to strike modern-day audiences as simplistic or campy. For this reason, silent comedies tend to be more popular in the modern era than drama, partly because overacting is more natural in comedy. Camp is an aesthetic in which something has appeal because of its bad taste or ironic value. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ...


The melodramatic acting style was in some cases a habit actors transferred from their former stage experience. The pervading presence of stage actors in film was the cause of this outburst from director Marshall Neilan in 1917: "The sooner the stage people who have come into pictures get out, the better for the pictures." In other cases, directors such as John Griffith Wray required their actors to deliver larger-than-life expressions for emphasis. As early as 1914, American viewers had begun to make known their preference for greater naturalness on screen. In any case, the large image size and unprecedented intimacy the actor enjoyed with the audience began to affect acting style, making for more subtlety of expression. Actresses such as Mary Pickford in all her films, Eleanora Duse in the Italian film Cenere (1916), Janet Gaynor in Sunrise, Priscilla Dean in The Dice Woman and Lillian Gish in most of her performances made restraint and easy naturalism in acting a virtue. Directors such as Albert Capellani (a French import who directed several Alla Nazimova films) and Maurice Tourneur insisted on naturalism in their films; Tourneur had been just such a minimalist in his prior stage productions. Many mid-20s American silent films were quite thoughtfully acted, though as late as 1927 such patently overacted movies as Metropolis were still being released. Some viewers liked the flamboyant acting for its escape value, and some countries were later than the United States in embracing naturalness in their films. Just like today, a film's success depended upon the setting, the mood, the script, the skills of the director and the overall talent of the cast.[5] Marshall Neilan, 1920 Marshall Ambrose Neilan (April 11, 1891 - October 27, 1958) was an important pioneer motion picture actor, screenwriter, film director, and producer. ... Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was an Oscar-winning Canadian motion picture star and co-founder of United Artists in 1919. ... Duse, Time, Jul. ... Janet Gaynor (October 6, 1906 – September 14, 1984) was an American actress who, in 1928, became the first winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress. ... Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (aka Sunrise) is a 1927 American film directed by F.W. Murnau. ... Priscilla Dean (November 25, 1896 - December 27, 1987) was an American actress popular in movies as well as in theatre. ... Lillian Diana de Guiche (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993), was an Oscar-nominated American actress, better known as Lillian Gish. ... Alla Nazimova, born Mariam Edez Adelaida Leventon (May 22, 1879 – July 14, 1945) was an American theater and film actress, scriptwriter, and producer. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ...


Projection speed

Up until around 1925, most silent films were shot at slower speeds (or "frame rates") than sound films, typically at 16 to 23 frames per second depending on the year and studio, rather than 24 frames per second. Unless carefully shown at their original speeds they can appear unnaturally fast and jerky, which reinforces their alien appearance to modern viewers. At the same time, some scenes were intentionally undercranked during shooting in order to accelerate the action, particularly in the case of slapstick comedies. The intended frame rate of a silent film can be ambiguous and since they were usually hand cranked there can even be variation within one film. Film speed is often a vexed issue among scholars and film buffs in the presentation of silents today, especially when it comes to DVD releases of "restored" films; the 2002 restoration of Metropolis (Germany, 1927) may be the most fiercely debated example. Fast motion, also called accelerated motion, is an effect resulting from running film through a movie camera at slower-than-normal speed. ... For other uses, see Slapstick (disambiguation). ... The film preservation movement is an ongoing project among filmmakers, historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue aging film stock and preserve recorded images. ... Metropolis is a very early science fiction film that was produced in Germany during the brief years of the Weimar Republic. ...


Projectionists frequently showed silent films at speeds which were slightly faster than the rate at which they were shot. Most films seem to have been shown at 18 fps or higher - some even faster than what would become sound film speed (24 fps). Even if shot at 16 fps (often cited as "silent speed"), the projection of a nitrate base 35mm film at such a slow speed carried a considerable risk of fire. Often projectionists would receive instructions from the distributors as to how fast particular reels or scenes should be projected on the musical director's cue sheet. Theaters also sometimes varied their projection speeds depending on the time of day or popularity of a film in order to maximize profit.[6]


Top grossing silent films

Scene from Birth of a Nation
Scene from Birth of a Nation

The following are the films that earned the highest ever gross income in film history, according to Variety magazine in 1932. The dollar amounts are not adjusted for inflation, and the values were calculated in 1932.[7] Image File history File links scene from The Birth of a Nation, 1915 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links scene from The Birth of a Nation, 1915 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ...

  1. The Birth of a Nation (1915) - $10,000,000
  2. The Big Parade (1925) - $6,400,000
  3. Ben-Hur (1925) - $5,500,000
  4. Way Down East (1920) - $5,000,000
  5. The Gold Rush (1925) - $4,250,000
  6. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) - $4,000,000
  7. The Circus (1928) - $3,800,000
  8. The Covered Wagon (1923) - $3,800,000
  9. The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) - $3,500,000
  10. The Ten Commandments (1923) - $3,400,000
  11. Orphans of the Storm (1921) - $3,000,000
  12. For Heaven's Sake (1926) - $2,600,000
  13. Seventh Heaven (1926) - $2,400,000
  14. Abie's Irish Rose (1928) - $1,500,000

For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ... The Big Parade is a 1925 silent film which tells the story of an idle rich boy who is shipped off to France to fight World War I, becomes friends with two working class men, experiences the horrors of trench warfare, and finds love with a French girl. ... Ben-Hur is the second silent film, and first feature-length version, based on the novel Ben-Hur by Lew Wallace. ... Way Down East is a 1920 film directed by D.W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish and Richard Barthelmess. ... The Gold Rush is a 1925 silent film comedy written, directed by, and starring Charlie Chaplin in his Little Tramp role. ... For the 1962 film version, see Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (film). ... The Circus is a 1928 silent film which finds Charlie Chaplins Little Tramp character being chased by a police officer at a circus. ... Directed by James Cruze J. Warren Kerrigan with Lois Wilson on set of The Covered Wagon The Covered Wagon is a 1923 American silent Western feature film released by Paramount Pictures. ... The 1923 film version of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, starring Lon Chaney as Quasimodo and Patsy Ruth Miller as Esmeralda, and directed by Wallace Worsley, is one of the more famous adaptations of Victor Hugos novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame. ... The Ten Commandments is a 1923 epic silent film directed by Cecil B. DeMille, starring Theodore Roberts as Moses, Charles de Rochefort as Pharaoh Rameses, Estelle Taylor as Miriam the sister of Moses, and James Neill as Aaron, the brother of Moses. ... A 1921 film by D.W. Griffith set in late 19th century France, before and during the French Revolution. ... For Heavens Sake is a 1926 comedy silent film starring Harold Lloyd. ... For other uses, see Seventh Heaven (disambiguation) Seventh Heaven is a 1927 silent film that was one of the first films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture (then called Best Picture, Production). The film was written by H.H. Caldwell (titles), Benjamin Glazer, Katherine Hilliker (titles... Abies Irish Rose is a Broadway play by Anne Nichols about a Catholic girl who marries into an Jewish family. ...

Silent films in the sound era

Silent gives way to sound

Although attempts to create sync-sound motion pictures go back to the Edison lab in 1896, the technology became well-developed only in the early 1920s. The next few years saw a race to design, implement, and market several rival sound-on-disc and sound-on-film sound formats. Although The Jazz Singer's release in 1927 marked the first commercially successful sound film, silent films formed the majority of features produced in both 1927 and 1928. Thus the modern sound film era may be regarded as coming to dominance beginning in 1929. The term Sound-on-disc refers to a class of sound film processes utilizing a phonograph or other disc to record or playback sound in sync with a motion picture. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ...


Silent films in the early sound era

For a listing of notable silent era films, see list of years in film for the years between the beginning of film and 1928. The following list includes only films produced in the sound era with the specific artistic intention of being silent. This list of years in film indexes the individual year in film pages. ...

The Docks of New York is a 1928 film which tells the story of a prostitute who tries to rise above her life on the docks by finding love. ... Josef von Sternberg (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director. ... Diary of a Lost Girl (German: Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) is a 1929 film directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... Pandoras Box (Die Büchse der Pandora) was a German silent film directed by G.W. Pabst and released in 1929. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... Opening shot A street in the morning In this shot, Mikhail Kaufman acts as a cameraman risking his life in search of the best shot Man with a Movie Camera, sometimes The Man with the Movie Camera, The Man with a Camera, The Man With the Kinocamera, or Living Russia... Dziga Vertov Dziga (Dzyga) Vertov (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) January 2, 1896–February 12, 1954) was a Russian pioneer documentary film and newsreel director. ... Earth (Russian and Ukrainian: Земля, translit. ... Alexander Dovzhenko was a Soviet filmmaker. ... Love Is Strength ) is a 1930 Japanese drama film directed by Mikio Naruse and written by Takao Yanai. ... Mikio Naruse Mikio Naruse (成瀬巳喜男 Naruse Mikio) (August 20, 1905 – July 2, 1969) was a Japanese film director, writer and producer who directed some 89 films spanning from the end of the silent era (1930) through the sixties (1967). ... City Lights is a 1931 film written by, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Tabu (also called Tabu, a Story of the South Seas) is a 1931 film which tells the story of two lovers in the South Seas, who must escape their village when the girl is chosen as the holy maid to the gods. ... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 - March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... Robert Joseph Flaherty (February 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Michigan, United States - July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vermont) was a filmmaker who directed and produced the first feature length documentary (Nanook of the North) in 1922. ... I Was Born, But. ... Yasujiro Ozu (小津 安二郎 Ozu Yasujirō) (December 12, 1903 - December 12, 1963) was an influential Japanese film director. ... A Story of Floating Weeds is a 1934 film directed by Yasujiro Ozu which he later remade as Floating Weeds in 1959. ... Yasujiro Ozu (小津 安二郎 Ozu Yasujirō) (December 12, 1903 - December 12, 1963) was an influential Japanese film director. ... Modern Times is a 1936 film by Charlie Chaplin that has his famous Little Tramp character struggling to survive in the modern, industrialized world. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ...

Later homages

Several filmmakers have paid homage to the comedies of the silent era, including Jacques Tati with his Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot (1953) and Mel Brooks with Silent Movie (1976). Taiwanese director Hou Hsiao-Hsien's acclaimed drama Three Times (2005) is silent during its middle third, complete with intertitles; Stanley Tucci's The Impostors has an opening silent sequence in the style of early silent comedies. Writer / Director Michael Pleckaitis puts his own twist on the genre with Silent (2007). Reminiscent of Pleasantville (1998), it's done in the vein of a silent movie from the earliest days of cinema. Jacques Tati as Monsieur Hulot. ... Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot was Jacques Tatis most famous film, released in 1953. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... This article is about the comedy film. ... Hou Hsiao-Hsien (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hou2 Hsiao4-hsien2) (born April 8, 1947) is an award-winning film director and a leading figure of Taiwans New Wave cinema movement. ... Three Times (最好的時光; Zui hao de shi guang; lit. ... Stanley Tucci, Jr. ... The Impostors is a 1998 farce motion picture written and directed by Stanley Tucci, starring Oliver Platt, Stanley Tucci, Alfred Molina, Tony Shalhoub, Steve Buscemi, and Billy Connolly. ... Pleasantville may refer to: Pleasantville, Iowa, USA Pleasantville, New Jersey, USA Pleasantville, New York, USA Pleasantville, Ohio. ...


The 1999 German film Tuvalu is mostly silent; the small amount of dialog is an odd mix of European languages, increasing the film's universality. Guy Maddin won awards for his homage to Soviet era silent films with his short The Heart of the World after which he made a feature-length silent, Brand Upon the Brain! (2006), incorporating live Foley artists, narration and orchestra at select showings. Shadow of the Vampire (2000) is a highly fictionalized depiction of the filming of Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's classic silent vampire movie Nosferatu (1922). Werner Herzog honored the same film in his own version, Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht (1979). Some films draw a direct contrast between the silent film era and the era of talkies. Sunset Boulevard shows the disconnect between the two eras in the character of Norma Desmond, played by silent film star Gloria Swanson. Guy Maddin (born February 28, 1956) is a Canadian screenwriter and director of both features and short films. ... The Heart of the World is a 2000 very original short film, written and directed by Guy Maddin, produced for Toronto International Film Festival. ... Brand Upon the Brain! (2006) is a silent film directed by Guy Maddin. ... The Foley artist on a film crew is the person who creates many of the natural, everyday sound effects in a film, which are recorded during a session with a recording engineer. ... Shadow of the Vampire is a movie that opened in the United States on December 29, 2000. ... F. W. Murnau. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror) is a German Expressionist film by Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok. ... Werner Herzog (born Werner Stipetić on September 5, 1942) is a critically and internationally acclaimed German film director, screenwriter, actor, and opera director. ... It has been suggested that Norma Desmond be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sunset Boulevard (1950 film). ... Gloria Swanson (March 27, 1899 - April 4, 1983), was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American Hollywood actress. ...


In 1999, the famous Finnish filmmaker Aki Kaurismäki produced Juha which captures the style of a silent film, using intertitles in place of spoken dialogue.[8] Aki Olavi Kaurismäki ( ) (born April 4, 1957 in Orimattila, Finland) is a Finnish script writer and film director. ...


In India, the 1988 film Pushpak[9], starring Kamal Hassan, was a black comedy entirely devoid of dialog. Pushpak (English title: The Love Chariot) is a dark comedy film released in 1988. ... Kamal Haasan (born November 7, 1954) is an Indian movie star working mainly in the Tamil film industry. ...


At least two stage plays have drawn upon silent film styles and sources. Actor/writers Billy Van Zandt & Jane Milmore staged their Off-Broadway slapstick comedy Silent Laughter as a live action tribute to the silent screen era.[10] Geoff Sobelle and Trey Lyford created and starred in All Wear Bowlers (2004) which started as an homage to Laurel and Hardy then evolved to incorporate life-sized silent film sequences of Sobelle and Lyford who jump back and forth between live action and the silver screen.[11] Laurel and Hardy, in a promotional still from their 1937 feature film Way Out West. ...


Preservation and lost films

Main articles: Lost film and Film preservation

Many early motion pictures are lost because the nitrate film used in that era was extremely unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video. It has often been claimed that around 75% of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data.[12] Major silent films presumed lost include Saved From the Titanic (1912);[13] The Apostle, the world's first animated feature film (1917); Cleopatra (1917);[14] Arirang (1926); Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1927);[15] The Great Gatsby (1926); and London After Midnight (1927). Though most lost silent films will never be recovered, some have been discovered in film archives or private collections. Lost film is a term used to describe any feature film that no longer exists in either studio archives or private collections. ... The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Saved From the Titanic is a 1912 silent film starring Dorothy Gibson, an actual Titanic survivor. ... El Apóstol (The Apostle) is a 1917 Argentine animated film and is believed to be the first animated feature film. ... This is a list of animated feature-length films from around the world organised chronologically by year; theatrical releases as well as made-for-TV and direct-to-video movies. ... The 1917 Cleopatra was directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starred Theda Bara in the title role. ... Arirang is a 1926 Korean film. ... This silent version of the Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, directed by Malcolm St. ... The Great Gatsby is a 1926 silent film adaptation of the novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. ... London After Midnight is a 1927 silent horror lost film, starring Lon Chaney, Sr. ... Many films of the silent era have been lost. ...


In 1978 in Dawson City, Canadian Yukon, a bulldozer uncovered buried reels of nitrate film during excavation of a landfill. Dawson City used to be the end of the distribution line for many films, and the titles were stored at the local library until 1929 when the flammable nitrate was used as landfill in a condemned swimming pool. Stored for 50 years under the permafrost of the Yukon, the films turned out to be extremely well preserved. Included in this treasure trove were films by Pearl White, Harold Lloyd, Douglas Fairbanks, and Lon Chaney, Sr.. These films are now housed at the Library of Congress.[16] The Town of the City of Dawson or Dawson City is a town in the Yukon Territory, Canada. ... Pearl Fay White, born March 4, 1889 in Green Ridge, Missouri, United States - died August 4, 1938 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, was a singer and star of silent film. ... Harold Clayton Lloyd (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was an American film actor and director, most famous for his silent comedies. ... Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... Lon Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930), nicknamed The Man of a Thousand Faces, was an American actor during the age of silent films. ...


The degradation of old film stock can be slowed through proper archiving, or digitization can preserve films. Silent film preservation has been a high priority among movie historians. The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ...


See also

Classic Images is a monthly American magazine first published in 1962 dedicated to vintage motion pictures. ... This is a list of Laurel and Hardy films which starred or at least featured Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy. ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... Decades before the video revolution of the late 1970s/early 1980s, there was a small but devoted market for home films in the 16 mm, 8 mm, and Super 8 mm film market. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Soundstage redirects here. ... A lost film is a film which, for any of several reasons, is no longer in existence. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film, 2nd edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-95553-2
  2. ^ Eyman, Scott. The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution, 1926-1930. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN 0-684-81162-6
  3. ^ Parkinson, David. History of Film. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995, pp. 69. ISBN 0-500-20277-X
  4. ^ Standish, Isolde. A New History of Japanese Cinema: A Century of Narrative Film. New York: Continuum, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-1709-4
  5. ^ Brownlow, Kevin. The Parade's Gone By..., Borzoi Book, Alfred Knopf, 1968
  6. ^ Card, James (October 1955). "Silent Film Speed". Image: pp. 55-56. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
  7. ^ Variety (1932-06-21). "Biggest Money Pictures". Variety: p. 1. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  8. ^ Internet Movie Database, Juha, <http://imdb.com/title/tt0158692/>. Retrieved on 2007-05-09
  9. ^ Internet Movie Database, Pushpak, <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0251355/>. Retrieved on 2007-09-17
  10. ^ http://silentlaughter.com/about/ Silent Laughter]
  11. ^ All Wear Bowlers
  12. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=HZIq5-_hu5cC&pg=PA5&dq=silent+films+lost+nitrate&sig=xIkqwQlz-U-5ZWDrFryCZSvu1zk
  13. ^ Thompson, Frank T. (March 1996). Lost Films: Important Movies That Disappeared. Carol Publishing Corporation, pp. 12-18. ISBN 978-0806516042. 
  14. ^ Thompson, op cit, pp. 68-78.
  15. ^ Thompson, op cit, pp. 186-200.
  16. ^ Slide, Anthony. Nitrate Won't Wait: A History of Film Preservation in the United States 2000, p. 99. ISBN: 0-786-40836-7

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
SFSC Home (341 words)
Lon Chaney, Mary Philbin and Norman Kerry star in the original 1925 silent horror classic The Phantom of the Opera as part of the Silent Film Society's annual Fright Night event on Monday, October 29, 2007 beginning at 8:00 p.m.
The Silent Film Society of Chicago in collaboration with the 19th Polish Film Festival in North America proudly present Pola Negri: A Retrospective November 13-15, 2007 at the historic Portage Theater in Chicago.
With 80 percent of all silent film prints gone forever, the Society's goal is to heighten public awareness to expedite film preservation.
Silent film - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1797 words)
Since silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience.
Overacting in silent films was sometimes a habit actors transferred from their stage experience and directors who understood the intimacy of the new medium discouraged it.
Film speed is often a vexed issue among scholars and film buffs in the presentation of silents today, especially when it comes to DVD releases of "restored" films; the 2002 restoration of Metropolis (Germany, 1927) may be the most fiercely debated example.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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